Academia Mexicana de la Lengua
The Academia Mexicana de la Lengua is the correspondent academy in Mexico of the Royal Spanish Academy. It was founded in Mexico City on 11 September 1875 and, like the other academies, has the principal function of working to ensure the purity of the Spanish language. Academy members have included many of the leading figures in Mexican letters, including philologists, philosophers, poets and humanists; the Academia Mexicana organized the first Congress of the Spanish Language Academies, celebrated at Mexico City in April 1951. This gave birth, through its Permanent Commission, to the Association of Spanish Language Academies, confirmed in the second Congress, celebrated in Madrid five years later. According to its statutes, approved in the plenary session of 2 December 1931, what is disposed in the text of constitution as a civil association, from 1952, the objectives of the Academy are as follows: To watch over the conservation, the purity and the improvement of the Spanish language. To keep constant communication of scientific or literary nature with the similar academies and institutions.
To form and increase its library with those scientific and literary works that best favor the achievements of the purposes of the Academia. To promote and propagate the study of the Spanish language though periodic private sessions. To attend consultations by public institutions and private individuals. To promote before the authorities or institutions or private individuals all that favors the conservation, the purity and the improvement of the Castilian language. To achieve its objectives, the Academy takes abroad several studies and activities related to its competence, in plenary form as well as though its assigned especialized commissions; the Academy was created with 12 members, but now has 36 full members and 35 correspondent members based outside Mexico City. It may have up to an additional five honorary members, who may be either Mexican citizens or foreigners, it has a Board made up by a Director, a Secretary, a Censor, a Librarian-Archivist and a Treasurer, all chosen among the académicos de número by absolute majority of votes from the academics that attend the session in which they are to be elected, in secret voting.
The labour of the Academy is performed in a meeting, that celebrates its sessions twice or more monthly. The sessions are private or public, the first ones can be ordinary or extraordinary, the public ones have the characteristic of solemnity when the Academy agrees it; the nature of the jobs that are analyzed and discussed in the heart of the meeting are of lexicographic and literary importance. The Academy owns a wide library, its initial fund comes from the acquisition of the former library of the academic Don Alejandro Quijano. With the years the number of works with relevant contributions has been growing, such as the one of the prestigious jurist and intellectual Alberto Vázquez del Mercado, who bestowed the institution with a huge and valuable collection of historic and literary works. In addition the books published donated by the academics, there are to be found those sent by the Real Academia Española, the other Spanish-language academies, some publishing companies and book stores, as well as those sent by official and private cultural organizations.
From its creation, the work of the academy has been documented with the publication of the Memories and a Yearbook. In the Memories appear the works read by the members of the Academy in the meetings and others that, according to their judgement, are worth of publishing; each volume starts with a review of the most relevant happenings that have occurred since the publication of the previous one and the indication of the number of attendance to the meetings of each academic, concludes with general and alphabetic indexes. The Academy publishes a Yearbook where it communicates the changes in academics and all sort of works related to the institute, it is concerned with the research of the use of the Spanish language in Mexico, which has crystallized in the publication of different works of reference. Among them, the most important are: The Universal Dictionary of Geography, that contains the names in Spanish of several geographical entities from around the world and their demonyms, it includes, for information purposes, the names in the language or languages of the country they are talking about, if they are written in Latin alphabet, or Latinized if in their region it is used a different writing system.
The Mexican Book of Sayings, that has its origins in an extensive project that the Academy started to commemorate its 125th anniversary. After some hard work, they published the Index of Mexicanisms, a wide collection of sayings used in Mexico from the beginnings of the 19th century until nowadays and that has become a fundamental reference book to the study of the Spanish spoken in the country; this Index, generated two works: the Short Dictionary of Mexicanisms, with 6,200 lexicographical articles that include words and certain lexical elements, by Guido Gómez de Silva, the Mexican Book of Sayings, product of the work of several Academic researches. Because of its vocation of adaptation with the new technologies and in harmony with the new communications society, the Academia Mexicana de la Lengua has in
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Ambroise Paul Toussaint Jules Valéry was a French poet and philosopher. In addition to his poetry and fiction, his interests included aphorisms on art, letters and current events. Valéry was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 12 different years. Valéry was born to a Corsican father and Genoese-Istrian mother in Sète, a town on the Mediterranean coast of the Hérault, but he was raised in Montpellier, a larger urban center close by. After a traditional Roman Catholic education, he studied law at university and resided in Paris for most of the remainder of his life, where he was, for a while, part of the circle of Stéphane Mallarmé. In 1900, he married Jeannie Gobillard, a friend of Stéphane Mallarmé's family, a niece of the painter Berthe Morisot; the wedding was a double ceremony in which the bride's cousin, Morisot's daughter, Julie Manet, married the painter Ernest Rouart. Valéry and Gobillard had three children: Claude and François. Valéry served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal, a grant given between 1919 and 1954 to young French painters, decorators, engravers and musicians.
Though his earliest publications date from his mid-twenties, Valéry did not become a full-time writer until 1920, when the man for whom he worked as private secretary, a former chief executive of the Havas news agency, Edouard Lebey, died of Parkinson's disease. Until Valéry had earned his living at the Ministry of War before assuming the flexible post as assistant to the impaired Lebey, a job he held for some twenty years. After his election to the Académie française in 1925, Valéry became a tireless public speaker and intellectual figure in French society, touring Europe and giving lectures on cultural and social issues as well as assuming a number of official positions eagerly offered to him by an admiring French nation, he represented France on cultural matters at the League of Nations, he served on several of its committees, including the sub-committee on Arts and Letters of the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. The English-language collection The Outlook for Intelligence contains translations of a dozen essays related to these activities.
In 1931, he founded the Collège International de Cannes, a private institution teaching French language and civilization. The Collège is still operating today, offering professional courses for native speakers as well as courses for foreign students, he gave the keynote address at the 1932 German national celebration of the 100th anniversary of the death of Johann Wolfgang Goethe. This was a fitting choice. In addition to his activities as a member of the Académie française, he was a member of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon, of the Front national des Ecrivains. In 1937, he was appointed chief executive of what became the University of Nice, he was the inaugural holder of the Chair of Poetics at the Collège de France. During World War II, the Vichy regime stripped him of some of these jobs and distinctions because of his quiet refusal to collaborate with Vichy and the German occupation, but Valéry continued, throughout these troubled years, to publish and to be active in French cultural life as a member of the Académie française.
Valéry died in Paris in 1945. He is buried in the cemetery of his native town, Sète, the same cemetery celebrated in his famous poem Le Cimetière marin. Valéry is best known as a poet, he is sometimes considered to be the last of the French symbolists. However, he published fewer than a hundred poems, none of them drew much attention. On the night of 4 October 1892, during a heavy storm, Paul Valéry underwent an existential crisis, an event that made a huge impact on his writing career. Around 1898, he quit writing altogether, publishing not a word for nearly twenty years; this hiatus was in part due to the death of his mentor, Stéphane Mallarmé. When, in 1917, he broke his'great silence' with the publication of La Jeune Parque; this obscure, but sublimely musical, masterpiece, of 512 alexandrine lines in rhyming couplets, had taken him four years to complete, it secured his fame. With "Le Cimetière marin" and "L'Ébauche d'un serpent," it is considered one of the greatest French poems of the twentieth century.
The title was chosen late in the poem's gestation. The poem is written in the first person, is the soliloquy of a young woman contemplating life and death and withdrawal, love and estrangement, in a setting dominated by the sea, the sky, rocky cliffs, the rising sun. However, it is possible to read the poem as an allegory on the way fate moves human affairs or as an attempt to comprehend the horrific violence in Europe at the time of the poem's composition; the poem is not about World War I, but it does try to address the relationships between destruction and beauty, and, in this sense, it resonates with ancient Greek meditations on these matters in the plays of Sophocles and Aeschylus. There are, evident links with le Cimetière marin, a seaside meditation on comparably large themes. Before la Jeune Parque, Valéry's only publications of note were dialogues, some poems, a study of Leonardo da Vinci. In 1920 and 1922, he published two slim collections of verses; the first
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Salvador Novo López was a Mexican writer, playwright, television presenter and the official chronicler of Mexico City. As a noted intellectual, he influenced popular perceptions of politics, the arts, Mexican society in general, he was a member of Los Contemporáneos, a group of Mexican writers, as well as of the Mexican Academy of the Language. Novo defied the machismo and conservative Catholicism prevalent in 20th century Mexican culture by making no efforts to conceal his sexuality, he was, accepted by the Mexican government. He held official posts related to culture, was elected to the Mexican Language Academy, had a television program on Mexico City's history. Towards the end of his life, he dyed his hair a bright carrot color and wore many ostentatious rings and colored suits, he has been compared to Oscar Wilde, but unlike Wilde, Novo never suffered the setback of scandal or persecution and remained an accepted and respected member of society and governmental circles until his death. In fact, some sectors resented the fact that a gay writer would align himself so with the government and media after the repression of social movements in the 1960s and 1970s.
He was well known for his wit. When a party, where young soldiers had been invited by gay scholar friends of his, had degenerated into a fight and a scandal, Salvador Novo brushed off the whole matter with a factual: "This is what happens when members of the intellectual elite try to enter military circles". In accordance with tradition, the street on which he lived was renamed after him when he assumed the role of Mexico City's official chronicler, a post held for life. Within a 1,000-sq.m.-land purchased in 1950, Salvador Novo decided to build, with the aid of architect Alejandro Prieto, the cultural project "La Capilla", for which purpose he adapted an old chapel as a theatre, inaugurated on 22 January 1953. This set includes a small restaurant, "El Refectorio", as well as a theatre-bar "El Hábito". Don Quijote Astucia La culta dama (The Wise Lady. A ocho columnas Diálogos Yocasta o casi Cuauhtémoc La guerra de las gordas Ha vuelto Ulises El sofá El espejo encantado
Belisario Domínguez Medal of Honor
The Belisario Domínguez Medal of Honor is the highest award bestowed by the Mexican Senate. It forms part of the Mexican Honors System and is Mexico's highest active award since there are no records of the Condecoración "Miguel Hidalgo" being presented since 1979; the award has been given every year since 1954 by the Senate of Mexico to eminent Mexicans with a distinguished lifetime career who contributed most "toward the welfare of the Nation and mankind". Only Mexican entities representing "the cultural spirit of the time" are allowed to submit nominations for this award; this provision allows universities, learned societies, non-governmental organizations and government entities to nominate candidates. The award is named after politician Belisario Domínguez. Domínguez was a Senator for the state of Chiapas at the time of the Mexican Revolution. After Victoriano Huerta's coup d'état, which ousted President Francisco I. Madero, Domínguez circulated a speech as a letter to fellow members of congress in which he denounced Huerta's actions and encouraged Congress to depose him.
At the end of his letter he encouraged readers to make copies of it and distribute them around the country. The speech was not taken well in Huerta's circles and Domínguez was assassinated a few days on October 7, 1913. In 1953 President Adolfo Ruiz Cortines signed the decree establishing the award in remembrance of this "martyr of democracy"; that same year the Senate decided to bestow the first medal on the bust of Belisario Domínguez that existed in the Senate Chamber as a symbolic act. It is for this reason that the medal was awarded twice in 1954; the medal consists of a single class and is awarded to a single recipient during a solemn ceremony in the Senate Chamber on October 7. A gold medal hanging from a silk ribbon with the colors of the Mexican flag is given together with a diploma signed by the President of the Republic and the leader of the Senate; the medal has the national coat of arms on one side together with the inscription "Estados Unidos Mexicanos, H. Cámara de Senadores 1952-1958".
The reverse side of the medal has an image of Domínguez' bust together with the inscription "Ennobleció a la Patria, 7 de octubre de 1913". The following is a complete list of people who have been recipients of the Belisario Domínguez Medal. Only in 1954 and 2012 the medal has been awarded twice. 1954 – Rosaura Zapata 1954 – Erasmo Castellanos Quinto 1955 – Esteban Baca Calderón 1956 – Gerardo Murillo, "Dr. Atl" 1957 – Roque Estrada Reynoso 1958 – Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama 1959 – Heriberto Jara Corona 1960 – Isidro Fabela 1961 – José Inocente Lugo 1962 – María Tereza Montoya 1963 – María Hernández Zarco 1964 – Adrián Aguirre Benavides 1965 – Plácido Cruz Ríos 1966 – Ramón F. Iturbe 1967 – Francisco L. Urquizo 1968 – Miguel Angel Cevallos 1969 – María Cámara Vales, widow of Pino Suárez, Francisco I. Madero's vice president 1970 – Rosendo Salazar 1971 – Jaime Torres Bodet 1972 – Ignacio Ramos Praslow 1973 – Pablo E. Macías Valenzuela 1974 – Rafael de la Colina Riquelme 1975 – Ignacio Chávez Sánchez 1976 – Jesús Romero Flores 1977 – Juan de Dios Bátiz Peredes 1978 – Gustavo Baz Prada 1979 – Fidel Velázquez Sánchez 1980 – Luis Padilla Nervo 1981 – Luis Alvarez Barret 1982 – Gen. Raúl Madero González 1983 – Jesús Silva Herzog 1984 – Salomón González Blanco 1985 – María Lavalle Urbina 1986 – Salvador Zubirán 1987 – Eduardo García Maynez 1988 – Rufino Tamayo 1989 – Raúl Castellano Jiménez 1990 – Andrés Serra Rojas 1991 – Gonzalo Aguirre Beltrán 1992 – Ramón G. Bonfil 1993 – Andrés Henestrosa Morales 1994 – Jaime Sabines Gutiérrez 1995 – Miguel León Portilla 1996 – Griselda Alvarez Ponce de León 1997 – Heberto Castillo Martínez 1998 – José Angel Conchello Dávila 1999 – Carlos Fuentes 2000 – Leopoldo Zea Aguilar 2001 – José Ezequiel Iturriaga Sauco 2002 – Héctor Fix Zamudio 2003 – Luis González y González 2004 – Carlos Canseco González 2005 – Gilberto Borja Navarrete 2006 – Jesús Kumate Rodríguez 2007 – Carlos Castillo Peraza 2008 – Miguel Ángel Granados Chapa 2009 – Antonio Ortiz Mena 2010 – Javier Barros Sierra 2010 – Luis H. Álvarez 2011 – Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas Solorzano 2012 – Ernesto de la Peña 2013 – Manuel Gómez Morín 2014 – Eraclio Zepeda 2015 – Alberto Bailleres 2016 – Gonzalo Rivas Condecoración Miguel Hidalgo Mexican Honours System Senado de la República.
Senado de la República - Medalla Belisario Domínguez. Retrieved November 20, 2005. Senado de la República. Reglamento de la Medalla de Honor Belisario Domínguez. Diario Oficial de la Federación, December 12, 1953. Senado de la República. Decreto por el cual se crea la Medalla de Honor “Belisario Domínguez” del Senado de la República, January 3, 1953 Jeffrey Kent Lucas; the Rightward Drift of Mexico's Former Revolutionaries: The Case of Antonio Díaz Soto y Gama. Lewiston, NY, USA: Edwin Mellen Press, 2010