Jakarta

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Jakarta
Special Capital Region
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta
From top, left to right: Jakarta Old Town, Hotel Indonesia Roundabout, Jakarta Skyline, Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Monumen Nasional, Merdeka Palace, Istiqlal Mosque and Jakarta Cathedral
Flag of Jakarta
Flag
Coat of arms of Jakarta
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): The Big Durian,[1][2] J-Town[3]
Motto(s): Jaya Raya (Sanskrit)
(meaning: Victorious and Great)
Jakarta is located in Java
Jakarta
Jakarta
Location in Java and Indonesia
Jakarta is located in Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6.200°S 106.817°E / -6.200; 106.817Coordinates: 6°12′S 106°49′E / 6.200°S 106.817°E / -6.200; 106.817
Country  Indonesia
Established 397 AD[4]:116
As Jayakarta 22 June 1527[4]:154
As Batavia 4 March 1621[5]
As Jakarta 8 August 1942[5]
Government
 • Type Special administrative area
 • Governor Anies Baswedan
 • Deputy Governor Sandiaga Uno
Area
 • Special Capital Region 661.5 km2 (255.4 sq mi)
 • Metro 6,392 km2 (2,468 sq mi)
Area rank 34th
Elevation 8 m (26 ft)
Population (2014)[6]
 • Special Capital Region 10,075,310
 • Rank 6th
 • Density 14,464/km2 (37,460/sq mi)
 • Metro 30,214,303
 • Metro density 4,383/km2 (11,350/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Jakartan, Indonesian: warga Jakarta, orang Jakarta
Time zone Indonesia Western Time (UTC+7)
Postal Code 1xxx0
Area code (+62) 21
Vehicle registration B
HDI Increase 0.792 (High)
HDI rank 1st (2016)
GDP PPP (2016) Increase$438.7 billion[7]
Police Polda Metro Jaya
Website jakarta.go.id

Jakarta (/əˈkɑːrtə/; Indonesian pronunciation: [dʒaˈkarta]), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Indonesian: Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island Java, it is the centre of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014.[6][8] The Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi), is the second largest urban agglomeration and 2nd largest urban area in the world after Tokyo, with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010 census.[9] Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over the Indonesian archipelago, making it a melting pot of many communities and cultures.[10] Jakarta is officially a province with special capital region status, but is commonly referred to as a city, the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.

Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, and was known as Batavia at that time. The city is currently the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat and other important financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia, the Indonesia Stock Exchange, and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations. As of 2017, six Forbes Global 2000 companies have headquarters in the city,[11] the city is also home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies.[12][13] Jakarta is listed as an Alpha Global City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC).[14] Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution in 2014, the city's GDP was estimated at US$ 321.3 billion[15] and economic growth was ranked 34th among the world's 200 largest cities.[16] Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok and Beijing.[17]

Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth leading to overpopulation and ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion, poverty and inequality, and flooding.[18] Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm (6.7 inches) per year, which, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding.[19]

History[edit]

Names and etymology[edit]

Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.

Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their respective names: Sunda Kelapa (397–1527), Jayakarta (1527–1619), Batavia (1619–1949), Djakarta (1949–1972), and Jakarta (1972–present).

Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta (Devanagari: जयकृत) which is ultimately derived from Sanskrit language; जय jaya (victorious)[20] and कृत krta (accomplished, acquired),[21] thus Jayakarta translates as "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory" which literally, Jakarta means the "victorious city". It was named after troops of Fatahillah successfully defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527,[22] before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa".

Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region,[1] as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York City (the Big Apple).[23] In the colonial era, the city was also known as Koningin van het Oosten (Queen of the Orient), initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals, mansions and ordered city layout.[24] After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs (e.g. Menteng and the area around Merdeka Square), with their wide lanes, many green spaces and villas.[25]

Pre-colonial era[edit]

The 5th century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta

The north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished around 400 BC to 100 AD.[26] The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia,[27] the area of North Jakarta around Tugu was a populated settlement since at least early 5th century. The Tugu inscription (probably written around 417 AD) discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, Koja, North Jakarta, mentioned King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects; the irrigation and water drainage project of the Chandrabhaga river and the Gomati river near his capital.[28] Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda, from 7th to early 13th century, the port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java (Sunda). The source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as being among the best in quality, the people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles.[29] The harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa (Sundanese: ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ ᮊᮜᮕ) and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom.

The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when they were looking for a route for spices,[30] the Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java.[31] In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta,[31] and became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre.

Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596; in 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post. This site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682.[32] Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with the English merchants, rivals of the Dutch, by allowing them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615.[33]

Colonial era[edit]

Dutch Batavia built in what is now Jakarta, by Andries Beeckman c. 1656
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.

When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress, his army and the English, however, were defeated by the Dutch, in part owing to the timely arrival of Jan Pieterszoon Coen. The Dutch burned the English fort, and forced them to retreat on their ships, the victory consolidated Dutch power and in 1619 they renamed the city Batavia.

Commercial opportunities in the city attracted native and especially Chinese and Arab immigrants, this sudden population increase created burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. Following a revolt, 5,000 Chinese were massacred by the Dutch and natives on 9 October 1740 and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok outside the city walls,[34] at the beginning of the 19th century, around 400 Arabs and Moors lived in Batavia, a number which changed little during the following decades. Among the commodities traded, fabrics, especially imported cotton, batik and clothing worn by Arab communities.[35]

The city began to expand further south as epidemics in 1835 and 1870 caused more people to move away from the port, the Koningsplein, now Merdeka Square was completed in 1818, the housing park of Menteng was started in 1913,[36] and Kebayoran Baru was the last Dutch-built residential area.[34] By 1930, Batavia had more than 500,000 inhabitants,[37] including 37,067 Europeans.[38] After World War II, the city of Batavia was renamed "Jakarta" (a short form of Jayakarta) by the Indonesian nationalists after achieving independence from the Dutch in 1949.[39]

Independence era[edit]

Monas which stands in the centre of Merdeka square, commemorates the Indonesian struggle for independence.

Following World War II, Indonesian Republicans withdrew from Allied-occupied Jakarta during their fight for independence and established their capital in Yogyakarta; in 1950, once independence was secured, Jakarta was once again made the national capital.[34] Indonesia's founding president, Sukarno, envisaged Jakarta as a great international city, and instigated large government-funded projects with openly nationalistic and modernist architecture.[40][41] Projects included a clover-leaf highway, a major boulevard (Jalan MH Thamrin-Sudirman), monuments such as The National Monument, Hotel Indonesia, a shopping centre, and a new parliament building. In October 1965, Jakarta was the site of an abortive coup attempt in which 6 top generals were killed, precipitating a violent anti-communist purge in which half a million people were killed, including many ethnic Chinese,[42] and the beginning of Suharto's New Order. A monument stands where the generals' bodies were dumped.

Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jakarta's main avenue and business district

In 1966, Jakarta was declared a "special capital region" (Daerah Khusus Ibukota), thus gaining a status approximately equivalent to that of a province.[43] Lieutenant General Ali Sadikin served as Governor from the mid-1960s commencement of the "New Order" until 1977; he rehabilitated roads and bridges, encouraged the arts, built several hospitals, and a large number of new schools. He also cleared out slum dwellers for new development projects—some for the benefit of the Suharto family[44][45]—and tried to eliminate rickshaws and ban street vendors. He began control of migration to the city to stem overcrowding and poverty.[46] Foreign investment contributed to a real estate boom that transformed the face of the city.[47]

The boom ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, putting Jakarta at the centre of violence, protest, and political manoeuvring, after 32 years in power, support for President Suharto began to wane. Tensions reached a peak when 4 students were shot dead at Trisakti University by security forces; four days of riots and violence ensued that killed an estimated 1,200, and destroyed or damaged 6,000 buildings.[48] Much of the rioting targeted Chinese Indonesians.[49] Suharto resigned as president, and Jakarta has remained the focal point of democratic change in Indonesia.[50] Jemaah Islamiah-connected bombings occurred almost annually in the city between 2000 and 2005,[34] with another bombing in 2009.[51]

Administration[edit]

Government[edit]

Governor's office at Jakarta City Hall Complex

The name and status, as well as the governing system of Jakarta, has changed throughout its history, on March 5, 1942, the Japanese wrested Batavia from Dutch control and the city was named Jakarta (Jakarta Special City (ジャカルタ特別市, Jakaruta tokubetsu-shi), in accordance with the special status that was assigned to the city). After Japan's surrender, Indonesian nationalists declared independence on August 17, 1945, [52] and the government of Jakarta City was changed into the Jakarta National Administration in the following month. After the war, the Dutch name Batavia was internationally recognized until full Indonesian independence was achieved on December 27, 1949 and Jakarta was officially proclaimed the national capital of Indonesia.

This first government was led by a mayor until the end of 1960, when the office was changed to that of a governor, the last mayor of Jakarta was Soediro, until he was replaced by Soemarno Sosroatmodjo as governor. Based on Act No. 5 of 1974 relating to the Fundamentals of Regional Government, Jakarta was confirmed as the capital of Indonesia and one of Indonesia's then 26 provinces.[53] In August 2007, Jakarta held its first ever election to choose a governor as part of a nationwide decentralisation program that allows direct local elections in several areas.[54]Previously, governors were elected by the members of Jakarta Council (DPRD).

At present, Jakarta is administratively equal to a province with special status, the executive branch of the city headed by an elected governor and a deputy governor, while DPRD is the legislative branch with 106 directly elected members. The executive governance consists of five administrative cities/Kota Administratif, each headed by a mayor – and one administrative regency/Kabupaten Administratif headed by a regent/Bupati. Unlike other cities and regencies in Indonesia where the mayor or regent are directly elected, Jakarta's mayors and regent are chosen by the governor of Jakarta, each city and regency is again divided into administrative districts.

Polda Metro Jaya maintains the law, security and order of Jakarta. It is led by a Regional Chief of police Kapolda, who holds the rank of Inspector General of Police.

Municipal finances[edit]

The Jakarta provincial government, like all other provincial governments in Indonesia, relies on transfers from the central government for the bulk of budget income. Local (non-central government) sources of revenue are incomes from various taxes such as vehicle ownership and vehicle transfer fees among others,[55] the ability of the regional government to respond to the many problems of Jakarta is constrained by extremely limited finances. In 2013, the total budget available was approved at around Rp 50 trillion (about $US 5.2 billion), equivalent to around $US 380 per citizen. Priority areas of spending were listed as education, transport, flood control measures, environment programs, and various types of social spending (such as health and housing).[56]

In recent years, the provincial government has consistently run a surplus of between 15–20% of total planned spending, largely because of delays in procurement procedures and other inefficiencies in the spending process.[57] Regular underspending is a matter of frequent public comment but the legal and administrative blockages that cause the underspending problem seem very difficult to overcome.[58]

Jakarta city finances: 2007–2012 (Rp trillion)
Year Revenue Expenditure
2007 Actual 18.7 18.7
2008 Actual 32.9 16.4
2009 Actual 23.7 19.6
2010 Actual 26.8 21.6
2011 Actual 31.8 31.7
2012 Actual 41.4 41.4

Indonesian Statistics Bureau: Jakarta in Figures[59]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map of the municipalities (Kota administrasi) in Jakarta province. Each city is divided into districts (Kecamatan).

Jakarta consists of five Kota Administratif (Administrative cities/municipalities), each headed by a mayor – and a Kabupaten Administratif (Administrative regency). Each city and regency is again divided into districts/Kecamatan, the administrative cities/municipalities of Jakarta are:

  • Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) is Jakarta's smallest city and home to most of Jakarta's administrative and political centre. It is divided into 8 administrative districts, it is characterised by large parks and Dutch colonial buildings. Landmarks include the National Monument (Monas), Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and museums.[60]
  • West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) has the highest concentration of small-scale industries in Jakarta. This city has 8 districts, the area includes Jakarta's Chinatown and Dutch colonial landmarks such as the Chinese Langgam building and Toko Merah. It contains part of Jakarta Old Town.[61]
  • South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan), originally planned as a satellite city, is now the location of large upscale shopping centres and affluent residential areas. It is divided into 10 territorial districts and functions as Jakarta's ground water buffer,[62] but recently the green belt areas are threatened by new developments. Much of the CBD area of Jakarta is concentrated in Setiabudi, South Jakarta, bordering the Tanah Abang/Sudirman area of Central Jakarta.
  • East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) territory is characterised by several industrial sectors.[63] Also located in East Jakarta are Taman Mini Indonesia Indah and Halim Perdanakusuma International Airport. This city has 10 districts/kecamatan.
  • North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) is the only city in Jakarta that is bounded by the sea (Java Sea). It is the location of Port of Tanjung Priok. Large-scale and medium-scale industries are concentrated in North Jakarta, it contains part of Jakarta Old Town, formerly known as Batavia since the 17th century, and was the centre of VOC trade activity in Dutch East Indies. Also located in North Jakarta is Ancol Dreamland (Taman Impian Jaya Ancol), currently the largest integrated tourism area in South East Asia.[64] North Jakarta is divided into 6 districts.

The only administrative regency (kabupaten) of Jakarta is:

  • Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu), formerly a district within the city of North Jakarta, is a collection of 105 small islands located on the Java Sea. It has of high conservation value because of its unique and special ecosystems. Marine tourism, such as diving, water bicycling, and wind surfing, are the primary touristic activities in this territory, the main mode of transportation between the islands are speed boats or small ferries.[65]
Jakarta's Cities/Municipalities (Kota Administrasi/Kotamadya)
City/Regency Area (km2) Total population (2010 Census) Total population (2014)[6] Population Density
(per km2)
in 2010
Population Density
(per km2)
in 2014
HDI
[66] 2015 Estimates
South Jakarta (Jakarta Selatan) 141.27 2,057,080 2,164,070 14,561 15,319 0.833 (Very High)
East Jakarta (Jakarta Timur) 188.03 2,687,027 2,817,994 14,290 14,987 0.807 (Very High)
Central Jakarta (Jakarta Pusat) 48.13 898,883 910,381 18,676 18,915 0.796 (High)
West Jakarta (Jakarta Barat) 129.54 2,278,825 2,430,410 17,592 18,762 0.797 (High)
North Jakarta (Jakarta Utara) 146.66 1,645,312 1,729,444 11,219 11,792 0.796 (High)
Thousand Islands (Kepulauan Seribu) 8.7 21,071 23,011 2,422 2,645 0.688 (Medium)

Geography[edit]

Jakarta covers an area of 699.5 square kilometers, which is ranked 33rd among the provinces of Indonesia. Greater Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, which extends into two of the bordering provinces of West Java and Banten.[67] The Greater Jakarta area includes 3 bordering regencies (Bekasi Regency, Tangerang Regency and Bogor Regency) and five adjacent cities (Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang).

Topography[edit]

Ancol beach

Jakarta is situated on the northwest coast of Java, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River on Jakarta Bay, which is an inlet of the Java Sea. The northern part of Jakarta is plain land, some areas of which are below sea level[68] and subject to frequent flooding. The southern parts of the city are hilly, it is one of only two Asian capital cities located in the southern hemisphere (the other being East Timor's Dili). Officially, the area of the Jakarta Special District is 662 km2 (256 sq mi) of land area and 6,977 km2 (2,694 sq mi) of sea area.[69] The Thousand Islands, which are administratively a part of Jakarta, are located in Jakarta Bay, north of the city.

Jakarta lies in a low and flat Alluvial plain, ranging from −2 to 50 metres (−7 to 164 ft) with an average elevation of 8 metres (26 ft) above sea level with historically extensive swampy areas. 13 rivers flow through Jakarta. They are:[70] Ciliwung River, Kalibaru, Pesanggrahan, Cipinang, Angke River, Maja,[71] Mookervart, Krukut, Buaran, West Tarum, Cakung, Petukangan, Sunter River and Grogol River, these rivers flow from the Puncak highlands to the south of the city, then across the city northwards towards the Java Sea. The Ciliwung River divides the city into the western and eastern districts.

With all these rivers, combined with the wet season rains and insufficient drainage due to clogging, make Jakarta prone to flooding. Moreover, Jakarta is sinking about 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 inches) each year, even up to 20 centimetres (7.9 inches) in the northern coastal areas. To help cope with the threat from the sea, the Netherlands will give $4 million for a feasibility study to build a dike around Jakarta Bay. The ring dike will be equipped with a pumping system and retention areas to defend against seawater. Additionally, it will function as a toll road, the project will be built by 2025.[72] In January 2014, Central Government agreed to build 2 dams in Ciawi, Bogor and a 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile) tunnel from Ciliwung River to Cisadane River to ease Jakarta floods. Construction costs will be paid for by the central government, but land acquisitions are the responsibility of the Jakarta Authority.[73] Nowadays, an 1.2-kilometre (0.75-mile), with capacity 60 cubic metres (2,100 cubic feet) per second, underground water tunnel between Ciliwung River and the East Flood Canal is being worked on to ease the Ciliwung River overflows.[74]

Climate[edit]

Jakarta has a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification system. The wet season in Jakarta covers the majority of the year, running from October through May, the remaining four months (June through September) constitute the city's drier season (each of these 4 months has an average monthly rainfall of less than 100 millimetres (3.9 in)). Located in the western part of Java, Jakarta's wet season rainfall peak is January and February with average monthly rainfall of 299.7 millimetres (11.80 in), and its dry season low point is August with a monthly average of 43.2 mm (1.70 in).

Climate data for Halim Perdanakusuma Airport, Jakarta, Indonesia (temperature: 1924–1994, precipitation: 1931–1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
33.9
(93)
35.6
(96.1)
Average high °C (°F) 28.9
(84)
28.9
(84)
29.4
(84.9)
30.0
(86)
30.6
(87.1)
30.0
(86)
30.0
(86)
30.6
(87.1)
31.1
(88)
31.1
(88)
30.6
(87.1)
29.4
(84.9)
30.1
(86.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79)
26.1
(79)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81)
26.7
(80.1)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81)
27.0
(80.6)
26.4
(79.5)
26.7
(80.1)
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.3
(73.9)
22.8
(73)
22.8
(73)
22.8
(73)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
Record low °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68)
19.4
(66.9)
18.9
(66)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 299.7
(11.799)
299.7
(11.799)
210.8
(8.299)
147.3
(5.799)
132.1
(5.201)
96.5
(3.799)
63.5
(2.5)
43.2
(1.701)
66.0
(2.598)
111.8
(4.402)
142.2
(5.598)
203.2
(8)
1,816
(71.495)
Average relative humidity (%) 85 85 83 82 82 81 78 76 75 77 81 82 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 189 182 239 255 260 255 282 295 288 279 231 220 2,975
Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[75]
Source #2: Danish Meteorological Institute (humidity and sun only)[76]

Parks and Lakes[edit]

Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

In June 2011, Jakarta had only 10.5% green open spaces (Ruang Terbuka Hijau) and this has grown to 13.94% public green open spaces. Public parks are included in public green open spaces. By 2030, the administration also hope there is 16% private green open spaces;[77] in a goal to develop a child friendly city and to provide green open spaces for citizens, Jakarta administration has targeted to build 300 'Child Friendly Integrated Public Space (Indonesian: 'Ruang Publik Terpadu Ramah Anak, abbreviated RPTRA) by 2017, which is a public space in the form of green open spaces or parks equipped with playground, games, library, lactation room, and other facilities to serve the interests of communities around with CCTV surveillance.[78][79] As of 2014, there are 183 water reservoirs and lakes in greater Jakarta area.[80]

  • Merdeka Square (Medan Merdeka) is an almost 1 km2 field housing the symbol of Jakarta, Monas or Monumen Nasional (National Monument) and was the largest city square in the world until 2000. The square was created by Dutch Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1810) and was originally named Koningsplein (King's Square), on 10 January 1993, President Soeharto started the beautification of the square. Several features including a deer park and 33 trees that represent the 33 provinces of Indonesia were added.[81]
  • Lapangan Banteng (Buffalo Field) is located in Central Jakarta near Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta Cathedral, and Jakarta Central Post Office. It is about 4.5 hectares. Initially it was called Waterlooplein and functioned as the ceremonial square during the Netherlands East Indies colonial period. A number of colonial monuments and memorials erected on the square during the colonial period were demolished during the Sukarno era, the most notable monument in the square is the Monumen Pembebasan Irian Barat (Monument of the Liberation of West Irian). During the 1970s and 1980s the park was used as a bus terminal; in 1993 the park was turned into a public space again. It has become a recreation place for people and is occasionally also used as an exhibition place or for other events.[82] 'Jakarta Flona' (Flora dan Fauna), a flower and decoration plants and pet exhibition, is held in this park around August annually.
Ancol Gondola

Demography[edit]

Population[edit]

Year Population
1870 65,000
1875 99,100
1880 102,900
1883 97,000
1886 100,500
1890 105,100
1895 114,600
1901 115,900
1905 138,600
1918 234,700
Year Population
1920 253,800
1925 290,400
1928 311,000
1930 435,184
1940 533,000
1945 600,000
1950 1,733,600
1959 2,814,000
1961 2,906,533
1971 4,546,492
Year/Date Population
31 October 1980 6,503,449
31 October 1990 8,259,639
30 June 2000 8,384,853
1 January 2005 8,540,306
1 January 2006 7,512,323
June 2007 7,552,444
2010 9,588,198
2014 10,075,310

* 2010 Population census

Since 1950, Jakarta has attracted people from all parts of Java and other Indonesian islands, the flood of migrants came to Jakarta for economic reasons as Jakarta offered the hope of employment. The 1961 census showed only 51% of the city's population was actually born in Jakarta.[89]Inwards immigration tended to negate the effect of family planning programs.[53]

Between 1961 and 1980, the population of Jakarta doubled and during the period 1980–1990, the city's population grew annually by 3.7%.[90]The 2010 census counted some 9.58 million people, well above all government estimates.[91]The population has risen from 4.5 million in 1970 doubled to 9.5 million in 2010, counting only its legal residents, while the population of Greater Jakarta has risen from 8.2 million in 1970 jumping to 28.5 million in 2010. According to the government's 'Jakarta in Figures' document, the population stood at 10,187,595 in 2011 and 9,761,407 in 2012,[92] as per 2014, the population of Jakarta stood at 10,075,310 people.[6] with a population density of 15,174 people/km2.[93] [94] As per 2014, the population of Greater Jakarta was 30,326,103, accounting for 11% of Indonesia's overall population,[95] the gender ratio was 102.8 (males per 100 females) in 2010[96] and 101.3 in 2014.[6]

Ethnicity and language[edit]

Ethnicities of Jakarta – 2010 Census[97]
Ethnic group Percentage
Javanese
36.17%
Betawi
28.29%
Sundanese
14.61%
Chinese
6.62%
Batak
3.42%
Minangkabau
2.85%
Malays
0.96%
Others
7.08%

Jakarta is a pluralistic and religiously diverse city, as of 2000, 35.16% of the city's population are Javanese, 27.65% Betawi, 15.27% Sundanese, 5.53% Chinese, 3.61% Batak, 3.18% Minangkabau and 1.62% Malays.[98] And as of 2010 Census, 36.17% of the city's population are Javanese, 28.29% Betawi, 14.61% Sundanese, 6.62% Chinese, 3.42% Batak, 2.85% Minangkabau, 0.96% Malays and others 7.08%.

The 'Betawi' (Orang Betawi, or 'people of Batavia') are the descendants of the people living in and around Batavia, and are recognised as an ethnic group from around the 18th–19th century. The Betawi people are mostly descended from various Southeast-Asian ethnic groups brought or attracted to Batavia to meet labour needs, and include people from different parts of Indonesia.[99] Betawi people are a creole ethnic group that came from various parts of Indonesia and intermarried with Chinese, Arabs, and Europeans.[100] Nowadays, most Betawi form a minority in the city; most of them live in the fringe areas of Jakarta and there are hardly any Betawi-dominated areas in central Jakarta.[101]

There has been a significant Chinese community in Jakarta for many centuries. Jakarta is home to the largest population of Chinese on Java island, the Chinese in Jakarta traditionally reside around old urban areas, such as Pinangsia, Pluit and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown) areas. They also can be found in the old Chinatowns of Senen and Jatinegara. Officially, they make up 5.53% of the Jakarta population, although this number may be under-reported.[102]

The Sumatran people of the city are very diverse. According to 2010 Census, there were roughly 346,000 Batak, 305,000 Minangkabau and 155,000 Malays, the Batak and Minangkabau are spread throughout the city. The Batak ethnic group has increased in ranking, from eighth in 1930 to fifth in 2000. Toba Batak is the largest sub-ethnic Batak group in Jakarta.[103] Beside the Chinese, Minangkabau people also as merchants, peddlers, and artisans, in addition to working in white collar professions: doctors, teachers, and journalists.[104][105]

Bahasa Indonesia is the official as well as the spoken language of Jakarta. English is used widely as second language, while a number of elderly people can speak Dutch, each of the ethnic groups use their mother language at home, such as Betawi language, Javanese, Sundanese, Malay, Madurese, Batak, Minangkabau, Chinese, Arabic, and Tamil. Betawi language is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. The language is mostly based on the East Malay dialect and enriched by loan words from Dutch, Portuguese, Sundanese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Chinese, and Arabic. Nowadays, the Jakarta dialect (Bahasa Jakarta), used as a street language by people in Jakarta, is loosely based on the Betawi language.

Religion[edit]

Jakarta Cathedral (Gereja Santa Perawan Maria Diangkat Ke Surga, Paroki Katedral Jakarta) is the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Jakarta. This cathedral is located directly across the road from Istiqlal Mosque.
Religion in Jakarta (2017)[106]
Religion Percentage
Islam
83.43%
Protestant
8.63%
Roman Catholic
4.00%
Buddhism
3.74%
Hinduism
0.19%
Confucianism
0.01%
Folk
0.00%

As of the 2010 census the population of Jakarta was 85.36% Muslim, 7.53% Protestant, 3.30% Buddhist, 3.15% Roman Catholic, 0.21% Hindu, and 0.06% Confucianist. The majority of Jakartans are Sunni Muslims.[107]

Most pesantren (Islamic boarding schools) in Jakarta are affiliated with the traditionalist Nahdlatul Ulama, [108] modernist organisations mostly catering to a socioeconomic class of educated urban elites and merchant traders. They give priority to education, social welfare programs and religious propagation activities.[109] Many Islamic organisations have headquarters in Jakarta, including Nahdlatul Ulama, Indonesian Ulema Council, Muhammadiyah, Jaringan Islam Liberal, and Front Pembela Islam.

Data from Jakarta Central Bureau of Statistics 17 July 2017, shows that the population of Jakarta who embrace Islam is 83.43%, Protestant 8.63%, Catholic 4.0%, Buddhist 3.74%, Hindu 0.19%, and Confucianist 0.01%. Folk religion is claimed for 231 people.[110]

Roman Catholics have a Metropolitan see, the Archdiocese of Jakarta, which includes West Java as part of the ecclesiastical province.

Culture[edit]

As the economic and political capital of Indonesia with so many different languages and ethnic groups, it is difficult to describe or define a common culture for Jakarta, as the city attracts many native immigrants, from the vast and diverse Indonesian archipelago, who also bring their various languages, dialects, foods and customs, this diversity of origins and languages leads to differences in regard to religion, traditions and linguistics. However ethnic Betawi are considered as the indigenous people of Jakarta.

Arts and festivals[edit]

The Betawi culture is distinct from those of the Sundanese or Javanese, forming itself as a language island in the surrounding area. Betawi arts have a low profile in Jakarta, and most Betawi have moved to the suburbs of Jakarta, displaced by new migrants, it is easier to find Java or Minang-based wedding ceremonies rather than Betawi weddings in Jakarta. It is easier to find Javanese Gamelan instead of Tanjidor (a mixture between Betawi and Portuguese music), Marawis (a mixture between Betawi and Yemeni music) or Gambang Kromong (a mixture between Betawi and Chinese music). The Chinese also influenced Betawi culture, such as the popularity of Chinese cakes and sweets, firecrackers, to Betawi wedding attire that demonstrates Chinese and Arab influences.

However, some festivals such as the Jalan Jaksa Festival or Kemang Festival include efforts to preserve Betawi arts by inviting artists to give performances.[111] Jakarta has several performing art centres, such as the classical concert hall Aula Simfonia Jakarta in Kemayoran, Taman Ismail Marzuki (TIM) art centre in Cikini, Gedung Kesenian Jakarta near Pasar Baru, Balai Sarbini in the Plaza Semanggi area, Bentara Budaya Jakarta in Palmerah area, Pasar Seni (Art Market) in Ancol, and traditional Indonesian art performances at the pavilions of some provinces in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Traditional music is often found at high-class hotels, including Wayang and Gamelan performances. Javanese Wayang Orang performances can be found at Wayang Orang Bharata theatre near Senen bus terminal, as the country's largest city and capital, Jakarta has lured much national and regional talent who hope to find a greater audience and more opportunities for success.

Jakarta hosts several prestigious art and culture festivals, and exhibitions, such as the annual Jakarta International Film Festival (JiFFest), Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival, Djakarta Warehouse Project, Jakarta Fashion Week, Jakarta Fashion & Food Festival (JFFF), Jakarta Fair, Indonesia Creative Products and Jakarta Arts and Crafts exhibition. Flona Jakarta is a flora-and-fauna exhibition, held annually in August at Lapangan Banteng Park, featuring flowers, plant nurseries, and pets. Jakarta Fair is held annually from mid-June to mid-July to celebrate the anniversary of the city and is largely centred around a trade fair. However, this month-long fair also features entertainment, including arts and music performances by local musicians. Jakarta International Java Jazz Festival (JJF) is one of the largest jazz festivals in the world and arguably the biggest in the Southern hemisphere. The annual jazz festival is held every early March and was designed to be one of the largest jazz festivals globally.

Several foreign art and culture centres are also established in Jakarta, and mainly serve to promote culture and language through learning centres, libraries, and art galleries, among these foreign art and cultural centres are China Confucius Institute, Netherlands Erasmus Huis, UK British Council, France Alliance Française, Germany Goethe-Institut, Japan Foundation, and India Jawaharlal Nehru Indian Cultural Center.

Cuisine[edit]

Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish

As the capital, all varieties of Indonesian cuisine have a presence in Jakarta, the local cuisine of Jakarta is the Betawi cuisine, which reflects various foreign culinary traditions that have influenced the inhabitants of Jakarta for centuries. Betawi cuisine is heavily influenced by Malay-Chinese Peranakan cuisine, Sundanese and Javanese cuisine, which is also influenced by Indian, Arabic and European cuisines. One of the most popular local dishes of Betwai cuisine is Soto Betawi which is prepared from chunks of beef and offal in rich and spicy cow's milk or coconut milk broth. Other popular Betawi dishes include soto kaki, nasi uduk, kerak telor (spicy omelette), nasi ulam, asinan, ketoprak, rujak and gado-gado Betawi (salad in peanut sauce).

Jakarta has a vast range of food available at hundreds of eating venues and food courts located all over the city, from modest street-side warung foodstalls and kaki lima (five legs) travelling vendors to high-end fine dining restaurants, from rooftop bar to glamorous lounge, Jakarta has plenty of bars, cafes and clubs.[112]From old town of Batavia with Indonesia’s Dutch colonial past to the fashionable Menteng district, the city has hive of live music venues and exclusive restaurants,[113] since Jakarta is regarded as the 'melting-pot' and a miniature version of Indonesia, many traditional foods from far-flung regions in Indonesia can be found in Jakarta. For example, traditional Padang restaurants and low-budget Warteg (Warung Tegal) foodstalls are ubiquitous in the capital. Other popular street foods include nasi goreng (fried rice), sate (skewered meats), pecel lele (fried catfish), bakso (meatballs), bakpau (Chinese bun) and siomay (fish dumplings).

Jalan Sabang,[114][115] Jalan Sidoarjo, Jalan Kendal at Menteng area, Kota Tua, Blok S, Blok M,[116] Jalan Tebet[117] are all popular destinations for street-food lovers. While Menteng, Kemang,[118] Jalan Senopati,[119] Kuningan, Senayan and Pantai Indah Kapuk,[120] Kelapa Gading areas have trendy restaurants, cafe and bars. Lenggang Jakarta is a food court area built with a concept of culinary and cultural centre, accommodating small traders and street vendors with toilet, free WiFi facility and non-cash payment system.[121] This place is unique as most of the Indonesian food's are available within a single compound, at present there are two such food courts at Monas and Kemayoran area.[122] TransJakarta operates free tour buses on every Saturday from 5PM to 11 PM to some of the most popular culinary destinations in Central Jakarta.[123]Chinese street-food is plentifully available at Jalan Pangeran, Manga Besar and Petak Sembilan in the old Jakarta area, while Little Tokyo area of Blok M has many Japanese style restaurants and bars.[124]

Almost all global fast-food chain like McDonald's, KFC, Burger King, A&W, Fatburger, Starbucks, Dunkin' Donuts along with local brands like J'CO, Es Teler 77 and CFC or Japanese HokBen have presence in the city[125]. Next to a myriad of Indonesian food and regional specialties from all over Indonesia, foreign food is also represented: Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Thai, Indian, American, French, Mediterranean cuisine's like Turkish, Italian, Middle-Eastern cuisine, and modern fusion food can all be found in Jakarta.[126]

Museums[edit]

There are in total 142 museums in Jakarta,[127] the museums in Jakarta cluster around the Central Jakarta Merdeka Square area, Jakarta Old Town, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah.

The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institutional buildings of Colonial Batavia, some of these museums are: Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (Puppet Museum) (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), the Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).

Several museums clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area include: National Museum of Indonesia which also known as Gedung Gajah (the Elephant Building), Monumen Nasional (National Monument), Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal Mosque, and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on the second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in the central Jakarta area is the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area.

The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums, such as Indonesia Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur'an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Centre, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, plus the Transportation Museum. Other museums are Satria Mandala Military Museum, Museum Sumpah Pemuda, and Lubang Buaya (Crocodile Well).

Media[edit]

Jakarta has numerous newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Several newspapers, including daily, business, and digital papers, are based in Jakarta. Daily newspapers include Kompas, Koran Tempo, Media Indonesia, Republika, Suara Pembaruan, Seputar Indonesia, Suara Karya, Sinar Harapan, Indo Pos, Jurnal Nasional, and Harian Pelita. English language newspapers are also published daily, for example The Jakarta Post and The Jakarta Globe. Chinese language newspapers are Indonesia Shang Bao (印尼商报), Harian Indonesia (印尼星洲日报), and Guo Ji Ri Bao (国际日报). The only Japanese language newspaper is The Daily Jakarta Shimbun (じゃかるた新聞). Jakarta has also the daily newspapers segment such as Pos Kota, Warta Kota, Koran Jakarta, Berita Kota for local readers; Bisnis Indonesia, Investor Daily, Kontan, Harian Neraca (business news) as well as Top Skor and Soccer (sport news).

Jakarta are the headquarters for Indonesia's state media public government stations, TVRI as well as private national television include Metro TV, tvOne, Kompas TV, Trans TV, Trans 7, RCTI, MNC, SCTV, Global TV, Indosiar, ANTV, RTV and NET.. Jakarta has also the local television channels such as Jak TV, O Channel, Elshinta TV, and DAAI TV Indonesia, the city is home to the country's main pay television service. The wide range of cable channels available includes First Media and TelkomVision. Satellite television (DTH) has yet to gain mass acceptance in Jakarta. Prominent DTH entertainment services are Indovision, Okevision, Yes TV, Transvision, and Aora TV. Many TV stations are analogue PAL, but some are now converting to digital signals using DVB-T2 following a government plan to digital television migration.[128]

A Metro TV news van parked in Merdeka Square, Jakarta
The TVRI Tower in Senayan, South Jakarta
Channel Name Type Language Country of Region
22 UHF INTV Local Indonesian  Indonesia
23 UHF RTV National
25 UHF Kompas TV
26 UHF CTV Banten Local
27 UHF NET. National
28 UHF KTV Local
29 UHF Trans TV National
30 UHF iNews TV
31 UHF TVRI Jakarta & Banten Local
33 UHF O Channel
35 UHF Elshinta TV
37 UHF MNCTV National
39 UHF TVRI Nasional
41 UHF Indosiar
43 UHF RCTI
45 UHF SCTV
47 UHF antv
49 UHF Trans7
51 UHF Global TV
53 UHF tvOne
55 UHF JakTV Local
57 UHF Metro TV National
59 UHF DAAI TV Local
60 UHF Radar TV

There are seventy five radio stations in Jakarta, with fifty two broadcasting on the FM band, and twenty three radio stations broadcasting on the AM band.

Economy[edit]

Night view of SCBD (Sudirman Central Business District), Jakarta

Indonesia is the largest economy of ASEAN and Jakarta is the economic nerve centre of Indonesian archipelago, the city generated about one-sixth of Indonesian GDP in 2008.[129] Jakarta's nominal GDP was US$483.8 billion in 2016, which is about 17.5% of Indonesia's.[130] Jakarta ranked 67th in Global Financial Centres Index 21 published by Z/Yen.[131] The city ranks higher at 62 in Global Financial Centres Index 22, published in September, 2017. Jakarta ranked at 41 in Global Power City Index by The Mori Memorial Foundation in 2017.[132] EIU’s recent survey ranked Jakarta at 8th among 45 cities in the world with the highest confidence in the environment for digital transformation, beating London, Madrid, New York, as well as its closest neighbor, Singapore.[133]

Jakarta's economy depends highly on service sectors, banking, trading, financial, and manufacturing. Most of industries in Jakarta include electronics, automotive, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical sciences manufacturing. Head office of Bank Indonesia and Indonesia Stock Exchange located in the city. Most of the SOE like Pertamina, PLN, PGN, Angkasa Pura, BULOG, Telkomsel, Waskita operate from their head offices in the city. Also major Indonesian conglomerates maintains head office in Jakarta. Important conglomerates which have corporate office in the city are, Salim Group, Sinar Mas Group, Astra International, Lippo Group, Bakrie Group, Ciputra Group, Agung Podomoro Group, Unilever Indonesia, Djarum, Gudang Garam, Kompas Gramedia, Lion Air, Sriwijaya Air, MedcoEnergi, MNC, Trans Corp, Kalbe Farma, and many more.

The economic growth of Jakarta was 6.22 percent and 5.02 percent in 2017 and 2016 respectively.[134] Throughout 2017, total value of investment in Jakarta was Rp 108.6 trillion, about USD 8 billion, which was an increase of 84.7 percent from the same period in 2016.[135]. In 2014, per capita GRDP of Jakarta inhabitants was Rp 174.87 million or USD 14,727. In 2015, GDP per capita in the city was estimated Rp 194.87 million or US$14,570.[136] Last data update was on 2014 by end of year Jakarta have a GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 1,761.407 trillion (around USD 148.53 billion) with economic growth above 6% per year since 2009. In 2007 growth in the transportation and communication (15.25%), construction (7.81%) and trade, hotel and restaurant sectors (6.88%).[53] In 2007, GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product) was Rp. 566 trillion (around $US 56 billion). The largest contributions to GRDP were by finance, ownership and business services (29%); trade, hotel and restaurant sector (20%), and manufacturing industry sector (16%).[53] In 2007, the increase in per capita GRDP of Jakarta inhabitants was 11.6% compared to the previous year[53] Both GRDP by at current market price and GRDP by at 2000 constant price in 2007 for the Municipality of Central Jakarta, which was Rp 146 million and Rp 81 million, was higher than other municipalities in Jakarta.[53]

The Wealth Report 2015 by Knight Frank reported that there were 24 individuals in Indonesia in 2014 with wealth at least US$1 billion and 18 of them live in Jakarta,[137] the cost of living in the city continues to rise. Both land price and rents has become expensive. Mercer’s 2017 Cost of Living Survey ranked Jakarta as 88th costliest city in the world for expatriate employees living.[138] Industrial development and the construction of new housing are usually undertaken on the outskirts, while commerce and banking remain concentrated in the city centre.[139] Jakarta has a bustling luxury property market, the investment in the property sector, including offices, commercial buildings, new town development, and high rise apartments and hotels grew substantially. Knight Frank, a global real estate consultancy based in London, reported in 2014 that Jakarta offered the highest return on high-end property investment in the world in 2013, citing supply shortage and a sharply depreciated currency as reasons.[140]

Shopping[edit]

Jakarta has numerous shopping malls and markets, with a total of 550 hectares, Jakarta has the world's largest shopping mall floor area within a single city.[141][142] The annual "Jakarta Great Sale" is held every year in June and July to celebrate Jakarta's anniversary, with about 73 participating shopping centres in 2012.[143] Malls such as Plaza Indonesia, Grand Indonesia Shopping Town, Plaza Senayan, Senayan City and Pacific Place provide luxury brands, while Mall Taman Anggrek, Pondok Indah Mall, Mal Kelapa Gading, Central Park Jakarta, Lotte Shopping Avenue, Gandaria City, Kota Kasablanka, Kemang Village, Lippo Mall Puri, and Bay Walk Mall have high-street brands such as Topshop, Uniqlo and Zara.[144]

Mall Taman Anggrek, West Jakarta

Department stores in Senayan City, Supermall Karawaci and Lippo Mall Kemang Village use the Debenhams brand under licence,[145] while the Japanese Sogo department store has about seven stores in various shopping malls in the city.[146] Seibu flagship store is located in Grand Indonesia Shopping Town, and French luxury department store, Galeries Lafayette opened its doors for the first time in South East Asia at Pacific Place. Internationally known luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton, Bulgari, Chanel, Gucci, Christian Louboutin, Balenciaga, and Giorgio Armani can be found in Jakarta's luxury shopping malls. The Satrio-Casablanca corridor, 3.5-kilometre street is a new shopping belt in Jakarta.[147] Many multistorey shopping centres are located here, such as Kuningan City, Mal Ambassador, Kota Kasablanka, and Lotte Shopping Avenue.

Traditional markets include Blok M, Tanah Abang, Senen, Pasar Baru, Glodok, Mangga Dua, Cempaka Mas, and Jatinegara. There are also special markets, which sell antique goods at Surabaya Street and gemstones in Rawabening Market.

Tourism[edit]

Though Jakarta has been named the most popular location as per tag stories[148] and ranked 8th most posted among the cities in the world in 2017 on image sharing site Instagram,[149] the city is not a top international tourist destination unlike neighboring cities like Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok. Jakarta ranked as the fifth fastest growing destination among 132 cities according to MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index published in September, 2017. Those who were visiting, 59.1% for business, while the other 40.9% were visiting for leisure.[150] According to Euromonitor International’s latest Top 100 City Destinations Ranking, Jakarta ranked at 83 with more than 3.5 million international tourists visited in a year, which is 48.5% higher in comparison to previous year.[151]

Most of the visitors attracted to Jakarta are domestic tourists from all over Indonesia, as the gateway of Indonesia, Jakarta often serves as the stop-over for foreign visitors on their way to other popular Indonesian tourist destinations such as Bali, Lombok , Komodo Island and Yogyakarta. Jakarta is trying to attract more international tourist by MICE tourism, by arranging increasing numbers of conventions.[152][153] Slowly but steadily and gradually tourism contributes a growing amount of income to the city; in 2012, the tourism sector contributed 2.6 trillion rupiah (US$268.5 million) to the city's total direct income of 17.83 trillion rupiah (US$1.45 billion), 17.9% increase from the previous year 2011. Tourism stakeholders are expecting greater marketing of the Jakarta as a tourism destination.[154]

The popular heritage tourism attractions are in Kota[155] and around Merdeka square. Kota is the centre of old Jakarta, with its Maritime Museum, Kota Intan drawbridge, Gereja Sion, Wayang Museum, Stadhuis Batavia, Fine Art and Ceramic Museum, Toko Merah, Bank Indonesia Museum, Bank Mandiri Museum, Jakarta Kota Station, and Glodok (Jakarta Chinatown).[156]Kota Tua was named the most-visited destination in Indonesia in 2017 by image-sharing platform Instagram.[157] In the old ports of Sunda Kelapa, the tall masted pinisi ships are still found to be anchored, the Jakarta Cathedral with neo-gothic architecture in Central Jakarta also attracted architecture enthusiast.

Other than monuments, landmarks, and museums around Merdeka square and Jakarta Old Town, tourist attractions of the city include Thousand Islands, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Setu Babakan, Ragunan Zoo, Sunda Kelapa old port and the Ancol Dreamland complex on Jakarta Bay, including Dunia Fantasi (Fantasy World) theme park, Sea World, Atlantis Water Adventure, and Gelanggang Samudra. Thousand Islands, which is north to the coast of the city and in Java Sea is also a popular tourist destination.Since

Most of the renowned international hotel chains have presence in the city. Jalan Jaksa and surrounding area is popular among backpackers for cheaper accommodation, travel agencies, second-hand bookstores, money changers, laundries, pubs, etc.[158]PIK is a relatively new suburb for hangout[159], while Kemang is a favorite suburb for expats living.

City tour bus service[edit]

Jakarta city government provides free double-decker bus tours that offers sightseeing in the city. Tourists can catch the double-decker bus — free of charge, in several designated bus stops in front of city's points of interest. Several routes of this bus service covers main tourist attractions, such as Monas, Istiqlal Mosque, the Cathedral, National Museum, Sarinah, Hotel Indonesia crossing, Kota Tua and Kalijodo Park .[160][161] The service is expanded to include Kota Tua in the north, Kalijodo Park in the west and Gelora Bung Karno Stadium in Senayan area in the south, via Sudirman avenue.[162][163] TransJakarta also operates free tour buses on every Saturday from 5PM to 11 PM to some of the most popular culinary destinations in Central Jakarta.[164]

Infrastructure[edit]

Water supply[edit]

Two private companies, PALYJA and Aetra, provide piped water supply in the western and eastern half of Jakarta respectively under 25-year concession contracts signed in 1998. A public asset holding company called PAM Jaya owns the infrastructure. 80% of the water distributed in Jakarta comes through the West Tarum Canal system from Jatiluhur reservoir on the Citarum River 70 km (43 mi) southeast of the city. Water supply had been privatised by government of then President Suharto in 1998 to the French company Suez Environnement and the British company Thames Water International. Both foreign companies subsequently sold their concessions to Indonesian companies. Customer growth in the 7 first years of the concessions had been lower than before, despite substantial inflation-adjusted tariff increases during this period; in 2005 tariffs were frozen, leading the private water companies to cut down on investments.

According to PALYJA in its western half of the concession the service coverage ratio increased substantially from 34% in 1998 to 59% in 2007 and 65% in 2010.[165] According to data by the Jakarta Water Supply Regulatory Body, access in the eastern half of the city served by PTJ increased from about 57% in 1998 to about 67% in 2004, but stagnated after that.[166] However, other sources cite much lower access figures for piped water supply to houses, excluding access provided through public hydrants: One study estimated access as low as 25% in 2005,[167] while another source estimates it to be as low as 18.5% in 2011.[168] Those without access to piped water supply get water mostly from wells that are often salty and polluted with bacteria, as of 2017, according to the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Jakarta has a crisis of clean water.[169]

Healthcare[edit]

Indonesia’s healthcare system is among best in Southeast Asia together with neighbouring countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia or Thailand, the capital Jakarta does have many of the country’s best-equipped private and public facilities. In January 2014, the Indonesian government launched Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN), a scheme to implement universal health care in Indonesia, this scheme is the world's largest insurance system today that cover around 250 millions population.This is one of the biggest achievement of Indonesia's healthcare system,[170] it is expected that the entire population will be covered in 2019.[171][172][173]

Hospitals in Jakarta are of a very good standard; however, they are in high demand and thus often overcrowded. There are many government-run specialized hospitals like Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Gatot Soebroto Army Hospital as well as community hospitals Puskesmas in Jakarta. Private hospitals and clinics are the best option for healthcare services in Jakarta. Private healthcare sector has seen significant changes during last few years, as Indonesian government began allowing foreign investment in the private sector in 2010. While there are some private facilities that are run by nonprofit or religious organizations, most are for profit. There are many hospital chains with branches operating in the city, such as Siloam, Mayapada, Mitra Keluarga, Medika, Medistra, Hermina and many others.[174][175]

Transport[edit]

As a metropolitan area of about 30 million people, Jakarta has a variety of transport systems.[176] However, Jakarta is still strained by traffic jams during rush hours,[177] the city prioritised development of road networks, which were mostly designed to accommodate private vehicles.[178] According to the National Development Planning Agency, or Bappenas, traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta wastes about $7.4 billion each year due to the high number of motorcycles and cars on the roads.[179] As of 2015, about 1.4 million commuters travel into the city centre from the outskirts of Jakarta. Based on the survey, 58 percent of these commuters use motorcycles, 12.8 percent use cars and only 27 percent use public transportation.[180] The city's 9.5% average annual growth rate of motorized vehicles far exceeds the 0.01% increase in road length between 2005 and 2010. As of 2010, public transportation in Jakarta serves only 56% of commuter trips,[181] the first public transport system in the city was Jakarta Tramline, which was started in 1869 and ceased operation after serving almost one century in 1962.[182][183][184] At present public transit system in Greater Jakarta consists of a BRT TransJakarta, Commuter rail KRL Jabodetabek, and Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link. Other transit systems, those are now being under construction are Jakarta MRT and Jakarta LRT, which are expected to be operational by 2018.

Road[edit]

Part of Jakarta Inner Ring Road or Jalan Tol Lingkar Dalam Jakarta in Grogol Petamburan, West Jakarta

A structured road network had been developed in the early 19th century as a part of the Java Great Post Road by former Governor-General Daendels, which connects most major cities throughout Java. During the following decades, the road network was expanded to a great extent, although it could not keep up with the rapidly increasing numbers of motorised vehicles, resulting in highly congested traffic. A notable feature of Jakarta's present road system is the toll road network. Composed of an inner and outer ring road and five toll roads radiating outwards, the network provides inner as well as outer city connections. Jakarta Outer Ring Road 2 is an under-construction toll road encircling greater Jakarta area, parallel with Jakarta Outer Ring Road. Also Jakarta Elevated Toll Road with a dedicated public transportation lane, connecting Jakarta Inner Ring Toll Road which is 69.77 kilometers in length is now under construction.[185]

Throughout the years, many attempts have been made to reduce traffic congestion on city's main roads which include a 'three-in-one' rush-hour law, during which cars with fewer than three passengers were prohabited, ban on trucks passing main avenues during the day,[186] and lastly in 2016, 'odd-even' policy was introduced which designated cars with either odd or even-numbered registration plates on a particular day.[187] All these steps were undertaken as a transitional measure to alleviate traffic congestion until introduction of Electronic Road Pricing, which is expected to be operational by 2019 along with the opening of the Jakarta MRT.[188][189]

A TransJakarta bus at a station on Thamrin Avenue during Car-Free Day

There are many bus terminals in the city, from where buses operate on numerous routes to connect neighborhoods within the city limit, to other areas of Greater Jakarta area and to cities across the island of Java, the biggest of the bus terminal is Pulo Gebang Bus Terminal, which is arguably the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia.[190]

Many companies operate plenty of taxi cabs and maintain pools of different model of cars with their brand's along with app-based ride hailing GO-JEK and Grab; in 1971 Pedicabs (becak) were banned from major roads, and shortly thereafter the government attempted a total ban, which substantially reduced their numbers but did not eliminate them.[191] During early 1940s to 1991 Bajaj auto rickshaw were a common mode of transportation, which are only allowed in the back streets of some parts of the city at present. Angkot micro-buses also play a major role in road transport of the city, which operates in numerous routes to connect neighborhoods of the city as well as to connect suburban areas. Although ojek (motorcycle taxi) are not an official form of public transport, they can be found throughout Indonesia and in Jakarta. Nowadays most of the ojeks are operated under app bases ride hailing companies like GO-JEK and Grab.

TransJakarta serves as the bus rapid transit service for the city, as well as part of Greater Jakarta area which has the world's longest bus rapid transit routes (210 kilometres (130 miles) in length). TransJakarta had a total of 128 routes as of April, 2018 (corridor, cross route & feeder route) - a significant increase from 41 routes in 2015. TransJakarta has targeted to serve one million passengers per day by the end of 2018. [192][193] Besides TransJakarta, other private owned bus systems like Kopaja, MetroMini, Mayasari Bakti and APTB also provide important services for Jakarta commuters with numerous routes throughout the city.

Rail[edit]

KRL Jabotabek train at Gambir station

Long-distance railways and local tram services were first introduced during the Dutch colonial era, the first station was built in 1887 by a private railway company, which is now Jakarta Kota station[194]. While the trams were replaced with buses in the post-colonial era, long-distance railways continued to connect the city to its neighbouring regions as well as cities throughout the island of Java. Main terminus for long distance train services are Gambir and Pasar Senen. High-speed railways are now being constructed connecting Jakarta-Bandung[195], while another line between Jakarta and Surabaya is currently under planning stage .[196]

KRL Jabodetabek is a commuter rail system which serves commuters in Greater Jakarta, which includes Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, South Tangerang, and Bekasi as well as to Rangkasbitung in Banten and Cikarang in Bekasi Regency. The rail system uses rolling stock of rapid transit standard and operates at high frequency with a minimum headway. Daily ridership average was about 0.95 million [197] with total 315.8 million commuters used KRL Jabodetabek in the year of 2017.[198]

Jakarta MRT is currently under construction, which will have a north–south line between Kota and Lebak Bulus; and an east–west line, which will connect to the north–south line at Sawah Besar station. The first, 15.2 km-long line between Hotel Indonesia and Lebak Bulus scheduled to be operational by 2018, and the north–south line MRT network is scheduled to be operational by 2020. The total length of the network when complete will be approximately 110.8 kilometres (68.8 miles).[199][200]

Jakarta LRT is also currently under construction, which was launched to replace the previously abandoned monorail project.[201]The system is planned to connect Jakarta city center with suburbs in Greater Jakarta such as Bekasi, Bogor, and Depok.[202] First phase of the construction will connect east Bekasi and Cibubur with Dukuh Atas in downtown Central Jakarta, passing through Cawang intersection. This phase will be 42.1 kilometres (26.2 miles) long, which include 18 stations, and expected to be operated by the first half of 2018, prior to the 2018 Asian Games.[203]

Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link is a commuter train service connecting the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to the city center. Another express train service is now under planning stage to connect Soekarno-Hatta International Airport with Halim Perdanakusuma Airport. Completion of this line is expected to be in 2019 at the earliest.[204]

Air[edit]

Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (CGK) is the main airport serving the Greater Jakarta area, located in Tangerang, Banten. Soekarno–Hatta International Airport was ranked as 17th busiest airport in the world by Airports Council International, with about 63 million passengers in 2017,[205] the Soekarno–Hatta Airport Rail Link connects the airport to Sudirman Baru railway station, South Jakarta.[206] A second airport, Halim Perdanakusuma Airport (HLP) serves domestic flight of low cost airline, private and VIP/presidential flights. Other airports in the Jakarta metropolitan area include Pondok Cabe Airport and an airfield on Pulau Panjang, part of the Thousand Island archipelago (Kepulauan Seribu).

Water transport[edit]

Jakarta's main seaport Port of Tanjung Priok serves many ferry connections to different parts of Indonesia. Port of Tanjung Priok is Indonesia's busiest port, and the 21st busiest port in the world in 2013, handling over 6.59 million TEUs.[207] To boost the port capacity, two-phase "New Tanjung Priok" extension project is currently ongoing. When fully operational in 2023, it will triple existing annual capacity. Muara Angke port is used as a public port, while Ancol marina port is used as a tourist port to connect Thousand Islands.[208]

On 6 June 2007, the city administration introduced the Waterway (officially Angkutan Sungai), a new river boat service along the Ciliwung River.[177][209] However, because of varying water levels during the dry and wet seasons, also due to floating plastic garbages those comes with water from upstream during raining, this service is closed-down.

Cityscape[edit]

Architecture[edit]

Jakarta has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. Architectural styles reflect Malay, Javanese, Arabic, Chinese and Dutch influences,[210] the external influence gives a role in forming the architecture of the Betawi house. The houses were built of nangka wood (Artocarpus integrifolia) and comprised three rooms, the shape of the roof is reminiscent of the traditional Javanese joglo.[35] There are about six hundred registered cultural heritage buildings in Jakarta.[211]

Colonial buildings and structures in Jakarta include those that were constructed during the Dutch colonial period of Indonesia, the dominant styles of the Dutch colonial period can be divided into three periods: the Dutch Golden Age (17th to late 18th century), the transitional style period (late 18th century – 19th century), and Dutch modernism (20th century). Dutch colonial architecture in Jakarta is apparent in buildings such as houses or villas, churches, civic buildings, and offices, mostly concentrated in the Jakarta Old Town and Central Jakarta. Architects such as J.C. Schultze and Eduard Cuypers designed some significant buildings in Jakarta. Works of Schultze includes Jakarta Art Building, the Indonesia Supreme Court Building and Ministry of Finance Building, while Cuypers designed Bank Indonesia Museum and Bank Mandiri Museum.

Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, currently fourth tallest building in Jakarta.

At the early 20th century, most of the buildings in the Jakarta were built in Neo Renaissance style of Europe. By the 1920s, the architectural taste have begun to shift in favour of rationalism and modernist movement, particularly there was increasing art deco architecture. The elite suburbs Menteng, developed during the 1910s, was the city's first attempt at creating an ideal and healthy housing area for the middle class, the original houses had a longitudinal organisation of space, as well as overhanging eaves, large windows and open ventilation, all practical features for a tropical climate with a hint of modern art deco.[212] It was developed by the private real estate company N.V. de Bouwploeg, established by P.A.J. Moojen.

After independence, the process of nation building in Indonesia and demolishing the memory of Dutch colonialism was as important as the symbolic building of arterials, monuments, government buildings during the Sukarno era, the National Monument in Jakarta, designed by Sukarno, is Indonesia's beacon nationalism. In the early 1960s, Jakarta with Soviet Union funding providing infrastructure development for highways and super-scale cultural monuments as well as Senayan Sports Stadium, the parliament building features a hyperbolic shaped roof reminiscent of German rationalist and Corbusian design concepts.[213] In 1996, Wisma 46 soars to height of 262 metres (860 feet) with forty eight stories and its nib shaped top celebrates technology and symbolises stereoscopy.

The urban construction booms have continued in the 21st century and are shaping skylines in Jakarta. Golden Triangle of Jakarta is one of the fastest evolving CBD in Asia-Pacific region.[214] According to CTBUH and Emporis, there are 88 skyscrapers that reaches or exceeds the height of 150 metres (490 feet) in Jakarta, which puts the city at the top 10 of world rankings.[215] It has more buildings taller than 500 feet (150 m) than any other Southeast Asia's cities as well as southern hemisphere, at present Gama Tower with 310 meters tip height is the tallest building in Jakarta.

Landmarks[edit]

Night view of Monas, the Jakarta landmark

Most of Jakarta's landmarks, monuments and statues were built during the Sukarno era beginning in the 1960s, then completed in the Suharto era, while some originated in the colonial Dutch East Indies period.

The most famous Jakarta's landmark that become the symbol of the city is the 132-metre-tall (433-foot) obelisk of National Monument (Monumen Nasional or Monas) right in the centre of Merdeka Square. On its southwest corner stands a Mahabharata themed Arjuna Wijaya chariot statue and fountain. Further south through Jalan M.H. Thamrin, one of the main avenue of Jakarta, the Selamat Datang monument stands on the fountain in the centre of Hotel Indonesia roundabout. Other landmarks include the Istiqlal Mosque, the Jakarta Cathedral and Immanuel Church, the former Batavia Stadhuis, Sunda Kelapa port in Jakarta Old Town is also the city's landmark. Gama Tower building at Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said, South Jakarta is currently the tallest building in Indonesia.

Some of statues and monuments in Jakarta are nationalist, such as the West Irian Liberation monument, Youth statue and Dirgantara statue. Several Indonesian national heroes are commemorated in statues, such as Diponegoro and Kartini statues in Merdeka Square, Sudirman and Thamrin statues located in each respectable avenues, also Sukarno and Hatta statues in Proclamation Monument also on the entrance of Soekarno–Hatta International Airport.

Sports[edit]

Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium.

Jakarta was host of the 1962 Asian Games[216] and will host the upcoming 2018 Asian Games, co-hosted by Palembang.[217] Jakarta also hosted the regional-scale Southeast Asian Games in 1979, 1987, 1997, and 2011 when it serves as supporting city for Palembang. Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, which is the biggest stadium in the city with a capacity of 88,083 seats, located in Central Jakarta, hosted the group stage, quarterfinal and final of 2007 AFC Asian Cup along with Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam.[218][219]

Jakarta's most popular home football club is Persija, which plays its matches in their home stadium at Bung Karno Stadium, the home match of Persija often draws its large fanbase – The Jak, usually clad in Persija's typical orange kit – to watch the match in the main stadium. The large number of spectators flocking to the main stadium usually worsen the traffic congestion in Jakarta. Another football team in Jakarta is Persitara who compete in Liga Indonesia Premier Division and play its games in Kamal Muara Stadium. Kamal, North Jakarta.

The Senayan sports complex has several sport venues, including the Bung Karno football stadium, Madya Stadium, Istora Senayan, aquatic arena, baseball field, basketball court, badminton court, a shooting range, several indoor and outdoor tennis court and a golf driving range, the Senayan complex was built in 1959 to accommodate the Asian Games in 1962. For basketball, the Kelapa Gading Sport Mall in Kelapa Gading, North Jakarta, with a capacity of 7,000 seats, is the home arena of the Indonesian national basketball team. The BritAma Arena serves as playground for Satria Muda Pertamina Jakarta, 2017 Runner-up of the Indonesian Basketball League. Jakarta International Velodrome is a sporting facility located at Rawamangun, which will be used as a venue for 2018 Asian Games. The velodrome has a seating capacity of 3,500 for track cycling, and up to 8,500 for shows and concerts,[220] which can also be used for various sports activities such as volleyball, badminton, and futsal. Jakarta International Equestrian Park is an equestrian sport venue located at Pulomas, which will be used also as a venue for 2018 Asian Games.[221]

The Jakarta Car-free Days are held weekly on Sunday on the main avenues of the city, Jalan Sudirman and Jalan Thamrin, from 6 am to 11 am. The briefer Car-Free Day which lasts from only 6 am to 9 am is held on every other Sunday. The event invites local pedestrians to do sports and exercise and have their activities on the streets that are normally full of cars and traffic. Along the road from the Senayan traffic circle on Jalan Sudirman, South Jakarta, to the "Selamat Datang" Monument at the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle on Jalan Thamrin, all the way north to the National Monument in Central Jakarta, cars are cleared out for pedestrians. Morning gymnastics, calisthenics and aerobic exercises, futsal games, jogging, bicycling, skateboarding, badminton, karate, on-street library, and musical performances take over the roads and the main parks in Jakarta.[222]

Jakarta Marathon is said to be the "biggest running event of Indonesia". It is recognised by AIMS and IAAF. First established in 2013 to promote Jakarta as sports tourism city; in 2015 edition of marathon, more than 15,000 runners from 53 countries were participated.[223][224][225][226][227]

Education[edit]

Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia

Jakarta is home to a number of universities, of which the University of Indonesia (UI) is the largest and oldest tertiary-level educational institution in Indonesia, it is a public institution with campuses in Salemba (central Jakarta) and in Depok to the south of Jakarta.[228] Aside from the University of Indonesia, the three other public universities in Jakarta are: Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, the State University of Jakarta (UNJ) and the University of Pembangunan Nasional "Veteran" Jakarta (UPN "Veteran" Jakarta). Some major private universities in Jakarta are: Trisakti University, The Christian University of Indonesia, Mercu Buana University, Tarumanagara University, Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Pelita Harapan University, Bina Nusantara University, Jayabaya University, and Pancasila University.

STOVIA (School tot Opleiding van Indische Artsen) was the first high school in Jakarta, established in 1851.[229] As the largest city and the capital, Jakarta houses many students from around Indonesia, many of whom reside in dormitories or home-stay residences, for basic education, there are a variety of primary and secondary schools, tagged with public (national), private (national and bi-lingual national plus) and international schools. Four of the major international schools located in Jakarta are the Gandhi Memorial International School, IPEKA International Christian School, Jakarta Intercultural School and the British School Jakarta. Other international schools include the Jakarta International Korean School, Bina Bangsa School, Jakarta International Multicultural School,[230] Australian International School,[231] New Zealand International School,[232] Singapore International School, and Sekolah Pelita Harapan.[233]

International relations[edit]

The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia

As the capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta host numbers of embassies of foreign countries that has established diplomatic relations with Indonesia. Jakarta also serves as the seat of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat; numbers of foreign countries has appointed their embassies also serving as the representative and mission for ASEAN, thus making Jakarta as the diplomatic capital of ASEAN.[234]

Jakarta is also a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Jakarta signed sister city agreements with other cities, one of them is Casablanca, Morocco's largest city, that have signed sister city agreement on 21 September 1990. To promote friendship between two cities, Jalan Casablanca, a main avenue famous for its shopping and business centres in South Jakarta, was named after Jakarta's Moroccan sister city. Currently there is no street in Casablanca named after Jakarta, however on the other hand in Rabat, Morocco's capital city, an avenue was named after Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, to commemorate his visit in 1960 also as a token of friendship.[235]

Also within sister cities cooperation, Jakarta has established partnership with Rotterdam of the Netherlands, especially on integrated urban water management, including capacity building and knowledge exchange,[236] this cooperation is mainly because Jakarta and Rotterdam are dealing with similar problems; both cities lie in low-lying flat plains prone of flooding. Additionally, some of their areas lie below sea level, making an urban drainage system involving canals, dams, and pumps vital for both cities. Jakarta seeks to learn from Rotterdam's expertise and experiences on water management.

Asia
  1. Japan Tokyo, Japan[237]
  2. China Beijing, China[238][239]
  3. China Shanghai, China[240]
  4. South Korea Seoul, South Korea[239][241][242][243]
  5. North Korea Pyongyang, North Korea[244]
  6. Philippines Manila, Philippines[245]
  7. Thailand Bangkok, Thailand[244]
  8. Vietnam Hanoi, Vietnam[244]
  9. Pakistan Islamabad, Pakistan[240][244]
  10. Iran Yazd, Iran[240][246][better source needed]
  11. Saudi Arabia Jeddah, Saudi Arabia[240][244]
Europe
  1. Netherlands Rotterdam, Netherlands[236][244][247]
  2. Germany Berlin, Germany[248][249]
  3. Russia Moscow, Russia[240]
  4. Hungary Budapest, Hungary[240][250]
  5. Turkey Istanbul, Turkey[244]
Africa
  1. Egypt Cairo, Egypt[240][244][251]
  2. Morocco Casablanca, Morocco[235][240][252]
America and Oceania
  1. United States Los Angeles, United States[253][254]
  2. Australia Sydney, Australia[240]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]