Jaguar XK6 engine
The Jaguar XK6 is an inline 6-cylinder dual overhead camshaft engine produced by Jaguar Cars between 1949 and 1992. Introduced as a 3.4-litre, it earned fame on both the road and track, being produced in five displacements between 2.4 and 4.2-litres for Jaguar passenger cars, with other sizes being made by Jaguar and privateers for racing. A de-rated version was used in certain military vehicles built by Alvis and Daimler. Prior to World War II, SS Cars used three engines produced by the Standard Motor Company: a 1.5-litre 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder engines of 2.5 and 3.5 litres. Sir William Lyons and his engine designers. Rather than developing prototype engines after the war, it is claimed that Jaguar's wartime engine developments went far beyond mere discussion and design, extending to the construction and testing of several prototype engines as early as 1943; the initial aim was to produce a series of engines of higher than normal output that would be able to stay ahead of the competition without revision for many years and which Sir William insisted had to "look good".
In 1942-43, a range of configurations was considered and it was concluded that, for good breathing and high bmep, the new engines would need vee-opposed valves operating in hemispherical combustion chambers. Two configurations of this type were selected for comparison in 1943 and the prototypes named "XG" and "XF"; the XG 4-cylinder of 1,776 cc, first tested in October 1943, was based on the 1.5-litre Standard block and used its single cam-in-block to operate the opposed valves via a complicated crossover pushrod arrangement, similar to that of the pre-war BMW 328. The XF 4-cylinder of 1,732 cc used the now familiar dual overhead cam configuration and was first tested in November 1944; the XG was found to suffer from excessive pushrod and rocker noise and gas flow figures through its vertical valve ports did not equal those of the horizontal ports on the XF. Therefore, from these two options, the DOHC XF layout was selected. 4-cyl engine development progressed as follows: XG Pushrod engine 73 x 106 x 4 1776 cc May to Nov 1944 XF 75 x 98 x 4 1732 cc Nov 1944 to Jun 1945 XK1 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Oct 1945 to Nov 1946 XK2 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Feb to Sep 1946 XK3 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Dec 1946 to Feb 1947 XK4 76.25 x 98 x 4 1790 cc Nov 1946 to Dec 1947 Gardner Engine 1970 cc 1948 XK Number 1 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1949-1952 XK Number 2 3-bearing crank 1970 cc 1950-1952 XK 5-bearing crank 1970 cc 1953By September 1947 a 3.2-litre 6-cylinder version had been produced, called the "XJ 6-cylinder", intended to replace both Standard-based 6-cylinder units.
Testing showed the need for higher torque at low speeds than this engine could produce and hence it was'stroked' to 3,442 cc to form the "XK 6-cylinder", which saw its debut in an open two-seat XK120 sports car at the 1948 London Motor Show. Following this the XK6 powered a number of other models in subsequent years; the XG prototype soldiered on as a component testbed until 1948. There existed an "XK 4-cylinder" of 1,790 cc first tested in October 1945 and remaining under development alongside the XK 6-cylinder units. At the time of William Heynes' paper presented to the IMechE in February 1953, the XK 4-cylinder was still referred to as being under development, it was only dropped as a possible production engine in 1953, by which time it had been realised that Jaguar's image in the market had moved beyond the need for a replacement for the old 1.5-litre Standard 4-cylinder unit. Because the 6-cylinder XK prototypes were found to be so much more refined than the 4-cylinder versions, in 1951 a 1,986 cc 6-cylinder version of the XK 6-cylinder was built to see if it would suffice as a smaller scale engine.
By 1954 this had grown to 2,483 cc and it was this short-block version of the XK 6-cylinder, fitted to the new compact Jaguar 2.4-litre released in that year. None of the 4-cylinder prototypes advanced to production but Lt. Col. Goldie Gardner's speed record team did fit a 1970 cc version to the MG streamliner EX-135 in 1948 to take the 2,000 cc class record at 177 mph, on the Jabbeke motorway in Belgium. There are some misleading claims of an intervening "XJ" 4-cyl prototype but it seems the only person who referred to them as such was William Heynes in a paper presented to the IMechE in 1953. Heynes stated there were many 4-cyl variants following the XF but it was he alone who loosely grouped them as XJ; the last mention of XF was in July 1945 and the first mention of XK was in October of the same year. This doesn't give much room for a series of XJ engines. There are no mentions of XJ in the archive. If there is a XJ, the first one is to have been referred to as XK1 internally. There were three others of nominally 1790 cc capacity called XK2, XK3 & XK4.
It is these are what Heynes referred to as "XJ". The
Browns Lane plant
The Browns Lane plant in Coventry, England was built as a Second World War shadow factory run by The Daimler Company Limited. In 1951 it was leased by Jaguar Cars and remained the company's home until 2005, it was the site of all Jaguar production until 1998, when production of the Jaguar S-Type commenced at Castle Bromwich. It was the firm's corporate headquarters and the home of the Jaguar Daimler Heritage Trust. Jaguar's production at Browns Lane waned over the years, as new models were assigned to Castle Bromwich Assembly in Birmingham and Halewood Body & Assembly in Halewood, Liverpool. However, the core Jaguar XJ and XK ranges remained on the site until they were moved to Castle Bromwich in 2005. Subsequently, the Browns Lane site housed just the headquarters and museum as well as 500 staff responsible for wood veneering for Jaguar, Aston Martin, Land Rover; the headquarters moved to the Whitley plant, Coventry but the Wood Shop and Pilot Build Workshop remained at Browns Lane. Australian property firm Macquarie Goodman announced its purchase of Browns Lane in 2007.
The assembly halls were demolished in late 2008. In 2010, a portion of the site was purchased by housebuilder Taylor Wimpey. In 2012, the Browns Lane Jaguar Heritage Museum was demolished; the housing estate which took its place is known as "Swallow's Nest". Jaguar's Pilot Plant continues in use. A new business park was built on the Browns Lane Plant site called "Lyons Business Park".
Jaguar Mark 2
The Jaguar Mark 2 is a medium-sized saloon car built from late 1959 to 1967 by Jaguar in Coventry, England. The outmoded Jaguar 2.4 Litre and 3.4 Litre models made between 1955 and 1959 are identified as Mark 1 Jaguars. The Mark 2 was a fast and capable saloon in line with Sir William Lyons' 1950s advertising slogan: Grace... Space... Pace. Production of the 3.8 ended in the autumn of 1967. At the same time the smaller Mark 2 cars were replaced by run-out versions named 240 and 340 sold at reduced prices; the 340 was built until the new XJ6 was available in September 1968. The 240 remained available until April 1969; the new car came with a 120 bhp 2,483 cubic centimetres, 210 bhp 3,442 cubic centimetres or 220 bhp 3,781 cubic centimetres Jaguar XK engine. The 3.8 is similar to the unit used in the 3.8 E-Type, having the same block, connecting rods and pistons but different inlet manifold and carburation and therefore 30 bhp less. The head of the six-cylinder engine in the Mark 2 had curved ports compared to the straight ports of the E-Type configuration.
The 3.4 Litre and 3.8 Litre cars were fitted with twin SU HD6 carburettors and the 2.4 Litre with twin Solex carburettors. Aware of the importance of the quotable numbers to the US market Jaguar continued to use claimed gross bhp figures throughout the production period of the Mk II and 240/340 models. A direct conversion into DIN bhp is not possible, but the 3.8 Mk II engine developed about 190 bhp by modern DIN standards. This compares with the 4.2 XJ6 engine which gave around 190 bhp DIN, or 245 gross bhp according to Jaguar. The explanation was; the camshaft timing and inlet and exhaust valve sizes were the same for the 2.4,3.4,3.8 Mk II and XJ6 4.2 engines, so the engines throttled themselves sooner in the bigger engine sizes. 4.2 XJ6 engines had special induction pipes, to reduce exhaust emissions, that crossed over between the inlet and exhaust sides of the engine. These reduced bhp to around 170 bhp on production; the new car's appearance was transformed by an increase of 18% in cabin glass area improving vision.
It was re-engineered above the waistline. Slender front pillars allowed a wider windscreen, the rear window wrapped around to the enlarged side windows, now with the familiar Jaguar D-shape above the back door and chromed frames for all the side windows; the radiator grille was changed and larger side and fog lamps repositioned. Inside a new heating system was ducted to the rear compartment. There was an improved instrument layout that became standard for all Jaguar cars until the XJ series II of 1973; the front suspension geometry was rearranged to raise the roll centre and the rear track widened. Four-wheel disc brakes were now standard. Power steering, overdrive or automatic transmissions could be fitted at extra cost; the 3.8 Litre was supplied fitted with a limited-slip differential. The Mark 2 was over 100 kg heavier than the 2.4 / 3.4 cars. The car continued to use a live axle at the rear. A popular luxury derivative was fitted with Daimler's own 142 bhp 2½-litre V8, it sold well from 1962 to 1967 as a Daimler 2.5 V8.
In late 1967, it was re-labelled V8-250 to match the Jaguar 240. As well as being more powerful than the 2.4-litre XK6, the more modern Daimler engine was lighter by about 150 lb and shorter which reduced the mass over the front wheels and so reduced understeer during hard cornering. These cars were recognisable by the characteristic Daimler wavy fluting incorporated in the chrome radiator grille and rear number plate lamp cover, their smoothness and the sound of their V8 engine, they were given distinctive luxury interior fittings. Sometime on or about September 1967 the 2.4 litre and 3.4 litre Mark 2 cars were rebadged as the 240 and 340 respectively. However, there exists documentation of at least one Mark 2 car manufactured in May 1967 and rebadged as "340." According to Anders Ditlev Clausager, Jaguar Chief Archivist, in a letter dated 9 October 2009, he stated "...he theory that some of these 1967 Mark II lite cars sold in the USA were rebadged here, to fall into line with the new model nomenclature introduced by Jaguar in late 1967."
The 3.8 litre model was discontinued. The 240 and 340 were interim models intended to fill the gap until the introduction of the XJ6 in September 1968; the 340 was discontinued on the introduction of the XJ6 but the 240 continued as a budget priced model until April 1969. Output of the 240 engine was increased from 120 bhp at 5,750 rpm. to 133 bhp at 5,500 rpm. and torque was increased. It now had a straight-port type cylinder head and twin HS6 SU carburettors with a new inlet manifold; the automatic transmission was upgraded to a Borg-Warner 35 dual drive range. Power steering by Marles Varamatic was now available on the 340. Servicing intervals were increased from 2,000 miles to 3,000 miles. There was a slight reshaping of the rear body and slimmer bumpers and over-riders were fitted. For the first time the 2.4 litre model could exceed 100 mph, resulting in a slight sales resurgence. The economies of the new 240 and 340 models came at a cost – the leather upholstery was replaced by Ambla leather-like material and tufted carpet was used on the floor—though both had been introduced on the Mark 2 a year earlier.
Other changes included the replacement of the front fog lamps with circular vents and optional fog lamps for the UK market. The sales price was reduced to compete with the Ro
The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954. It was Jaguar's first sports car since the SS 100, which ceased production in 1940; the XK120 was launched in open two-seater or roadster form at the 1948 London Motor Show as a testbed and show car for the new Jaguar XK engine. The display car was the first prototype, chassis number 660001, it looked identical to the production cars except that the straight outer pillars of its windscreen would be curved on the production version. The sports car caused a sensation, which persuaded Jaguar founder and Chairman William Lyons to put it into production. Beginning in 1948, the first 242 cars wore wood-framed open 2-seater bodies with aluminium panels. Production switched to the 1cwt or 112 lb heavier all-steel in early 1950; the "120" in the name referred to the aluminium car's 120 mph top speed, which made it the world's fastest production car at the time of its launch. In 1949 the first production car, chassis number 670003, was delivered to Clark Gable.
The XK120 was available in three versions or body styles, first as an open 2-seater described in the US market as a roadster as a fixed head coupé from 1951 and as a drophead coupé from 1953, all two-seaters and available with Left or Right Hand Drive. A smaller-engined version with a 2-litre 4 cylinder engine, designated the XK100, intended for the UK market was cancelled prior to production. On 30 May 1949, on the empty Ostend-Jabbeke motorway in Belgium, a prototype XK120 timed by the officials of the Royal Automobile Club of Belgium achieved an average of runs in opposing directions of 132.6 mph with the windscreen replaced by just one small aero screen and a catalogued alternative top gear ratio, 135 mph with a passenger-side tonneau cover in place. In 1950 and 1951, at Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, a banked oval track in France, open XK120s averaged over 100 mph for 24 hours and over 130 mph for an hour. In 1952 a fixed-head coupé took numerous world records for speed and distance when it averaged 100 mph for a week.
XK120s were highly successful in racing and rallying. The first 242 production XK120s, hand-built with aluminium bodies on ash framing mounted on a steel chassis copied from the Jaguar Mark V chassis using many of the same parts, were constructed between late 1948 and early 1950. To meet demand, beginning with the 1950 model year, all subsequent XK120s were mass-produced with pressed-steel bodies. Aluminium doors and boot lid were retained; the DHC and FHC versions, more luxuriously appointed than the exposed open cars, had wind-up windows and wood veneers on the dashboard and interior door caps. With a high-temperature, high-strength aluminum alloy cylinder head, hemispherical combustion chambers, inclined valves and twin side-draft SU carburetors, the dual overhead-cam 3.4 L straight-6 XK engine was advanced for a mass-produced unit of the time. Using 80 octane fuel a standard 8:1 compression ratio developed 160 bhp. Most of the early cars were exported; the Jaguar factory's access to 80 octane fuel allowed it to provide cars with the higher compression ratio to the press, enabling journalists to test the model's optimum performance in Belgium, on a long, straight stretch of road between Jabbeke and Ostend.
The XK engine's basic design modified into 3.8 and 4.2 litre versions, survived until 1992. All XK120s had independent torsion bar front suspension, semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear, recirculating ball steering, telescopically adjustable steering column, all-round 12-inch drum brakes which were prone to fade; some cars were fitted with Alfin brake drums to help overcome the fade. The open two-seater's lightweight canvas top and detachable sidescreens stowed out of sight behind the seats, its doors had no external handles. There was an interior pull-cord accessed through a flap in the sidescreens when the weather equipment was in place; the windscreen could be removed for aeroscreens to be fitted. The drophead coupé had a padded, lined canvas top, which folded onto the rear deck behind the seats when retracted, roll-up windows with opening quarter lights; the flat glass two-piece windscreen was set in a steel frame, integrated with the body and painted the same colour. Dashboards and door-caps in both the DHC and the closed coupé were wood-veneered, whereas the open cars were leather-trimmed.
All models had removable spats covering the rear wheel arches. On cars fitted with optional centre-lock wire wheels, the spats were omitted as they gave insufficient clearance for the chromed, two-eared Rudge-Whitworth knockoff hubs. Chromium-plated wire wheels were optional from 1953. Factory standard 6.00 × 16 inch cross ply tyres were fitted on 16 × 5K solid wheels, with 185VR16 Pirelli Cinturato radial tyres available as a option. In addition to wire wheels, upgrades on the Special Equipment version included increased power, stiffer suspension and dual exhaust system; the Motor magazine road-tested an XK120 in November 1949. This pre-production car, chassis number 660001, road-registered as HKV 455, was the first prototype built, it was the 1948 London Motor Show display model, had been driven by Prince Bira in the 1949 Silverstone Production Car Race. When tested, it had the 8:1 compression ratio, was fitted with an undertray, ran with h
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
A roadster is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. An American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles; the roadster was a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500, in the 1950s and 1960s. This type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars; the term "roadster" originates in the United States, where it was used in the nineteenth century to describe a horse suitable for travelling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include tricycles. In 1916, the United States Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as: "an open car seating two or three, it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck." Due to it having a single row of seats, the main seat for the driver and passenger was further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car. Roadsters had a hooded dashboard.
In the United Kingdom the preferred terms were "open two-seater" and "two-seat tourer". Since the 1950s, the term "roadster" has been used in the United Kingdom, it is noted that the optional 4-seat variant of the Morgan Roadster would not be technically considered a roadster. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, or other weather protection. By the 1920s they were appointed to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, side curtains. Roadster bodies were offered on automobiles of all sizes and classes, from mass-produced cars like the Ford Model T and the Austin 7 to expensive cars like the Cadillac V-16, the Duesenberg Model J and Bugatti Royale. 1920s to 1950s roadsters By the 1970s "roadster" could be applied to any two-seater car of sporting appearance or character. In response to market demand they were manufactured as well-equipped as convertibles with side windows that retracted into the doors. Popular models through the 1960s and 1970s were the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB and Triumph TR4.
1950s to 1980s roadsters The highest selling roadster is the Mazda MX-5, introduced in 1989. The early style of roadster with minimal weather protection is still in production by several low-volume manufacturers and fabricators, including the windowless Morgan Roadster, the doorless Caterham 7 and the bodyless Ariel Atom. 1990s to present day roadsters The term roadster was used to describe a style of racing cars competing in the AAA/USAC Championship Cars series from 1952 to 1969. The roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car; this allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset, beneficial on oval tracks. One story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a "roadster" is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500, they had it covered in a corner of their shop. If they were asked about their car they would try and obscure its importance by saying that it was just their "roadster". After the Indianapolis racer was made public, the "roadster" name was still attached to it.
Frank Kurtis built the first roadster to race and entered it in the 1952 Indianapolis 500. It was driven by Bill Vukovich; the Howard Keck owned team with Vukovich driving went on to win the 1953 and 1954 contests with the same car. Bob Sweikert won the 1955 500 in a Kurtis. A. J. Watson, George Salih and Quinn Epperly were other notable roadster constructors. Watson-built roadsters won in 1956, 1959 - 1964 though the 1961 and 1963 winners were close copies built from Watson designs; the 1957 and 1958 winner was the same car built by Salih with help by Epperly built with a unique placement of the engine in a'lay down' mounting so the cylinders were nearly horizontal instead of vertical as traditional design dictated. This gave a lower center of gravity and a lower profile. Roadsters had disappeared from competition by the end of the 1960s, after the introduction, subsequent domination, of rear-engined machines. In 1965 Gordon Johncock brought the Wienberger Homes Watson to the finish in fifth place, the last top-ten roadster finish and the final time that a roadster finished the full distance of the race.
The last roadster to make the race was built and driven by Jim Hurtubise in the 1968 race and dropped out early. Hurtubise attempted to run the same car in 1969 but, while making his qualifying run at a good speed, the engine failed on the last of the four laps. Other classes of racing cars were built with the offset drive train and were referred to as roadsters; some pavement midgets roadsters raced into the early 1970s but never were dominant. Barchetta, a related two-seater body style designed for racing Convertible, the general term to describe vehicles with retractable roofs and retractable side windows Roadster utility Tonneau cover, a protective cover for the seats in an open car Media related to Roadsters at Wikimedia Commons