Jaljulia

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Jaljulia

  • גַ׳לְג׳וּלְיָה
  • جلجولية
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • ISO 259Ǧalǧúlya
 • Also spelledJaljulye (official)
Djaouliyeh,[1] Djeldjoulieh[2] (unofficial)
Galgulia houses.jpg
Jaljulia is located in Central Israel
Jaljulia
Jaljulia
Coordinates: 32°09′13″N 34°57′06″E / 32.15353°N 34.9518°E / 32.15353; 34.9518Coordinates: 32°09′13″N 34°57′06″E / 32.15353°N 34.9518°E / 32.15353; 34.9518
Grid position145/173 PAL
DistrictCentral
Government
 • TypeLocal council
Area
 • Total1,900 dunams (1.9 km2 or 500 acres)
Population
 (2018)[3]
 • Total9,984
 • Density5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)

Jaljulia (Arabic: جلجولية‎, Hebrew: גַ׳לְג׳וּלְיָה), officially also spelled Jaljulye,[4] is an Israeli-Arab town in Israel near Kfar Saba. In 2018 it had a population of 9,984.[3]

History[edit]

In Roman times the village was known as Galgulis,[5] in while during the Crusader period it was referred to as Jorgilia in 1241 C.E.[6]

In 1265 C.E. (663 H) it is known that the Sultan Baybars allocated equal shares of the village to three of his amirs. One of these, amir Badr al-Din Baktash al-Fakri, included his section of the village in a waqf he established.[7] Excavations of a building close to the Mamluk khan yielded ceramics dating from that period.[8]

Ottoman era[edit]

In 1517, the village was included in the Ottoman Empire with the rest of Palestine, and in the 1596 tax-records it appeared located in the nahiya (subdistrict) of Banu Sa´b, part of Sanjak of Nablus, with a population of 100 households ("Khana"), all Muslim; the villagers paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat and barley, as well as "summer crops", "occasional revenues", "goats and bees", and a market toll. There was also a poll tax, jizya, paid by all the inhabitants in the Sanjak of Nablus. Total taxes were 18,450 akçe, of which 1/6 went to a waqf.[9]

Jaljulia appeared under the name of Gelgeli on Jacotin's map drawn-up during Napoleon's invasion in 1799.[10]

In 1870, Victor Guérin found that the at the village had six hundred inhabitants.[2] In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as being a large adobe village on the plain; the mosque was described as fine, but ruined. A ruined Khan was also mentioned. Water was supplied by a well on the west side of the village.[11]

During the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I, the village was on the Ottoman front line and was damaged by British artillery.[12]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Jaljulieh had a population of 123 Muslims,[13] increasing in the 1931 census to 260, still all Muslim, in a total of 60 houses.[14]

By the 1945 statistics, the village had 740 inhabitants, all Muslims,[15] they owned a total of 11,873 dunams of land, while 447 dunams were public. Jews owned 365 dunams of land.[16] A total of 2,708 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 175 dunams for plantations and irrigable land, 9,301 for cereals,[17] while 15 dunams were built-up (urban) land.[18]

After the 1948 war, Jaljulia was on the Arab side of the ceasefire line and its land was confiscated by Israel,[12] it was transferred to Israel in the 1951 armistice agreement but failed to recover its land, which had been given to new Israeli settlements.[12]

Landmarks[edit]

The mosque is locally known as Jami Abu´l-Awn, which associates it with the 15th-century religious leader Shams al-Din Abu´l-Awn Muhammad al-Ghazzi, who is known to have come from the town;[19] the architecture of the mosque is, according to Petersen, consistent with a 15th or early 16th century construction date.[20] At present the structure consists of one large vaulted chamber, and three small barrel-vaulted cells. A large second chamber to the west was destroyed by British artillery during World War I.[20]

Mamluk Khan, Jaljulia

The khan is opposite the mosque, it was built by Sayf al-Din Tankiz, the governor of Damascus 1312–1340,[21] and it was still functioning in the 16th century, when it was mentioned in an Ottoman firman.[22] In the 19th century it was seen by Guérin, who described it as a beautiful khan with a (ruined) polygonal minaret.[23] Petersen, who surveyed the structure in 1996, found the courtyard entirely overgrown and it was not possible to detect any features within; however, he notes that a 19th-century visitor had mentioned that there was "a great round well" in the centre.[24]

Sports[edit]

In 2010, a tennis school was established in Jaljulia by Iman Jabber and Daniel Kessel. In 2011, 50 girls and 20 boys signed up for tennis lessons; the school organizes coexistence matches between Jaljulia and Ra'anana.[25]

Archaeology[edit]

An archaeological dig started in 2017 at Jaljulia uncovered, at about a five-meter depth, a half-million-year-old "paradise" for Homo erectus hunter-gatherers, including hundreds of knapped flint hand-axes.[26]According to the Israel Antiquities Authority, recurrent occupation of the site indicates that prehistoric humans possessed a geographic memory of the place and could have returned here as a part of a seasonal cycle.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ al-'Ulaymi, 1876, p.148
  2. ^ a b Guérin, 1875, pp. 368-369
  3. ^ a b "Population in the Localities 2018" (XLS). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 25 August 2019. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  4. ^ Palmer, 1881, p.230
  5. ^ TIR, p. 128, cited Petersen, 2001, p. 175
  6. ^ Delaville Le Roulx, 1883, p. 176- 177, no. 74; cited in Röhricht, 1893, RHH, p. 286, no 1100; cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 175
  7. ^ MPF 92, no 20; Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 178
  8. ^ Buchendino, 2010, Jaljuliya (Gilgal)
  9. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 140
  10. ^ Karmon, 1960, p. 170
  11. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 288-289
  12. ^ a b c Andrew Petersen (1997). "Jaljuliya: a Village on the Cairo-Damascus Road". Levant. XXIX: 95–114. doi:10.1179/lev.1997.29.1.95.
  13. ^ Barron, 1923, Table IX, Sub-district of Tulkarem, p. 27
  14. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 55
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 20
  16. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970 p. 75
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 125
  18. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 175
  19. ^ Mayer et al., 1950, pp. 29, 37. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 177
  20. ^ a b Petersen, 2001, p. 178
  21. ^ According to Maqrizi, cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 178
  22. ^ Heyd, 1969, p.110. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 178
  23. ^ Guérin, 1875, Samarie II, 368-9. Translated and cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 179
  24. ^ Ritter, 1866, vol 4, p. 249. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 178
  25. ^ Mixed Doubles, Haaretz
  26. ^ Beaumont, Peter (7 January 2018). "Stone age hunter-gatherers' 'paradise' discovered next to major Israeli road". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  27. ^ Important and Rare Prehistoric Site about Half a Million Years Old Uncovered in Jaljulia in the Sharon Region

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]