Melbourne is a city in Brevard County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 76,068; the municipality is the second-largest in the county by both population. Melbourne is a principal city of the Palm Bay – Melbourne – Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1969 the city was expanded by merging with nearby Eau Gallie. Evidence for the presence of Paleo-Indians in the Melbourne area during the late Pleistocene epoch was uncovered during the 1920s. C. P. Singleton, a Harvard University zoologist, discovered the bones of a mammoth on his property along Crane Creek, 1.5 miles from Melbourne, brought in Amherst College paleontologist Frederick B. Loomis to excavate the skeleton. Loomis found a second elephant, with a "large rough flint instrument" among fragments of the elephant's ribs. Loomis found in the same stratum mammoth, horse, ground sloth, peccary and saber-tooth cat bones, all extinct in Florida since the end of the Pleistocene 10,000 years ago. At a nearby site a human rib and charcoal were found in association with Mylodon and Chlamytherium teeth.
A finely worked spear point found with these items may have been displaced from a stratum. In 1925 attention shifted to the Melbourne golf course. A crushed human skull with finger and leg bones was found in association with a horse tooth. A piece of ivory that appeared to have been modified by humans was found at the bottom of the stratum containing bones. Other finds included a spear point near a mastodon bone and a turtle-back scraper and blade found with bear, mastodon and tapir bones. Similar human remains, Pleistocene animals and Paleo-Indian artifacts were found in Vero Beach, 30 miles south of Melbourne, similar Paleo-Indian artifacts were found at the Helen Blazes archaeological site, 10 miles southwest of Melbourne. After the Civil War, pioneer families arrived, Melbourne was founded in 1867; the first settlers arrived after 1877. They included Richard W. Goode, his father John Goode, Cornthwaite John Hector, Captain Peter Wright, Balaam Allen, Wright Brothers, Thomas Mason. Three of these men, Wright and Brothers were black freedmen.
The city called "Crane Creek", was named Melbourne in honor of its first postmaster, Cornthwaite John Hector, an Englishman who had spent much of his life in Melbourne, Australia. He is buried in the Melbourne Cemetery, along with many early residents in the area; the first school in Melbourne was built in 1883 and is on permanent exhibit on the campus of Florida Institute of Technology. By 1885, the town had 70 people; the Greater Allen Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church is still active. In the late 1890s, the Brownlie-Maxwell Funeral Home opened and it is still in business; the oldest black-owned business in the county is Tucker's Cut-Rate plumbing. It opened in 1934. In the early 1900s, houses were built in the frame vernacular style. In 1919, a fire destroyed most of the original downtown along Front Street. At the time, it was rebuilt west of US Hwy 1. During the Jim Crow years, black people were required to enter movie theaters via a different entrance from whites and sit in the balcony.
Gas stations had signs for rest rooms labeled "Men", "Women", "Colored." This persisted until integration in the late 1960s. In late 1942 the Naval Air Station Melbourne was established as a site to train newly commissioned Navy and Marine pilots for World War II; the program ran until 1946, the land, used for that program makes up most of what is the Orlando Melbourne International Airport. In 1969, the cities of Eau Gallie and Melbourne voted forming modern-day Melbourne. In the 1950s, Babcock Street was extended north to intersect with US 1; the Melbourne Shopping Center was constructed on the area's first strip mall. Consumers were sufficiently attracted to this new mall, that the traditional downtown, off New Haven, suffered. Urban blight was attacked there in the 1980s. A board was created by the legislature to spend a 10% tax on electric bills; this was used by the Melbourne Civic Improvement Board to build the Melbourne Auditorium, the first library and fire station, various parks. The board was dissolved when Melbourne was merged with Eau Gallie in 1969.
That merger doubled the size of Melbourne. Streetlights were added until, by the early 1960s, streets east of Babcock Street had lights. Lights were added to streets west of Babcock after the early 1960s. In 1969, the city elected its first black councilman. Mr. Montgomery was the first African American student of Brevard Engineering College Florida Institute of Technology which named their Pioneer Award after him. Mr. Montgomery was the first African American Professional hired by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center in 1956, his accomplishments are recounted in the chapter A Man of Firsts in the book We Could Not Fail by Richard Paul and Steven Moss. On August 2, 1995, the city received a record 9.06 inches of rainfall from Hurricane Erin. During the week of August 22, 2008, a record 17.54 inches of rain fell caused by Tropical Storm Fay. A 2009 Halloween street party sponsored by a downtown restaurant attracted an estimated 8,000–10,000 people; this overwhelmed the downtown area. Street parties were curtailed.
On 18 February 2017, president Donald J. Trump held his first post-inauguration rally at the Orlando-Melbourne International drawing a crowd of 9,000. Melbourne is located 60 miles southeast of Orlando on the Space Coast, along Interstate 95, it is midway between Jacksonville and Miami. According to the United
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish and French are predominantly spoken. The term "Latin America" was first used in an 1856 conference with the title "Initiative of the America. Idea for a Federal Congress of the Republics", by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao; the term was used by Napoleon III's French government in the 1860s as Amérique latine to consider French-speaking territories in the Americas, along with the larger group of countries where Spanish and Portuguese languages prevailed, including the Spanish-speaking portions of the United States Today, areas of Canada and the United States where Spanish and French are predominant are not included in definitions of Latin America. Latin America consists of 13 dependencies and 20 countries which cover an area that stretches from the northern border of Mexico to the southern tip of South America, including the Caribbean, it has an area of 19,197,000 km2 13% of the Earth's land surface area.
As of 2016, its population was estimated at more than 639 million and in 2014, Latin America had a combined nominal GDP of US$5,573,397 million and a GDP PPP of 7,531,585 million USD. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the 1830s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalier, who postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a "Latin race", that it could, ally itself with "Latin Europe" overlapping the Latin Church, in a struggle with "Teutonic Europe", "Anglo-Saxon America" and "Slavic Europe". Further investigations of the concept of Latin America are by Michel Gobat in the American Historical Review, the studies of Leslie Bethell, the monograph by Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo, Latin America: The Allure and Power of an Idea. Historian John Leddy Phelan (located the origins of “Latin America” in the French occupation of Mexico, his argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
The idea of a "Latin race" was taken up by Latin American intellectuals and political leaders of the mid- and late-nineteenth century, who no longer looked to Spain or Portugal as cultural models, but rather to France. French ruler Napoleon III had a strong interest in extending French commercial and political power in the region he and his business promoter Felix Belly called “Latin America” to emphasize the shared Latin background of France with the former colonies of Spain and Portugal; this led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the 1860s. However, though Phelan thesis is still mentioned in the U. S. academy, two Latin American historians, the Uruguayan Arturo Ardao and the Chilean Miguel Rojas Mix proved decades ago that the term "Latin America" was used earlier than Phelan claimed, the first use of the term was opposite to support imperialist projects in the Americas. Ardao wrote about this subject in his book Génesis de la idea y el nombre de América latina, Miguel Rojas Mix in his article "Bilbao y el hallazgo de América latina: Unión continental, socialista y libertaria".
As Michel Gobat reminds in his article "The Invention of Latin America: A Transnational History of Anti-Imperialism and Race", "Arturo Ardao, Miguel Rojas Mix, Aims McGuinness have revealed the term'Latin America' had been used in 1856 by Central and South Americans protesting U. S. expansion into the Southern Hemisphere". Edward Shawcross summarizes Ardao's and Rojas Mix's findings in the following way: "Ardao identified the term in a poem by a Colombian diplomat and intellectual resident in France, José María Torres Caicedo, published on 15 February 1857 in a French based Spanish-language newspaper, while Rojas Mix located it in a speech delivered in France by the radical liberal Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in June 1856". So, regarding when the words "Latin" and "America" were combined for the first time in a printed work, the term "Latin America" was first used in 1856 in a conference by the Chilean politician Francisco Bilbao in Paris; the conference had the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics." The following year the Colombian writer José María Torres Caicedo used the term in his poem "The Two Americas". Two events related with the U. S. played a central role in both works. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo works: the Mexican–American War, after which Mexico lost a third of its territory; the second event, the Walker affair, happened the same year both works were written: the decision by U. S. president Franklin Pierce to recognize the regime established in Nicaragua by American William Walker and his band of filibusters who ruled Nicaragua for nearly a year and attempted to reinstate slavery there, where it had been abolished for three decades In both Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works, the Mexican-American War and Walker's expedition to Nicaragua are explicitly mentioned as examples of dangers for the region. For Bilbao, "Latin America" w
Jasper is a city in Hamilton County, United States. The population was 4,546 at the 2010 census, up from 1,780 at the 2000 census, it is the county seat of Hamilton County. The Old Hamilton County Jail and the United Methodist Church in Jasper are on the National Register of Historic Places. One of the largest industries is phosphate mining. Jasper is located in central Hamilton County at 30°31′08″N 82°57′04″W, it is set in the North Florida lowlands 90 miles west of Jacksonville, 85 miles east of Tallahassee, 32 miles southeast of Valdosta, 30 miles northwest of Lake City. The city is sits on a higher elevated area surrounded by lowland. U. S. Routes 41 and 129 run concurrently through the center of Jasper. US 41 continues northwest to Jennings and into Georgia, southeast to White Springs, while US 129 runs north to Statenville and south to Live Oak. Interstate 75 passes close to Jasper, with access from Exit 451 5 miles south of town, from Exit 460 7 miles west of town. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Jasper has an area of all of it land.
Jasper is believed to rest on land thought to be the site of the Miccosukee people, a subtribe of the Seminole nation. The 1823 Treaty of Moultrie bought the Indian lands, the population was required to move southeast of the Suwannee River; this allowed white settlers to move into the area. A suspected Native burial mound is located at Baisden Swamp just on the outskirts of Jasper. Six miles north of Jasper along the Alapaha River an established Native village called Halata-Micco once stood. Chief Bowlegs signed the Treaty of Paynes Landing at Hola-at-a-Mico, his "X" mark establishing the type of Native inhabiting the area where artifacts of pottery, fishing spear points, arrowheads are found. Soon after the Treaty of Moultrie in 1823 was delivered, Hamilton County was established as part of the original 15 counties in Florida. White settlers from Georgia and South Carolina moved into the area in earnest between 1827 through the 1840s. In 1840 the inhabitants were calling the settlement "Pulaski".
Daniel Bell, living just outside the settlement in 1824, was county judge in 1828, appointed under the authority of the Acting Territorial Governor McCarty in Tallahassee. In 1839 he was a member of the Territorial Legislative Council. Legend has it that Mr. Bell considered to be the first settler of the county, disagreed with the names that were coming into use for places in the area, he met with locals and other friends, decided to submit the name of "Jasper", in honor of Revolutionary War veteran William Jasper, to the territorial capitol in Tallahassee. There the name was incorporated as documented in the Territorial Legislative Journal. In 1841 the Jasper Post Office was established. Florida became a state in 1845, thirteen years on March 2, 1858, the town's leaders incorporated the town of Jasper; the early history and specific makeup of Jasper is rather vague except for scant records that survived several courthouse fires in the late 1800s. What we do know is that the original town was built about a mile south of its current location, near the site of the present day Hamilton Correctional Institution.
The original courthouse and a stockade stood. The citizens fought Seminole raiding parties throughout the early periods, the last Seminole War ending in 1858. In 1861 the Civil War came to Jasper; the Jasper Blues was created from county citizens. The unit rendezvoused west of Jacksonville and were shipped by train to Virginia, arriving on the day of the First Battle of Manassas, they were made a part of the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia led by General Robert E. Lee. A school in Jasper was named in Lee's honor and is occupied today by the County School Board Offices. In 1865 the Savannah and Western railway was completed, a depot was built about a mile north of the town center. Businesses and homes migrated toward the railroad, the current town was established along that line; the town grew in earnest between 1890 and 1930 with a rich trade in turpentine, tobacco and pine lumber. Jasper reached its pinnacle in the 1920s with a booming population of over 2,000. Most of Jasper's present buildings were built during this 40-year period.
Since the 1920s Jasper has seen many economic changes. The leading cotton industry gave way to the turpentine industry, turpentine to lumber, lumber to tobacco, tobacco to phosphate mining; the completion of Interstate 75 in the late 1950s caused further decline as tourists and shipping bypassed the town. In 2002 town officials extended the city limits and infrastructure to the intersection of US 129 and Interstate 75, built infrastructure with the help of county officials to the Hamilton County Industrial Park along US 41 in order to encourage economic growth and development. Since that time several new businesses have moved into the area, the new high school has been built along the route; the large jump in population between 2000 and 2010 was due to the incorporation of land containing the Hamilton County Correctional Facility into the city limits. The first settlement in Hamilton County was called Micco Town or more Hala-at-aha Micco w
A ball is a round object with various uses. It is used in ball games, where the play of the game follows the state of the ball as it is hit, kicked or thrown by players. Balls can be used for simpler activities, such as catch or juggling. Balls made from hard-wearing materials are used in engineering applications to provide low friction bearings, known as ball bearings. Black-powder weapons use metal balls as projectiles. Although many types of balls are today made from rubber, this form was unknown outside the Americas until after the voyages of Columbus; the Spanish were the first Europeans to see the bouncing rubber balls which were employed most notably in the Mesoamerican ballgame. Balls used in various sports in other parts of the world prior to Columbus were made from other materials such as animal bladders or skins, stuffed with various materials; as balls are one of the most familiar spherical objects to humans, the word "ball" may be used to refer to or describe spherical or near-spherical objects.
"Ball" is used metaphorically sometimes to denote something spherical or spheroid, e.g. armadillos and human beings curl up into a ball, we make a ball with our fist. The first known use of the word ball in English in the sense of a globular body, played with was in 1205 in Laȝamon's Brut, or Chronicle of Britain in the phrase, "Summe heo driuen balles wide ȝeond Þa feldes." The word came from the Middle English bal (inflected as ball-e, -es, in turn from Old Norse böllr from Proto-Germanic ballu-z, a cognate with Old High German ballo, Middle High German balle from Proto-Germanic *ballon, Old High German ballâ, pallâ, Middle High German balle, Proto-Germanic *ballôn. No Old English representative of any of these is known. If ball- was native in Germanic, it may have been a cognate with the Latin foll-is in sense of a "thing blown up or inflated." In the Middle English spelling balle the word coincided graphically with the French balle "ball" and "bale" which has hence been erroneously assumed to be its source.
French balle is assumed to be of Germanic origin, however. In Ancient Greek the word πάλλα for "ball" is attested besides sphere. A ball, as the essential feature in many forms of gameplay requiring physical exertion, must date from the earliest times. A rolling object appeals not only to a kitten and a puppy; some form of game with a ball is found portrayed on Egyptian monuments, is played among aboriginal tribes at the present day. In Homer, Nausicaa was playing at ball with her maidens when Odysseus first saw her in the land of the Phaeacians, and Halios and Laodamas performed before Alcinous and Odysseus with ball play, accompanied with dancing. Among the ancient Greeks, games with balls were regarded as a useful subsidiary to the more violent athletic exercises, as a means of keeping the body supple, rendering it graceful, but were left to boys and girls. Of regular rules for the playing of ball games, little trace remains; the names in Greek for various forms, which have come down to us in such works as the Ὀνομαστικόν of Julius Pollux, imply little or nothing of such.
Pollux mentions a game called episkyros, looked on as the origin of football. It seems to have been played by two sides, arranged in lines, it was impossible to produce a ball, spherical. Among the Romans, ball games were looked upon as an adjunct to the bath, were graduated to the age and health of the bathers, a place was set apart for them in the baths. There appear to have been three types or sizes of ball, the pila, or small ball, used in catching games, the paganica, a heavy ball stuffed with feathers, the follis, a leather ball filled with air, the largest of the three; this was struck from player to player. There was a game known as trigon, played by three players standing in the form of a triangle, played with the follis, one known as harpastum, which seems to imply a "scrimmage" among several players for the ball; these games are known to us through the Romans. The various modern games played with a ball or balls and subject to rules are treated under their various names, such as polo, football, etc.
Several sports use a ball in the shape of a prolate spheroid: Ball Buckminster Fullerene "Bucky balls" Football Kickball Marbles Penny floater Prisoner Ball Shuttlecock Super Ball The dictionary definition of ball at Wiktionary
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
Basque pelota is the name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using one's hand, a racket, a wooden bat or a basket, against a wall or, more traditionally, with two teams face to face separated by a line on the ground or a net. The roots of this class of games can be traced to the other ancient cultures; the term pelota comes from the Vulgar Latin term pilotta. It is a diminutive form of the word pila which may relate to a hard linen or leather ball filled with pilus or to the Latin words for strike or spade and is related to the English word pellet. Today, Basque pelota is played in several countries. In Europe, this sport is concentrated in Spain and France in the Basque Country; the sport is played in Latin American countries such as Argentina, Chile and Cuba. Operated as a gaming enterprise called Jai Alai, it is seen in parts of the U. S. such as Florida, Connecticut and Rhode Island. In Valencia, Valencian pilota is considered the national sport. Since its creation, the International Federation of Basque Pelota has standardised the different varieties into four modalities and fourteen disciplines, with fixed ball weights and court sizes.
The four modalities—30 metres wall, 36 metres wall, 54 metres wall and trinquete—admit fourteen disciplines, depending the use of bare hand, leather ball, rubber ball, paleta and xare. Two of the fourteen disciplines are played by both women; this allows championship play at the international level, allows the participation of players and teams from around the world using the same rules. There is, criticism about this, since purists might argue that some of the original traits of each particular modality could be lost. With protection, accidents do happen. With the ball travelling at 200 kilometres per hour, pelota can kill if safety equipment is not used properly or at all; the origin of this sport is tied to the decline of the ancient jeu de paume, ca. 1700. While the game evolved to the modern jeu de paume and to tennis, rural Alpine and Pyrenean communities kept the tradition. In the Basque Country the "pasaka" and "laxoa", local versions of the paume evolved to the peculiar style of the pilota: instead of playing face to face, with a net in the midfield, the Basques began to fling the ball against a wall.
According to the Basque pilota historian Chipitey Etcheto, the first recorded matches took place in Napoleonic times. The mid-19th century saw the explosion of the "pelota craze"; the player "Gantxiki" is considered the original "father" of the chistera, the basket-shaped racquet that can propel the ball at incredible speeds, introduced around 1850. The top champions of the end of the 19th century, such as "Chiquito de Cambo", were immensely popular and the best-paid sportsmen of their time; the first official competitions were organized in the 1920s and led to the world championship in the 1950s. In 1924, the United States built its first fronton, in Miami. Jai-Alai is used for betting. During the'80s and'90s, Jai-Alai was popular in Miami and Florida, where the frontons had press boxes and restaurants and going to the Jai-Alai was seen to be a privilege. Men came in suits and women came in elaborate dresses for the "special event". Nowadays, Jai-Alai has dropped in popularity. Instead of thousands of people who came to watch, now there are a couple hundred.
Pelota is played in the Basque regions of south-western France and north-eastern Spain, where it originates. There are federations of Basque ball in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, United States, Netherlands, Sweden and Greece. Due to the origin of the game, there are many good players who are Basques, either natives or from the Basque diaspora. Basque pelota was an official Olympic sport once, in the 1900 Paris Games, a demonstration sport in 1924, 1968 and 1992. See Basque pelota at the 1900 Summer Olympics. In the 1900 Paris Games there were only two teams competing and Spain; the Spanish team: Amezola and Villota, beat the French team: Maurice Durquetty and Etchegaray by an unknown score. Basque pelota is played in a two walled court; as seen in the picture, there are courts with one wall, a modality prevailing on the French side of the Basque Country, some spots of Navarre or at the exceptional court of Zubieta in province Gipuzkoa.
Yet they are not recognized by the International Federation of Basque Pelota for international tournaments, reserved to joko-garbia and open-air grand chistera games. The trinquet is a court in Pelota where there is a front wall, a glass wall on the right and a wall on the left that has a dugout built into it and lastly a wall at the back. Where the right wall and the front wall meet there is small 45 degree wall; the trinquet is 28.50 meters long and 9.30 meters wide. The mur a gauche is French for'wall on the left' which it is, as represented in the diagram below where there is a front wall called a frontis, a left wall and a back