The Jaguar S-Type was an executive car that debuted at the 1998 Birmingham Motor Show and was marketed by Jaguar for model years 1999-2008, reviving the nameplate of the company's 1963-68 S-Type as a four-door notchback saloon. The S-Type received a mild facelift for model year 2005; the 2002 S-Type 4.2 Supercharged V8 at the time, was the fastest road production saloon car in the world. The S-Type was discontinued in late 2007 and replaced by the XF. After being privatised in 1984, Jaguar had been developing a smaller saloon to complement the XJ6 by the early 1990s, but these plans were axed following its takeover by Ford in 1989, only to resurface within a few years; the S-Type was produced at Jaguar's Castle Bromwich facility in England. The car was styled by Geoff Lawson in 1995 and is based on the Jaguar DEW platform/Ford DEW platform, shared with the Lincoln LS and Ford Thunderbird, it was unveiled at the Birmingham International Motor Show on 20 October 1998, went on sale in January 1999.
It was aimed at buyers of cars including the BMW 5 Series. The first S-Types are distinguished by a U-shaped centre console and optional touch-screen navigation system in the 2003 and models; the traditional leaping jaguar hood ornament was optional though it is approved by the US and EU standards and breaks away in the case of an accident. Subsequent models have the Jaguar logo incorporated within the radiator grille and a more traditional'looped' styling for the centre console. In Australia, the "jag" bonnet ornament did not become available until 2004; the supercharged S-Type R joined the lineup in 2002, the hope was that it would compete with BMW's M5 and the Mercedes E55 AMG. The R was powered by the newly revised hand-built 4.2-Litre V8 with an Eaton M112 supercharger, producing 400 hp and could accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 5.3 seconds. The top speed was limited to 155 mph. With the electronic limiter removed, the S-Type R could reach 191 mph, with simple supercharger pulley upgrades and ECU modifications, can be tuned to produce in excess of 500 bhp with a top speed in excess of 200 mph.
It included 18-inch alloy wheels, wire-mesh grille, monochromatic paint. The R has a rear apron, side-skirts, front apron with built-in fog-lamps, a rear spoiler, a brace located near the rear subframe, R badging on the boot lid and both front fenders. Models of the S-Type R featured a revised pulley system for the Eaton M112 supercharger, allowing it to produce an extra 20 hp. Added on the 2003 model was an electronic parking-brake paddle-switch that replaced the conventional manually operated lever for the rear brakes. For the 2003 model year, the Jaguar S-type was given a six-speed, automatic ZF 6HP26 transmission as well as a revised 3.0-litre V6 engine with 235 hp versus 210 hp for the 1999 to 2002 models. The 2003 model featured a revised dash, centre console, a grille with the Jaguar badge to give the vehicle a more Jaguar-like appearance, a flip-open key was devised for the ignition. A minor facelift on the 2005 model year featured redesigned front and rear aprons, a modified grille, remodeled rear light clusters, an aluminium bonnet, a new 2.7-litre V6 diesel engine with 207 hp.
The windscreen washer jets were incorporated into the windscreen wiper arms. There were no changes made to the cabin interior. 2006 to 2008 models featured no fog lights. The S-Type was powered by a variety of diesel engines. At launch, the V8 S-Type was powered by the 4.0L Jaguar AJ-V8 engine, the capacity of, increased to 4.2L in 2002. Variants of this engine are used in Ford, Land Rover/Range Rover and Aston Martin models. V6 engines used are the Ford Duratec unit, used extensively throughout the Ford model range; the 2.5 L V6 engine was not available for vehicles exported to the United States and Canada. Diesel engines are the Ford/Peugeot 2.7L HDi Ford AJD-V6/PSA DT17, used in a number of Ford, Citroen and Land Rover models. From model years 1999 to 2002, the rear-wheel-drive S-Type was equipped with either a five-speed manual or a five-speed J-Gate Ford 5R55N transmission. From 2003, the S-Type was produced with either a 5-speed manual transmission or a six-speed J-Gate transmission that allows automatic gear selection or clutchless manual gear selection.
The 2004 diesel saw the introduction of a 6-speed manual transmission. The car was praised on its release for having a'luxurious interior','creamy composure' and a'class-leading"cosseting ride'. In particular, the 2.7 V6 twin-turbodiesel engine was described as'a paragon of refinement and fuel economy' by the European automotive press, with enough'refinement and performance to wean anyone off petrol power'. The supercharged'R' version was praised for its speed and for'proper rear-drive Jag' handling, however the lack of a limited-slip differential was criticised, along with whine from the Eaton supercharger; the car was described as the spiritual successor to both the Mark 2 and the Ford Scorpio, inviting unfavourable comparisons to the Scorpio concerning the controversial styling of the S-Type. However, in general the initial positive reception faded away as time passed, the car attracted more negative commentary as it aged. James May elaborated on this, saying in 2004 that'in 15 or 20 years time we'll look at the S-Type, we'll think'That's awful", while Jeremy Clarkson replied'I think the S-type is ba
Jaguar XK (X100)
The Jaguar XK8 is a 2-door grand tourer launched by Jaguar Cars in 1996, was the first generation of a new XK series. The XK8 was available in two-door fastback coupé or two-door convertible body styles with the new 4.0-litre Jaguar AJ-V8 engine. In 1998, the XKR was introduced with a supercharged version of the engine. In 2003, the engines were replaced by the new 4.2-litre AJ34 engines in both the aspirated and supercharged variations. The first-generation of the XK series shares its XJS-derived platform with the Aston Martin DB7, both cars tracing their history back to an abandoned Jaguar development study in the mid-1980s known as XJ41/XJ42, mooted to be known as the F-Type. One of the revisions is the use of the second generation of Jaguar's independent rear suspension unit, taken from the Jaguar XJ. Development began in 1992, with design work starting earlier in late 1991. By October 1992 a design was chosen and frozen for production in 1993. Prototypes were built from December 1993 after the X100 was given formal approval and design patents were filed in June 1994.
Development concluded in 1996, with the car being unveiled in March of that year and going on sale from October 1996. The initial model available in the XK range of grand tourers was the XK8 coupé and convertible which were joined by the more powerful XKR models; the XK8 used the new 4.0-litre 32-valve Jaguar AJ-V8 engine and was available in a three-door hatchback coupé and two-door convertible bodystyles. The new CATS adaptive suspension, an option on the coupé, was added to the convertible models in 1997. Other changes for 1997 were the addition of light sensitive headlamps and an automatically dripping rear view mirror; the XKR, introduced in May 1998, used a supercharged variant of the V8 engine used in the XK8, shared with the XJR albeit with a few air-to-water intercooler modifications and a two piece drive shaft. The supercharger is a 2 L Eaton unit shared with the Ford F-150 SVT Lightning pickup; the supercharger has 11.9 pounds of boost pressure. Other visual differences from the XK8 include a small rear spoiler and hood louvres on the bonnet for improved engine airflow along with a meshed front grille.
From 1998 onwards, all models of the XK lineup were fitted with the Servotronic II power steering. From late 1999, an optional R kit became available for the XKR which included a stiffer suspension system and gold coloured wheels. From 2002, a GPS system became available as an option on all XK models which replaced the three gauges on the centre console; the XK range received a mechanical update in 2002 with the engines in both the XK8 and XKR models being enlarged to 4.2-litres, the front headlamps were updated by the addition of a clear lens. Further changes included new exterior wheels along with different badging; the models were revised again in spring 2004 and notable changes included new wheel designs, bigger front and rear spoilers and a redesigned grille. Both the XK8 and XKR are electronically limited to a maximum speed of 250.1 km/h. The XK8 came standard with 17-inch alloy wheels, while 18-inch, 19-inch, 20-inch wheels were available for additional cost; the XKR models used Pirelli P Zero tyres measuring 245/45ZR-18 at the front and 255/ 45ZR-18 at the rear.
Jaguar's Adaptive Cruise Control, introduced in late 1999, is an optional feature available on both models. Both the three-door coupé and two-door convertible came with an all-leather interior, burl walnut trim, side airbags; the interior was available in two trims and sport. The sport interior trim was aimed for younger buyers and featured an interior designed by Karen Anderson which involved leather upholstery with cloth seats; the classic trim was featured heavy use of leather. Jeremy Clarkson, during a Top Gear test-drive, likened the interior of the original XK8 to sitting inside Blenheim Palace. Although reviewers have disliked the high seating position and the improper gauge layout of the interior. Like its predecessor, the XJS, the XK models use a 2+2 searing layout for the interior. An optional "Jaguar boot" option involved the removal of the small rear seats in favour of increased luggage space. Compared to the XJS, the XK models are 25 precent more stiffer and have a more responsive powertrain.
The ZF 5HP24 five-speed automatic transmission was coupled to the conventionally aspirated 4.0-litre model and a Mercedes W5A580 five-speed transmission to the Supercharged version, but in 2002 the new ZF 6HP26 six-speed automatic transmission was fitted in both versions of the 4.2-litre model. Produced in celebration of Jaguar's 2001 return to Formula One racing, they featured unique platinum paint finish, specific badges and tread plates, a high-performance package with the same engine as the standard XKR, but improved transmission, steering and brakes, 20-inch silver BBS wheels and a custom interior. All possible factory options were included, with the exception of the telephone and the navigation system, which had to be ordered separately. All Silverstone cars were manufactured in calendar year 2000, the last one being a coupé for the Japanese market built on 23/12/2000. PHASE ONE: Based on the Model Year 2000 XKR. Only 100 Silverstone models were planned in Phase I; as it transpired, according to "Registre International des XKR Silverstone" these first 100 "phase one" cars totalled 102 in all, were sold in the UK on
Aston Martin DB7
The Aston Martin DB7 is a grand tourer, produced by British luxury automobile manufacturer Aston Martin from September 1994 to December 2004. The car was available either as a convertible; the prototype was complete by November 1992 and debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in March, 1993. The six-cylinder DB7 was positioned as an "entry-level" model below the hand-built V8 Virage introduced a few years earlier; this model was the highest produced Aston Martin automobile with more than 7,000 built before it was replaced by the DB9 in 2004. The DB7, known internally as the XX project, was made with resources from Jaguar Cars and had the financial backing of the Ford Motor Company, owner of Aston Martin from 1988 to 2007; the DB7's platform is an evolution of the Jaguar XJS platform, though with many changes. The DB7 began life as a successor to the Jaguar XJS envisioned by Tom Walkinshaw of TWR. Walkinshaw had been impressed by the XJS' potential after driving it in the European Touring Car Championship in the late 1970s and early 1980s and wanted to re-body the car so it would have more modern styling.
He wanted to engage Peter Stevens to design such a car but he refused due to his on going projects as the time. Walkinshaw engaged Ian Callum, new I'm the car design work at the time, to design the car. Jaguar had been struggling to replace the XJS due to its weak financial position. A project codenamed the XJ41/42 was in development stage in the company, mooted to be called the F-Type when completed and was designed by Keith Helfet; when American automobile manufacturer Ford acquired both Jaguar and Aston Martin in 1989, the new management cancelled the XJ41/42 project in 1990 because of the car's heavier weight than the XJS, the project's high budget and the employee overtime spent on the car. Walkinshaw based his concept on the XJ41 and presented the car designed by Ian Callum to Jaguar's management who rejected it. Due to the development of the Jaguar XJ220, Ford had not been keen on development of new Aston Martin models due to high development costs and the wake of the 1990s economic downturn.
Aston Martin CEO at the time, Walter Hayes approached Walkinshaw as he had seen the potential in Walkinshaw's proposition to succeed. Development started with a project name of XX. Ian Callum was again tasked to redesigned the car. Due to a limited financial backing at the time, the final product shared many components from other marques owned by Ford; the tail lights came from the Mazda 323 F, the Chrome door handles came from the Mazda 323 Estate, the turn signals came from the Mazda MX-5 and the interior door mirror switches came from the Ford Scorpio. The only foreign component would be the wing mirrors which were shared with the Citroën CX; the whole project cost US$30 million. On 1 January 1993, Jac Nasser was appointed the new chairman of Ford Europe, he presented the finished car, which had yet to be named, to the general public at the 1993 Geneva Motor Show. Due to the positive and overwhelming reception, the car was put into production as the Aston Martin DB7; the positive response prompted Jaguar to use the platform for the XJS' successor.
The car was redesigned by Geoff Lawson and was launched in the market as the Jaguar XK which uses an evolution of the XJS platform and the cars share a family resemblance. Although the DB7 is more expensive than the XK; the DB7 was engineered in Oxfordshire, by TWR on behalf of Aston Martin. The engines continued to be built in Kidlington during the production run of the vehicle. With the production of the Virage continuing at Newport Pagnell, a new factory was acquired at Bloxham, Oxfordshire, used to manufacture the XJ220, where every DB7 would be built throughout its production run; the DB7 and its variants were the only Aston Martin automobiles produced in Bloxham and the only ones with a steel unit construction inherited from Jaguar. The convertible Volante version was unveiled at the North American International Auto Show held in Detroit in 1996. Both versions have a supercharged straight-six engine that has a power output of 340 PS and 361 lb⋅ft of torque. In the United States, the Coupé was sold for US$140,000, the Volante for US$150,000.
Works Service provided a special Driving Dynamics package, which enhanced performance and handling for drivers who wanted more than what the standard configuration offered. In 1999, the more powerful DB7 V12 Vantage was introduced at the Geneva Motor Show, its 5.9-litre, 48-valve, V12 engine has 400 lb ⋅ ft of torque. It has a compression ratio of 10.3:1. Two transmission choices were available, those being a TREMEC T-56 six-speed manual or a ZF 5HP30 five-speed automatic. Aston Martin claimed the car had a top speed of either 299 km/h with the manual gearbox or 266 km/h with the automatic gearbox, would accelerate from 0–97 km/h in 4.9 seconds. The V12 Vantage is 1,830 mm wide, 1,243 mm high, with a weight of 1,800 kg. After the launch of the Vantage, sales of the base DB7 with the supercharged straight-6 engine had reduced so its production ended by mid-1999. In 2002, a new variant was launched, named V12 GT or V12 GTA when equipped with an automatic transmis
The AC Cobra, sold as the Shelby Cobra in the United States, is an Anglo-American sports car with a Ford V8 engine, produced intermittently in both the UK and the US since 1962. Like many British manufacturers, AC Cars had been using the Bristol straight-6 engine in its small-volume production, including its AC Ace two-seater roadster; this had a hand-built body with a steel tube frame, aluminium body panels that were made using English wheeling machines. The engine was a pre-World War II design by BMW. Bristol decided in 1961 to cease production of its engine and instead to use Chrysler 313 cu in V8 engines. AC started using the 2.6 litre Ford Zephyr engine in its cars. In September 1961, American automotive designer Carroll Shelby wrote to AC asking if they would build him a car modified to accept a V8 engine. AC agreed, provided. Shelby went to Chevrolet to see if they would provide him with engines, but not wanting to add competition to the Corvette they said no. However, Ford wanted a car that could compete with the Corvette and they happened to have a brand new engine which could be used in this endeavor: the Windsor 221 in³ engine – a new lightweight, thin-wall cast small-block V8.
Ford provided Shelby with two engines. In January 1962 mechanics at AC Cars in Thames Ditton, Surrey designed the "AC Ace 3.6" prototype with chassis number CSX2000. AC had made most of the modifications needed for the small-block V8 when they installed the 2.6 litre inline 6 Ford Zephyr engine, including the extensive rework of the AC Ace's front end bodywork. The only modification of the front end of the first Cobra from that of the "AC Ace 2.6" was the steering box, which had to be moved outward to clear the wider V8 engine. The most important modification was the fitting of a stronger rear differential to handle the increased engine power. A Salisbury 4HU unit with inboard disc brakes to reduce unsprung weight was chosen instead of the old E. N. V. unit. It was the same unit used on the Jaguar E-Type. After testing and modification, the engine and transmission were removed and the chassis was air-freighted to Shelby in Los Angeles on 2 February 1962, By this time the small-block's displacement was increased to 260 in3.
Shelby's team paired this engine along with a transmission into CSX2000, in less than eight hours at Dean Moon's shop in Santa Fe Springs and began road-testing. A few changes were made to the production version: Inboard brakes were moved outboard to reduce cost; the fuel tank filler was relocated from the fender to the center of the trunk. The trunk lid had to be shortened to accommodate this change. AC exported completed and trimmed cars to Shelby who finished the cars in his workshop in Los Angeles by installing the engine and gearbox and correcting any bodywork flaws caused by the car's passage by sea. A small number of cars were completed on the East Coast of the US by Ed Hugus in Pennsylvania, including the first production car; the first 75 Cobra Mk1 models were fitted with the 260 cu in. The remaining 51 Mk1 models were fitted with a larger version of the Windsor Ford engine, the 289 cu in V8. In late 1962 Alan Turner, AC's chief engineer completed a major design change of the car's front end to accommodate rack and pinion steering while still using transverse leaf spring suspension.
The new car entered production in early 1963 and was designated Mark II. The steering rack was borrowed from the MGB. About 528 Mark II Cobras were produced in the summer of 1965. In 1963 to keep production focused on producing cars for Shelby American Inc. the Ruddspeed Ace was discontinued. To supply cars to the European market, AC began to sell the Cobra in Europe. Advertisements from the time state that the Cobra was designed to meet the requirements of Shelby American Inc. Shelby experimented with a larger Ford FE engine, of 390 cubic inches in chassis number CSX2196; the car was not able to receive the development it needed, as resources were aimed at taking the crown from Ferrari in the GT class. Ken Miles drove and raced the FE-powered Mark II at Sebring and pronounced the car undriveable, naming it "The Turd", it failed to finish with the engine expiring due to damper failure. CSX2196 was revised for the show down at Nassau which allowed a more relaxed class division of racing; this allowed the GT cobras to run with prototype Ford GT, GM Grand Sport Corvettes and Lola Mk.6.
It was for this event in 1964. An aluminium 390 cubic inches engine was used. However, the car failed to finish. A new chassis was required and designated Mark III; the new car was designed in cooperation with Ford in Detroit. A new chassis was built using 4 in main chassis tubes, up from 3 in and coil spring suspension all around; the new car had wide fenders and a larger radiator opening. It was powered by the "side oiler" Ford 427 cu in FE engine equipped with a single 4-barrel 780 CFM Holley carburetor rated at 425 bhp @ 6000 rpm and 480 lb⋅ft @ 3700 rpm of torque, which provided a top speed of 164 mph in the standard model and 485 bhp with a top speed of 185 mph in the competition model. COMPETITION MODELS Cobra Mark III production began on 1 January 1965. Cars were sent to the US as unpainted rolling chassis, they were finished in Shelby's workshop. The
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car, manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975. Its combination of beauty, high performance, competitive pricing established the model as an icon of the motoring world; the E-Type's 150 mph top speed, sub-7-second 0 to 60 mph acceleration, monocoque construction, disc brakes, rack-and-pinion steering, independent front and rear suspension distinguished the car and spurred industry-wide changes. The E-Type was based on Jaguar's D-Type racing car, which had won the 24 Hours of Le Mans three consecutive years beginning 1955, employed what was, for the early 1960s, a novel racing design principle, with a front subframe carrying the engine, front suspension and front bodywork bolted directly to the body tub. No ladder frame chassis, as was common at the time, was needed and as such the first cars weighed only 1315kg. On its release in March 1961 Enzo Ferrari called it "the most beautiful car made".
In 2004, Sports Car International magazine placed the E-Type at number one on their list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s. In March 2008, the Jaguar E-Type ranked first in The Daily Telegraph online list of the world's "100 most beautiful cars" of all time. Outside automotive circles, the E-type received prominent placement in Diabolik comic series, Austin Powers films and the television series Mad Men; the E-Type was designed and shown to the public as a rear-wheel drive grand tourer in two-seater coupé form and as a two-seater convertible "roadster". A "2+2" four-seater version of the coupé, with a lengthened wheelbase, was released several years later. Model updates of the E-Type were designated "Series 2" and "Series 3", over time the earlier cars have come to be referred to as "Series 1." As with other hand made cars of the time, changes were incremental and ongoing, which has led to confusion over what a Series 1 car is. This is of more than academic interest, as Series 1 E-Types—and Series 1 roadsters have values far in excess of Series 2 and 3 models.
Some transitional examples exist. For example, while Jaguar itself never recognised a "Series 1½" or "Series 1.5," over time, this sub-category has been recognised by the Jaguar Owners Club of Great Britain and other leading authorities. The "pure" 4.2-litre Series 1 was made in model years 1965–1967. The 4.2-litre Series 1 has serial or VIN numbers 1E10001 - 1E15888, 1E30001 - 1E34249. The Series 1.5 left hand drive roadster has serial numbers 1E15889 - 1E18368, with the hardtop version of the Series 1.5 having VIN numbers 1E34250 - 1E35815. Series 1.5 cars were made in model year 1968. The Series 1 cars, which are by far the most valuable fall into two categories: Those made between 1961 and 1964, which had 3.8-litre engines and partial synchromesh transmissions, those made between 1965-1967, which increased engine size and torque by around 10%, added a synchronised transmission, provided new reclining seats, an alternator in place of the prior dynamo, an electrical system switched to negative earth, other modern amenities, all while keeping the same classic Series 1 styling.
The 4.2-litre Series 1 E-Types replaced the brake servo of the 3.8-litre with a more reliable unit. "The 4.2 became the most desirable version of the famous E-Type due to their increased power and usability while retaining the same outward appearance as the earlier cars."As of the end of 2014, the most expensive regular production Jaguar E-Types sold at auction included a 4.2-litre Series 1 roadster, with matching numbers, original paint and interior, under 80,000 original miles, a history of being in the original buyer's family for 45 years and a 1961 "flat floor" Series 1, selling for $528,000 in 2014. Special run racing lightweights go for far more still. For example, a 1963 E-type Lightweight Competition advertised as original and with lots of patina, one of just twelve that were built, sold for $7,370,000 at the 2017 Scottsdale, Arizona auctions. Being a British-made car of the 1960s, there are some rather rare sub-types of Series 1 E-Types at the beginning and end of the Series 1 production.
For example, the first 500 Series 1 cars had flat floors and external bonnet latches. At the close of the Series 1 production run, there were a small number of cars produced that are identical in every respect to other Series 1 units, except that the headlight covers were removed for better illumination, it is not known how many of these Series 1 cars were produced, but given that 1,508 Series 1 roadsters were produced worldwide for 1967, combined with the fact that these examples were made in just the last several months of Series 1 production, means that these, like the flat floor examples that began the Series 1 production run, are the lowest volume Series 1 variant, save of course for the special lightweights. Worldwide, including both left and right hand drive examples, a total of 7,828 3.8-litre Series 1 roadsters were built, with 6,749 of the 4.2-litre Series 1 roadsters having been manufactured. While the 1968 Series 1.5 cars maintained the essential design of th
Jaguar Mark 2
The Jaguar Mark 2 is a medium-sized saloon car built from late 1959 to 1967 by Jaguar in Coventry, England. The outmoded Jaguar 2.4 Litre and 3.4 Litre models made between 1955 and 1959 are identified as Mark 1 Jaguars. The Mark 2 was a fast and capable saloon in line with Sir William Lyons' 1950s advertising slogan: Grace... Space... Pace. Production of the 3.8 ended in the autumn of 1967. At the same time the smaller Mark 2 cars were replaced by run-out versions named 240 and 340 sold at reduced prices; the 340 was built until the new XJ6 was available in September 1968. The 240 remained available until April 1969; the new car came with a 120 bhp 2,483 cubic centimetres, 210 bhp 3,442 cubic centimetres or 220 bhp 3,781 cubic centimetres Jaguar XK engine. The 3.8 is similar to the unit used in the 3.8 E-Type, having the same block, connecting rods and pistons but different inlet manifold and carburation and therefore 30 bhp less. The head of the six-cylinder engine in the Mark 2 had curved ports compared to the straight ports of the E-Type configuration.
The 3.4 Litre and 3.8 Litre cars were fitted with twin SU HD6 carburettors and the 2.4 Litre with twin Solex carburettors. Aware of the importance of the quotable numbers to the US market Jaguar continued to use claimed gross bhp figures throughout the production period of the Mk II and 240/340 models. A direct conversion into DIN bhp is not possible, but the 3.8 Mk II engine developed about 190 bhp by modern DIN standards. This compares with the 4.2 XJ6 engine which gave around 190 bhp DIN, or 245 gross bhp according to Jaguar. The explanation was; the camshaft timing and inlet and exhaust valve sizes were the same for the 2.4,3.4,3.8 Mk II and XJ6 4.2 engines, so the engines throttled themselves sooner in the bigger engine sizes. 4.2 XJ6 engines had special induction pipes, to reduce exhaust emissions, that crossed over between the inlet and exhaust sides of the engine. These reduced bhp to around 170 bhp on production; the new car's appearance was transformed by an increase of 18% in cabin glass area improving vision.
It was re-engineered above the waistline. Slender front pillars allowed a wider windscreen, the rear window wrapped around to the enlarged side windows, now with the familiar Jaguar D-shape above the back door and chromed frames for all the side windows; the radiator grille was changed and larger side and fog lamps repositioned. Inside a new heating system was ducted to the rear compartment. There was an improved instrument layout that became standard for all Jaguar cars until the XJ series II of 1973; the front suspension geometry was rearranged to raise the roll centre and the rear track widened. Four-wheel disc brakes were now standard. Power steering, overdrive or automatic transmissions could be fitted at extra cost; the 3.8 Litre was supplied fitted with a limited-slip differential. The Mark 2 was over 100 kg heavier than the 2.4 / 3.4 cars. The car continued to use a live axle at the rear. A popular luxury derivative was fitted with Daimler's own 142 bhp 2½-litre V8, it sold well from 1962 to 1967 as a Daimler 2.5 V8.
In late 1967, it was re-labelled V8-250 to match the Jaguar 240. As well as being more powerful than the 2.4-litre XK6, the more modern Daimler engine was lighter by about 150 lb and shorter which reduced the mass over the front wheels and so reduced understeer during hard cornering. These cars were recognisable by the characteristic Daimler wavy fluting incorporated in the chrome radiator grille and rear number plate lamp cover, their smoothness and the sound of their V8 engine, they were given distinctive luxury interior fittings. Sometime on or about September 1967 the 2.4 litre and 3.4 litre Mark 2 cars were rebadged as the 240 and 340 respectively. However, there exists documentation of at least one Mark 2 car manufactured in May 1967 and rebadged as "340." According to Anders Ditlev Clausager, Jaguar Chief Archivist, in a letter dated 9 October 2009, he stated "...he theory that some of these 1967 Mark II lite cars sold in the USA were rebadged here, to fall into line with the new model nomenclature introduced by Jaguar in late 1967."
The 3.8 litre model was discontinued. The 240 and 340 were interim models intended to fill the gap until the introduction of the XJ6 in September 1968; the 340 was discontinued on the introduction of the XJ6 but the 240 continued as a budget priced model until April 1969. Output of the 240 engine was increased from 120 bhp at 5,750 rpm. to 133 bhp at 5,500 rpm. and torque was increased. It now had a straight-port type cylinder head and twin HS6 SU carburettors with a new inlet manifold; the automatic transmission was upgraded to a Borg-Warner 35 dual drive range. Power steering by Marles Varamatic was now available on the 340. Servicing intervals were increased from 2,000 miles to 3,000 miles. There was a slight reshaping of the rear body and slimmer bumpers and over-riders were fitted. For the first time the 2.4 litre model could exceed 100 mph, resulting in a slight sales resurgence. The economies of the new 240 and 340 models came at a cost – the leather upholstery was replaced by Ambla leather-like material and tufted carpet was used on the floor—though both had been introduced on the Mark 2 a year earlier.
Other changes included the replacement of the front fog lamps with circular vents and optional fog lamps for the UK market. The sales price was reduced to compete with the Ro
Differential (mechanical device)
A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average. In automobiles and other wheeled vehicles, the differential allows the outer drive wheel to rotate faster than the inner drive wheel during a turn; this is necessary when the vehicle turns, making the wheel, travelling around the outside of the turning curve roll farther and faster than the other. The average of the rotational speed of the two driving wheels equals the input rotational speed of the drive shaft. An increase in the speed of one wheel is balanced by a decrease in the speed of the other; when used in this way, a differential couples the longitudinal input propellor shaft to the pinion, which in turn drives the transverse ring gear of the differential. This usually works as reduction gearing. On rear wheel drive vehicles the differential may connect to half-shafts inside an axle housing, or drive shafts that connect to the rear driving wheels.
Front wheel drive vehicles tend to have the engine crankshaft and the gearbox shafts transverse, with the pinion on the end of the main-shaft of the gearbox and the differential enclosed in the same housing as the gearbox. There are individual drive-shafts to each wheel. A differential consists of one input, the drive shaft, two outputs which are the two drive wheels, however the rotation of the drive wheels are coupled to each other by their connection to the roadway. Under normal conditions, with small tyre slip, the ratio of the speeds of the two driving wheels is defined by the ratio of the radii of the paths around which the two wheels are rolling, which in turn is determined by the track-width of the vehicle and the radius of the turn. Non-automotive uses of differentials include performing analog arithmetic. Two of the differential's three shafts are made to rotate through angles that represent two numbers, the angle of the third shaft's rotation represents the sum or difference of the two input numbers.
The earliest known use of a differential gear is in the Antikythera mechanism, circa 80 BCE, which used a differential gear to control a small sphere representing the moon from the difference between the sun and moon position pointers. The ball was painted black and white in hemispheres, graphically showed the phase of the moon at a particular point in time. An equation clock that used a differential for addition was made in 1720. In the 20th Century, large assemblies of many differentials were used as analog computers, for example, the direction in which a gun should be aimed. However, the development of electronic digital computers has made these uses of differentials obsolete. Military uses may still exist, for example, for a hypothetical computer designed to survive an electromagnetic pulse. All the differentials that are now made are used in automobiles and similar vehicles including offroad vehicles such as ATVs. There are many claims to the invention of the differential gear, but it is possible that it was known, at least in some places, in ancient times.
Some historical milestones of the differential include: 100 BC–70 BC: The Antikythera mechanism has been dated to this period. It was discovered in 1902 on a shipwreck by sponge divers, modern research suggests that it used a differential gear to determine the angle between the ecliptic positions of the Sun and Moon, thus the phase of the Moon. 227–239 AD: Ma Jun from the Kingdom of Wei in China invents the first verifiable south-pointing chariot, which provided cardinal direction as a non-magnetic, mechanized compass. Some such chariots may have used differential gears. 658, 666 AD: two Chinese Buddhist monks and engineers create south-pointing chariots for Emperor Tenji of Japan. 1027, 1107 AD: Documented Chinese reproductions of the south-pointing chariot by Yan Su and Wu Deren, which described in detail the mechanical functions and gear ratios of the device much more so than earlier Chinese records. 1720: Joseph Williamson uses a differential gear in a clock. 1810: Rudolph Ackermann of Germany invents a four-wheel steering system for carriages, which some writers mistakenly report as a differential.
1827: modern automotive differential patented by watchmaker Onésiphore Pecqueur of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers in France for use on a steam wagon. 1832: Richard Roberts of England patents "gear of compensation", a differential for road locomotives. 1874: Aveling and Porter of Rochester, Kent list a crane locomotive in their catalogue fitted with their patent differential gear on the rear axle. 1876: James Starley of Coventry invents chain-drive differential for use on bicycles. 1897: first use of differential on an Australian steam car by David Shearer. 1958: Vernon Gleasman patents the Torsen dual-drive differential, a type of limited-slip differential that relies on the action of gearing, instead of a combination of clutches and gears. An epicyclic differential can use epicyclic gearing to split and apportion torque asymmetrically between the front and rear axles. An epicyclic differential is at the heart of the Toyota Prius automotive drive train, where it interconnects the engine, motor-generators, the drive wheels.
It has the advantage of being compact along the length of its axis. Epicyclic gears are called planetary gears because the axes of the planet gears revolve around the common axis of the sun and ring gears that they mesh with and roll between. In the image, the yellow shaft carries the sun gear, hidden. T