States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Gujarat is a state on the western coast of India with a coastline of 1,600 km – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million. It is the ninth largest state by population. Gujarat is bordered by Rajasthan to the northeast and Diu to the south and Nagar Haveli and Maharashtra to the southeast, Madhya Pradesh to the east, the Arabian Sea and the Pakistani province of Sindh to the west, its capital city is Gandhinagar. The Gujarati-speaking people of India are indigenous to the state; the economy of Gujarat is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.96 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹157,000. The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. Lothal is believed to be one of the world's first seaports. Gujarat's coastal cities, chiefly Bharuch and Khambhat, served as ports and trading centers in the Maurya and Gupta empires, during the succession of royal Saka dynasties from the Western Satraps era.
Along with Bihar and Nagaland, Gujarat is one of the three Indian states to prohibit the sale of alcohol. Present-day Gujarat is derived from Sanskrit term Gurjaradesa, meaning the land of the Gurjaras who ruled Gujarat in the 8th and 9th centuries AD. Parts of modern Rajasthan and Gujarat have been known as Gurjaratra or Gurjarabhumi for centuries before the Mughal period. Gujarat was one of the main central areas of the Indus Valley Civilisation, it contains ancient metropolitan cities from the Indus Valley such as Lothal and Gola Dhoro. The ancient city of Lothal was; the ancient city of Dholavira is one of the largest and most prominent archaeological sites in India, belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation. The most recent discovery was Gola Dhoro. Altogether, about 50 Indus Valley settlement ruins have been discovered in Gujarat; the ancient history of Gujarat was enriched by the commercial activities of its inhabitants. There is clear historical evidence of trade and commerce ties with Egypt and Sumer in the Persian Gulf during the time period of 1000 to 750 BC.
There was a succession of Hindu and Buddhist states such as the Mauryan Dynasty, Western Satraps, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Chalukya dynasty, Rashtrakuta Empire, Pala Empire and Gurjara-Pratihara Empire, as well as local dynasties such as the Maitrakas and the Chaulukyas. The early history of Gujarat reflects the imperial grandeur of Chandragupta Maurya who conquered a number of earlier states in what is now Gujarat. Pushyagupta, a Vaishya, was appointed the governor of Saurashtra by the Mauryan regime, he built a dam on the Sudarshan lake. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, not only ordered engraving of his edicts on the rock at Junagadh but asked Governor Tusherpha to cut canals from the lake where an earlier Mauryan governor had built a dam. Between the decline of Mauryan power and Saurashtra coming under the sway of the Samprati Mauryas of Ujjain, there was an Indo-Greek defeat in Gujarat of Demetrius. In 16th century manuscripts, there is an apocryphal story of a merchant of King Gondaphares landing in Gujarat with Apostle Thomas.
The incident of the cup-bearer torn apart by a lion might indicate that the port city described is in Gujarat. For nearly 300 years from the start of the 1st century AD, Saka rulers played a prominent part in Gujarat's history; the weather-beaten rock at Junagadh gives a glimpse of the ruler Rudradaman I of the Saka satraps known as Western Satraps, or Kshatraps. Mahakshatrap Rudradaman I founded the Kardamaka dynasty which ruled from Anupa on the banks of the Narmada up to the Aparanta region which bordered Punjab. In Gujarat, several battles were fought between the south Indian Satavahana dynasty and the Western Satraps; the greatest and the mightiest ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni who defeated the Western Satraps and conquered some parts of Gujarat in the 2nd century AD. The Kshatrapa dynasty was replaced by the Gupta Empire with the conquest of Gujarat by Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Vikramaditya's successor Skandagupta left an inscription on a rock at Junagadh which gives details of the governor's repairs to the embankment surrounding Sudarshan lake after it was damaged by floods.
The Anarta and Saurashtra regions were both parts of the Gupta empire. Towards the middle of the 5th century, the Gupta empire went into decline. Senapati Bhatarka, the Maitraka general of the Guptas, took advantage of the situation and in 470 he set up what came to be known as the Maitraka state, he shifted his capital from Giringer near Bhavnagar, on Saurashtra's east coast. The Maitrakas of Vallabhi became powerful with their rule prevailing over large parts of Gujarat and adjoining Malwa. A university was set up by the Maitrakas, which came to be known far and wide for its scholastic pursuits and was compared with the noted Nalanda University, it was during the rule of Dhruvasena Maitrak that Chinese philosopher-traveler Xuanzang/ I Tsing visited in 640 along the Silk Road. Gujarat was known to the ancient Greeks and was familiar with other Western centers of civilization through the end of the European Middle Ages; the oldest written record of Gujarat's 2,000-year maritime history is documented in a Greek book titled The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century.
In the early 8th century, the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate established an empire in the name of the rising religion of Islam, which stretched
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and the second metropolitan city of the state. It was the seat of a princely state of the same name. Jodhpur has been the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar, now part of Rajasthan. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar Desert, it is popularly known as Sun city among people of Rajasthan and all over India. The old city is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of the Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists. According to the Hindu epic Mahabharat, Ahirs were the inhabitants of Marwar and on the Rathore clan established the Marwar Kingdom. There may have been small settlements before Rathore rule; the Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a kingdom which came to be known as Marwar.
As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town served as the capital of this state. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat; this enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, silk, sandalwood and other tradeable goods. After the death of Rao Chandrasen Rathore in 1581, the kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Marwar thus became a Mughal vassal owing fealty to them while enjoying internal autonomy; the mother of Emperor Shah Jahan was a Princess of Jodhpur. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world as new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India. Aurangzeb sequestrated the state after the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, but the prior ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years.
The Mughal empire declined after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue. This did not make for stability or peace, however- 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought the help of the British and entered into a subsidiary alliance with them in 1818 and were British allies against rest of India in the Revolt of 1857. During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in the Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability, a hallmark of this era; the land area of the state was 90,554 km2 its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £3,529,000, its merchants, the Marwaris and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second largest city of Rajasthan. At the time of division, the ruler of Jodhpur, Hanwant Singh, did not want to join India, but due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Home Minister at the time, the state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic.
After the State Reorganisation Act, 1956 it was included within the state of Rajasthan. As per provisional reports of Census India, the population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011, where males constitute 52.62 percent of the population and females constitute 47.38 percent. The average literacy rate of Jodhpur is 80.56 percent, with a male literacy rate of 88.42 percent and a female literacy rate of 73.93 percent. 12.24 percent of the population are under six years of age. Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation; the Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandore Industrial Area, Pal Village and Sangariya. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females. According to www.citypopulation.de population of Jodhpur city on 01/01/2019 is 1,440,000. The climate of Jodhpur is hot and semi-arid during its nearly yearlong dry season, but contains a brief rainy season from late June to September. Although the average rainfall is around 362 millimetres, it fluctuates greatly.
In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres, but in the flood year of 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres. Temperatures are extreme from March to October, except when the monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April and June, high temperatures exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's low humidity rises, which adds to the perception of the heat; the highest temperature recorded in Jodhpur was on 18 May 2016 when it rose up to 53.2 degrees Celsius. The handicrafts industry has, in recent years, eclipsed all the other industries in the city; the items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manu
Palanpur State was a princely state of India during the British Raj. It was a Salute state with the Nawab of Palanpur having a hereditary salutes of 13-guns, it was the main state of the Palanpur Agency. Palanpur State became a British protectorate in 1809/17; the state encompassed an area of 4,574 square kilometres and had a population of 222,627 in 1901. The town of Palanpur housed a population of only 17,800 people that year; the state commanded a revenue of ₤50,000 per year. Palanpur State was traversed by the main line of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway, contained the British cantonment of Deesa. Wheat and sugar-cane were the chief products. Watered by the Saraswati river, the state was forested in its northern end but undulating and open in the south and east; the country was on the whole somewhat hilly. In 1940 Palanpur State had a population of 315,855. According to tradition Palanpur state was founded in 1370 and was ruled by the pashtun tribe of Lohani of Jhalori dynasty.'While the earlier history of the family is who established themselves in Bihar during the twelfth century and ruled there as Sultans.
Malik Khurram Khan, the founder of the Palanpur house, left Bihar and entered the service of Vishaldev of Mandore during the late fourteenth century. Appointed Governor of Songad or Jhalor, he took control of that place in the confusion that followed the death of the Mandore ruler'. However, the family comes into historical prominence during the period of instability that followed the demise of Aurangzeb in the early 18th century, it was overrun soon afterwards by the Marathas. Palanpur State was dissolved in 1949; the rulers of Palanpur State belonged to the Lohani tribe of Jalori dynasty. All rulers used the title of Diwan except the last two rulers. 1688 - 1704 Firuz Kamal Khan 1704 - 1708 Kamal Khan 1708 - 1719 Firuz Khan II 1719 - 1732 Karim Dad Khan 1732 - 1743 Pahar Khan II 1743 - 1768 Bahadur Khan 1768 - 1781 Salim Khan I 1781 - 1788 Shir Khan 1788 - 1793 Mubariz Khan II 1793 - 1794 Shamshir Khan 1794 - 1812 Firuz Khan III 1812 - 1813 Fateh Mohammad Khan 1813 - 22 Dec 1813 Shamshir Mohammad Khan 22 Dec 1813 – 11 Jul 1854 Fateh Mohammad Khan 11 Jul 1854 – 28 Aug 1878 Zorawar Khan 28 Aug 1878 - 1910 Zobdat al-Molk Shir Mohammad Khan 1910 - 28 Sep 1918 Zobdat al-Molk Shir Mohammad Khan 28 Sep 1918 – 15 Aug 1947 Zobdat al-Molk Taley Mohammad Khan Pathans of Gujarat Media related to Palanpur State at Wikimedia Commons Heraldry of the princely states of Gujarat
The Paramara dynasty was an Indian dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them among the Agnivanshi Rajput dynasties; the dynasty was established in either 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, established the Paramaras as a sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh had become the core Paramara territory, with Dhara as their capital; the dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south, from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east. The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of their struggles with the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri and other neighbouring kingdoms.
The Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies. Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years after his death. Malwa enjoyed a great level of cultural prestige under the Paramaras; the Paramaras were well known for their patronage to Sanskrit poets and scholars, Bhoja was himself a renowned scholar. Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several Shiva temples, although they patronized Jain scholars; the Harsola copper plates issued by the Paramara king Siyaka II establish that the early Paramara rulers were the feudatories of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. This inscription mentions a king called Akalavarsha, followed by the expression tasmin kule, followed by the name "Vappairaja". Based on the Harsola inscription, some historians such as D. C. Ganguly theorized.
Ganguly tried to find support for his theory in Ain-i-Akbari, whose variation of the Agnikula myth states that the founder of the Paramara kingdom came to Malwa from Deccan, that "Aditya Ponwar" was the first sovereign ruler of the dynasty. Moreover, Siyaka's successor Munja assumed titles such as Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha: these are distinctively Rashtrakuta titles. Several historians have been critical of this theory. Dasharatha Sharma notes that the Agnikula myth about the Paramara origin had come into being by the time of Siyaka's son Sindhuraja. Sharma argues that the Rashtrakuta royal origin of the Paramaras could not have been forgotten within a generation. K. C. Jain theorizes that Vappairaja's mother was related to the Rashtrakuta family, because the other Paramara records do not boast of the Rashtrakuta royals as their ancestors. Siyaka and other Paramara kings before Munja did not adopt any Rashtrakuta titles: Munja may have adopted these titles to commemorate his predecessor's victory over the Rashtrakutas, to strengthen his claim over the former Rashtrakuta territories.
The Paramara kings claimed to be members of the Agnikula or Agnivansha. The Agnikula myth of origin, which appears in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this: The sage Vishvamitra forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another sage Vashistha on the Arbuda mountain. Vashistha conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit, who defeated Vashistha's enemies and brought back the cow. Vashistha gave the hero the title Paramara; the earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja. The legend is not mentioned in literary works. By this time, all the neighbouring dynasties claimed divine or heroic origin, which might have motivated the Paramaras to invent a legend of their own. In the period, the Paramaras were categorized as one of the Rajput clans, although the Rajput identity did not exist during their time. A legend mentioned in a recension of Prithviraj Raso extended their Agnikula legend to describe other dynasties as fire-born Rajputs.
The earliest extant copies of Prithviraj Raso do not contain this legend. Some colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest a foreign origin for the Paramaras. According to this theory, the ancestors of the Paramaras and other Agnivanshi Rajputs came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around the 5th century CE, they were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. However, this theory is weakened by the fact that the legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramara records, the earliest Paramara-era account does not mention the other dynasties as Agnivanshi; some historians, such as Dasharatha Sharma and Pratipal Bhatia, have argued that the Paramaras were Brahmins from the Vashistha gotra. This theory is based on the fact that Halayudha, patronized by Munja, describes the king as "Brahma-Kshtra" in Pingala-Sutra-Vritti. According to Bhatia this expression means that Munja came from a family of Brahmins who became Kshatriyas. In addition, the Patanarayana temple inscription states that the
UCO Bank United Commercial Bank, established in 1943 in Kolkata, is a major government-owned commercial bank of India. During FY 2013-14, its total business was ₹ 4.55 lakh crore. Based on 2014 data, it is ranked 1860 on Forbes Global 2000 List. UCO Bank was ranked 294th among India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report 2014, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory, it was a rise of 796 ranks considering it was listed at the 1090th position among India's most trusted brands in the Brand trust Report 2013. As of 30 March 2017 the bank had 4,000 plus service units 49 zonal offices spread all over India, it has two overseas branches in Singapore and Hong Kong. UCO Bank's headquarters is on Kolkata. G. D. Birla, an eminent Indian industrialist, during the Quit India movement of 1942, conceived the idea of organising a commercial bank with Indian capital and management, the United Commercial Bank Limited was incorporated to give shape to that idea; the bank was started with Kolkata as its head office with an issued capital of ₹2 crores and a paid-up capital of ₹1 crore.
Birla was its chairman and the Board of Directors included eminent personalities of India drawn from many fields. The bank opened 14 branches across India. After World War II, United Commercial Bank opened several overseas branches; the first, in 1947, was in Rangoon. Branches in Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia followed. In 1963 the Burmese Government nationalized United Commercial Bank's three branches there, which became People's Bank No. 6. On 15 September 1967, Jalpaiguri Banking and Trading Corporation, established in Jalpaiguri in 1887, made a voluntary transfer of its assets and liabilities to United Commercial Bank. JBTC specialised in lending against mortgages on tea gardens; the Government of India nationalised United Commercial Bank on 19 July 1969. The nationalised bank continued the operations of the overseas branches in London and Hong Kong. However, Malaysian law forbade foreign government ownership of banks in Malaysia. Therefore, United Commercial, Indian Overseas Bank, Indian Bank contributed their operations in Malaysia to a new joint-venture bank incorporated in Malaysia, United Asian Bank, with each of the three parent banks owning a third of the shares.
At the time, Indian Bank had three branches, Indian Overseas Bank and United Commercial Bank had eight between them. An act of parliament changed the bank's name to UCO Bank in 1985, as a bank in Bangladesh existed with the name "United Commercial Bank", which caused confusion in the international banking arena. In 1991, Bank of Commerce acquired United Asian Bank. In 1998, UCO closed its London branch. Bank of Baroda acquired the liabilities, but not the personnel, who were made redundant; as on 31 March 2012, government share-holding in the bank was 84%. Branch expansion started at a fast pace in rural areas, the bank achieved several unique distinctions in Priority Sector lending and other social uplift activities. To keep pace with the developing scenario and expansion of business, the Bank undertook an exercise in organisational restructuring in the year 1972; this resulted in more functional specialisation, decentralisation of administration and emphasis on development of personnel skill and attitude.
Side by side, whole hearted commitment into the government's poverty alleviation programmes continued and the convenorship of State Level Bankers' Committee was entrusted on the Bank for Odisha and Himachal Pradesh in 1983.total numbers of branch more than 4,000. As of November 2018, the UCO Bank Board of Directors has six members: Shri Atul Kumar Goel Shri Charan Singh Shri Anil Sharma Dr. Asish Saha Ms. Sindhu Pillai Shri K. Rajivan Nair Dr. Arvind Sharma As of January 2013, UCO Bank operates through 32 departments: MD's Secretariat ED's Secretariat ED's Secretariat Operations' & Services Department Audit & Inspection Flagship Corporate Mid Corporate Agriculture & Rural Business and Financial Inclusion- includes Small Enterprises, Priority Sector, Regional Rural Bank and Financial Inclusion Retail Insurance Marketing Wing Risk Management Human Resource Management Finance General Administration Security Printing & Stationery Credit Monitoring Law Vigilance Personnel Services Department Management Audit & HR Audit Treasury & International Wing which includes Treasury & Investment Management and International Wing IPO Cell Strategic Planning MIS Task Force Rajbhasha Corporate Communication Information Technology Recovery Business Process Re-engineering & Business Transaction The governance of the Bank all around the nation's respective regional areas is managed by a network of 42 Zonal Offices present in major as well as crucial parts of the country.
The training of newly recruited as well as present staff is overseen by seven training colleges around India: Central Staff College, Kolkata Regional Training Centre, Ahmedabad Regional Training Centre, Bhubaneswar Regional Training Centre, Bhopal Regional Training Centre, Chandigarh Regional Training Centre, Chennai Regional Training Centre, Jaipur Regional Training Centre, Durgapur The Bank's Regional presence includes 3,078 branches and 2564 ATMs. The near Future will see a growth in the number of Branches. Besides providing inland banking services through its vast network of branches in India, UCO Bank has a vital presence in the financial markets outside India. UCO Bank presently has four overseas branches in two important international financial centres in Singapore and Hong Kong. UCO Bank has i
Mahārāja is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Sri Gupta, founder of the ancient Indian Gupta Empire, but'title inflation' soon led to most being rather mediocre or petty in real power, while compound titles were among the attempts to distinguish some among their ranks; the female equivalent, denotes either the wife of a Maharaja, in states where, customary, a woman ruling without a husband. The widow of a Maharaja is known as a Rajmata "queen mother". Maharaja Kumar denotes a son of a Maharaja, but more specific titulatures are used at each court, including Yuvaraja for the heir; the form Maharaj indicates a separation of noble and religious offices, although the fact that in Hindi the suffix -a is silent makes the two titles near homophones. The word Maharaja originates in Sanskrit and is a compound karmadhāraya term from mahānt- "great" and rājan "ruler, king").
It has the Latin cognates magnum "great" and rex "king". Due to Sanskrit's major influence on the vocabulary of most languages in Greater India and Southeast Asia, the term Maharaja is common to many modern languages of India and Southeast Asian languages such as Kannada, Hindi, Rajasthani, Telugu, Punjabi, Sylheti, Gujarati and Thai; the Sanskrit title Maharaja was used only for rulers who ruled a large region with minor tributary rulers under them. Since medieval times, the title was used by monarchs of lesser states claiming descent from ancient Maharajas. On the eve of independence in 1947, British India contained more than 600 princely states, each with its own native ruler styled Raja or Rana or Thakur or Nawab, with a host of less current titles as well; the British directly ruled two-thirds of the Indian subcontinent. The word Maharaja may be understood to mean "ruler" or "king", in spite of its literal translation as "great king"; this was because only a handful of the states were powerful and wealthy enough for their rulers to be considered'great' monarchs.
The word, can mean emperor in contemporary Indian usage. The title of Maharaja was not as common before the gradual British colonisation of India and after which many Rajas and otherwise styled Hindu rulers were elevated to Maharajas, regardless of the fact that scores of these new Maharajas ruled small states, sometimes for some reason unrelated to the eminence of the state, for example, support to the British in Afghanistan, World War I or World War II. Two Rajas who became Maharajas in the twentieth century were the Maharaja of Cochin and the legendary Maharaja Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala. Variations of this title include the following, each combining Maha- "great" with an alternative form of Raja'king', so all meaning'Great King': Maharana, Maharawat and Maharaol. Maharajah has taken on new spellings due to migration, it has been shortened to Mahraj and Maraj but the most common is Maharajah and Maharaj. Despite its literal meaning, unlike many other titles meaning Great King, neither Maharaja nor Rajadhiraja, nor its equivalent amongst.
Maharaja,'Maharajadhiraja', never reached the standing required for imperial rank, as each was soon the object of title inflation. Instead, the Hindu title, rendered as Emperor is Samraat or Samraj, a personal distinction achieved by a few rulers of ancient dynasties such as the Mauryas and Guptas. Dharma-maharaja was the devout title of the rulers of the Ganga dynasty. In the Mughal Empire it was quite common to award to various princes a series of lofty titles as a matter of protocolary rank; the British would, as paramount power do the same. Many of these elaborate explicitly on the title Maharaja, in the following descending order: Maharajadhiraja Bahadur: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharajadhiraja. Maharajadhiraja: Great Prince over Princes, a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja Bahadur. Sawai Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Sawai Maharaja. Sawai Maharaja: a title of honour one degree higher than Maharaja Bahadur.
Maharaja Bahadur: a title of honour, one degree higher than Maharaja. Maharaja itself could be granted as a personal. H. the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar Maharaja-i-Rajgan: great prince amongst princes Maharaja Sena Sahib Subah of Nagpur, another Mahratta s