The Jaldhaka River known as Dichu River in earlier times, is a trans-boundary river with a length of 192 kilometres that originates from the Kupup or Bitang Lake in southeastern Sikkim in the eastern Himalayas and flows through Bhutan and the Kalimpong and Cooch Behar districts of West Bengal, India. At that point the river enters Bangladesh through the Lalmonirhat District and joins with the Dharla River until the Dharla debouches into the Brahmaputra River near the Kurigram District. Due to the river's wandering over several international borders, only a small length of the river lies within Bangladesh; the Jaldhaka River is formed by the conjunction of three streams at Bindu, the end point of the Jaldhaka Police Station at Kalimpong district in West Bengal. The three streams are known as Bindu Khola, Dudh Pokhri and Jaldhaka that originates from the Kupup Lake, a small glacial lake in Sikkim; the combined streams meet at Bindu to form the Jaldhaka River, thus forming a riverine boundary with India and Bhutan in the left bank.
The main tributaries that join the river in its right bank are the Murti, the Jholung khola, the Naksal Khola, the Sutunga and the Jarda in the lower reach. The Diana, Rehti-Duduya and Mujnai are the main left bank tributaries; the river flows through the three North Bengal districts of Kalimpong and Cooch Bihar. The entire watershed is the most fertile agricultural zone along with the Teesta Basin; the upper course is famous for crops like ginger, medicinal herbs and fruits like oranges and pomegranate. The middle course comprising Jalpaiguri district is tea and corn dominated and the lower course is dominated by rice and tobacco; the inter-river formed lands are cultivated with crops like mat sticks. In the lower basin, the inter-river lands are cultivated with banana; the river enters Bangladesh at Ghoksadanga district to meet the Brahmaputra or the Jamuna as it is known there. Http://www.east-himalaya.com/dooars/jaldhaka.htm
Shiva known as Mahadeva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the supreme being within one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva is known as "The Destroyer" within the Trimurti, the Hindu trinity that includes Brahma and Vishnu. In Shaivism tradition, Shiva is the supreme being who creates and transforms the universe. In the tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism, the Goddess, or Devi, is described as supreme, yet Shiva is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power of each, with Parvati the equal complementary partner of Shiva, he is one of the five equivalent deities in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta tradition of Hinduism. According to the Shaivism sect, the highest form of Shiva is formless, limitless and unchanging absolute Brahman, the primal Atman of the universe. There are many both fearsome depictions of Shiva. In benevolent aspects, he is depicted as an omniscient Yogi who lives an ascetic life on Mount Kailash as well as a householder with wife Parvati and his two children and Kartikeya.
In his fierce aspects, he is depicted slaying demons. Shiva is known as Adiyogi Shiva, regarded as the patron god of yoga and arts; the iconographical attributes of Shiva are the serpent around his neck, the adorning crescent moon, the holy river Ganga flowing from his matted hair, the third eye on his forehead, the trishula or trident, as his weapon, the damaru drum. He is worshipped in the aniconic form of Lingam. Shiva is a pan-Hindu deity, revered by Hindus, in India and Sri Lanka. Shiva is called as Bhramhan which can be said as Parabhramhan. Shiva means nothingness; the word shivoham means the consciousness of one individual, lord says that he is omnipotent, omnipresent, as he is present in the form of one's consciousness. In Tamil, he was called by different names other than Sivan. Nataraaja Rudra and Dhakshinamoorthy. Nataraja is the only form of Shiva worshipped in a human figure format. Elsewhere he is worshipped in Lingam figure. Pancha bootha temples are located in south India. Pancha Bhoota Stalam.
Tamil literature is enriched by Shiva devotees called 63 Nayanmars The Sanskrit word "Śiva" means, states Monier Monier-Williams, "auspicious, gracious, kind, friendly". The roots of Śiva in folk etymology are śī which means "in whom all things lie, pervasiveness" and va which means "embodiment of grace"; the word Shiva is used as an adjective in the Rig Veda, as an epithet for several Rigvedic deities, including Rudra. The term Shiva connotes "liberation, final emancipation" and "the auspicious one", this adjective sense of usage is addressed to many deities in Vedic layers of literature; the term evolved from the Vedic Rudra-Shiva to the noun Shiva in the Epics and the Puranas, as an auspicious deity, the "creator and dissolver". Sharva, sharabha presents another etymology with the Sanskrit root śarv-, which means "to injure" or "to kill", interprets the name to connote "one who can kill the forces of darkness"; the Sanskrit word śaiva means "relating to the god Shiva", this term is the Sanskrit name both for one of the principal sects of Hinduism and for a member of that sect.
It is used as an adjective to characterize certain practices, such as Shaivism. Some authors associate the name with the Tamil word śivappu meaning "red", noting that Shiva is linked to the Sun and that Rudra is called Babhru in the Rigveda; the Vishnu sahasranama interprets Shiva to have multiple meanings: "The Pure One", "the One, not affected by three Guṇas of Prakṛti". Shiva is known by many names such as Viswanatha, Mahandeo, Mahesha, Shankara, Rudra, Trilochana, Neelakanta, Subhankara and Ghrneshwar; the highest reverence for Shiva in Shaivism is reflected in his epithets Mahādeva, Maheśvara, Parameśvara. Sahasranama are medieval Indian texts that list a thousand names derived from aspects and epithets of a deity. There are at least eight different versions of the Shiva Sahasranama, devotional hymns listing many names of Shiva; the version appearing in Book 13 of the Mahabharata provides one such list. Shiva has Dasha-Sahasranamas that are found in the Mahanyasa; the Shri Rudram Chamakam known as the Śatarudriya, is a devotional hymn to Shiva hailing him by many names.
The Shiva-related tradition is a major part of Hinduism, found all over India, Sri Lanka, Bali. Scholars have interpreted early prehistoric paintings at the Bhimbetka rock shelters, carbon dated to be from pre-10,000 BCE period, as Shiva dancing, Shiva's trident, his mount Nandi. Rock paintings from Bhimbetka, depicting a figure with a trishul, have been described as Nataraja by Erwin Neumayer, who dates them to the mesolithic. Of several Indus valley seals that show animals, one seal that has attracted attention shows a large central figure, either horned or wearing a horned headdress and ithyphallic, seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position, surrounded by animals; this figure was named by early excavators of Mohenjo-daro as Pashupati (Lord of Animals, Sansk
National Highway 27 (India)
National Highway 27, an East - West National highway in India that starts from Porbandar and terminates in Silchar, the highway passes through the states of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam. NH-27 is maintained by Ministry of Road Transport and Highways; this is the second longest National Highway in India after National Highway 44 and is a part of NS-EW Corridor of NHAI. National highway 27 transits across seven states of India in east - west direction. Porbandar, Morvi, Radhanpur, Palanpur Samakhiali Abu Road, Udaipur, Chittaurgarh, Baran Shivpuri, Ganj Jhansi, Lucknow, Basti, Gorakhpur Gopalganj, Pipra Kothi, Darbhanga, Forbesganj, Purnia,Kishanganj Dalkhola, Bagdogra, Jalpaiguri, Dhupguri, Sonapur, Salsalabari Bongaigaon, Patacharkuchi, Dishpur, Lumding, Silchar Gujarat NH 51 Terminal near Porbandar NH 927D near Dhoraji NH 151 near Jetpur NH 351 near Jetpur NH 47 Interchange near Bamanbore NH 41 Interchange near Samakhiali NH 68 near Radhanpur NH 168A near Deesa Rajasthan NH 927A near Swaroopganj NH 62 Interchange near Pindwara NH 58 near Udaipur NH 48 near Udaipur NH 162 near Bhatevar NH 48 interchange near Chittorgarh NH 56 interchange near Chittorgarh NH 758 near Ladpura NH 52 near Kota NH 752 interchange near BaranMadhya Pradesh NH 46 near ShivpuriUttar Pradesh NH 44 near Jhansi NH 552 near Chirgaon NH 519 near Bhognipur NH 19 interchange near Barah village NH 34 near Kanpur NH 31 near Unnao NH 30 at Lucknow NH 927 near Barabanki NH 330A near Faizabad NH 330 near Faizabad NH 227A near Ayodhya NH 28 near Basti NH 24 near Gorakhpur NH 727A near Gorakhpur NH 727 near KushinagarBihar NH 531 near Gopalganj NH 227A near Barauli NH 331 near Mohammadpur NH 527D near Pipra Kothi NH 227 near Chakia NH 22 near Muzaffarpur NH 527C near Majhauli NH 527B near Darbhanga NH 527A near Jhanjharpur NH 227 near Narahia NH 327A near Bhaptiahi NH 131 near Simrahi NH 527 near Forbesganj NH 327 near Araria NH 131A near PurniaWest Bengal NH 12 near Dalkhola NH 327C near Ghoshpukur NH 327 near Bagdogra NH 10 near Siliguri NH 717 near Mainaguri NH 517 near Dhupguri NH 17 near Falakata NH 317 near SalsabariAssam NH 127B near Srirampur NH 117A near Garubhasa NH 127C near Shyamthai NH 117 near Bijni NH 427 near Howly NH 127A near Pathsala NH 127E near Barama NH 127D near Rangia NH 15 near Baihata NH 427 near Jalukbari NH 17 near Guwahati NH 6 near Jorabat NH 715A near Nakhola NH 627 near Nelle NH 127 near Nagaon NH 29 near Dabaka NH 329 near Lumding NH 627 near Jatinga, Haflong NH 37 Terminal near Silchar List of National Highways in India List of National Highways in India by state NH 27 on OpenStreetMap
The Dooars or Duars are the alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lie south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin. This region is about 30 km wide and stretches over about 350 km from the Teesta River in West Bengal to the Dhanshiri River in Assam; the region forms the gateway to Bhutan. It is part of the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. Dooars means'doors' in Assamese, Maithili and Magahi languages. There are 18 gateways between the hills in Bhutan and the plains in India; this region is divided by the Sankosh River into Eastern and Western Dooars, consisting of an area of 880 km2. The Western Dooars are known as the Bengal Dooars, the Eastern Dooars as the Assam Dooars. Dooars is analogous with the Terai in southern Nepal; the Dooars belonged to the Kamata Kingdom under the Koch dynasty. This region was controlled by the kingdom of Bhutan when the British annexed it in 1865 after the Bhutan War under the command of Captain Hedayat Ali.
The area was divided into two parts: the eastern part was merged with Goalpara district in Assam and the western part was turned into a new district named Western Dooars. Again in the year 1869, the name was changed to Jalpaiguri District. After the end of the British rule in India in 1947, the Dooars acceded into the dominion of India and it merged with the Union of India shortly afterwards in 1949; the Dooars region politically constitutes the plains of Darjeeling District, the whole of Jalpaiguri district and Alipurduar district and the upper region of Cooch Behar district in West Bengal and the districts of Dhubri, Barpeta and Bongaigaon in the state of Assam. The altitude of Dooars area ranges from 90 to 1,750 m. Innumerable streams and rivers flow through these fertile plains from the mountains of Bhutan. In Assam, the major rivers are the Manas. In northern West Bengal, the major river is the Teesta besides many others like the Jaldhaka, Torsha, Dyna, Karatoya and Kalchini rivers, among others.
The average rainfall of the area is about 3,500 mm. Monsoon starts from the middle of May and continues till the end of September. Winters are cold with foggy nights. Summer is mild and constitutes a short period of the year; the native people of this region have Mongoloid features. They are composed of numerous tribes, including the Bodo in Assam, the Rabha, the Mech, the Toto, the Koch Rajbongshi, the Tamang/Murmi, the Limbu,the Rai, the Lepcha in Bengal. Apart from the tribal population, a large Bengali population populate the Dooars and their culture emerged with local people; the Dooars are famous for the tea gardens. For working in the gardens, they imported labour from Nepal and the Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas; the Oraons, Kharia, Lohara, Chik Baraik and Santal are the tribals from these areas. The tribal of Chotanagpur origin are employed in tea gardens, which started production during the 1870s. Before the settlement of other communities, these people converted the forests into villages and busties.
The remnants of these tribal people form a majority of the population in Western Dooars. The Dooars is dotted with many towns and cities; the largest city in the whole region stretching from the Darjeeling foothills to the Arunachal Pradesh foothills is Siliguri and Jalpaiguri, which both lie in the Terai region rather the Dooars, geographically. This northern Bengal cities are well connected with the rest of country by road and railway and is the business hub of the region; the other major cities are Kokrajhar, Goalpara and Dhubri in Assam. Cooch Behar, Dhupguri, Malbazar and Birpara are the major cities of the Dooars in West Bengal, Kishanganj in Bihar; the commercial capital of Bhutan, near Jaigaon, can be considered a part of this region. The region has suffered from ethnic strife; the Bodoland agitation in Assam for a separate state for the Bodo people and the Kamtapur or Greater Cooch Behar movement for a Kamtapur state in northern Bengal for the Rajbongshis are the two most vociferous ones.
The Adivasi of Dooars are demanding autonomy under the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. The economy of Dooars is based on three "T"s – Tea and Timber; the main industry of the Dooars region is the tea industry. Thousands of people are engaged in the tea factories. Several people are engaged in the cultivation of bettlenuts which contributes to the economy. Cultivation of other crops is done for local consumption; the area is dotted by several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries which attract a lot of tourists from all over India and abroad, making it an important contributor to the economy and employer of a number of people. The timber industry and illegally, flourishes in this region. A number of saw mills, plywood industries and other allied business act as an important contributor to the economy; the Dooars act as doorways to Bhutan. The towns of Jaigaon and Phuentsholing are important hubs of the export-import industry; as the region is near the international borders of Bhutan and Bangladesh, the Border Security Force, the Central Reserve Police Force, Indian army and Indian Air Force maintain a large presence in the
Teesta River is a 315 km long river that rises in the eastern Himalayas, flows through the Indian states of West Bengal and Sikkim through Bangladesh and enters the Bay of Bengal. It drains an area of 12,540 km2, it forms the border between West Bengal. In India, it flows through the cities of Rangpo, Kalimpong and Mekhliganj, it joins the Jamuna River at Fulchhari in Bangladesh. The Teesta River originates from the Pahunri glacier above 7,068 metres, flows southward through gorges and rapids in the Sikkim Himalaya, it is fed by rivulets arising in the Thangu and Donkha mountain ranges. The river flows past the town of Rangpo where the Rangpo River joins, where it forms the border between Sikkim and West Bengal up to Teesta Bazaar. Just before the Teesta Bridge, where the roads from Kalimpong and Darjeeling join, the river is met by its main tributary, the Rangeet River. At this point, it changes course southwards flowing into West Bengal; the river hits the plains at Sevoke, 22 kilometres northeast of Siliguri, where it is spanned by the Coronation Bridge linking the northeast states to the rest of India.
The river goes merging up with the Brahmaputra River after it bifurcates the city of Jalpaiguri and flows just touching Cooch Behar district at Mekhliganj and moves to Fulchori in Bangladesh. Through its course, the Teesta river has carved out ravines and gorges in Sikkim meandering through the hills with the hill station of Kalimpong lying just off the river. Variegated vegetation can be seen along this route. At lower elevations, tropical deciduous trees and shrubs cover the surrounding hills; the river is flanked by white sand, used by the construction industry in the region. Large boulders in and around the waters make it ideal for rafting enthusiasts. Between Rangpo town and the railway bridge on it as it enters the plains at Sevoke, the Teesta flows with a strong current, ideal for white river rafting. Towns like Teesta Bazaar and Melli have facilities for group rafting. Though the river looks innocuous, the underlying current is strong. In 1915, G. P. Robertson, the Municipal Engineer of Darjeeling, drowned after losing control of the boat in the turbulence while surveying the river.
The boat struck a hidden boulder and was sucked in by a whirlpool, leaving no trace of the occupants. During the monsoons, Teesta river distends its banks. Landslides in this region dam up parts of the river in this season. Great changes have taken place in the course of some of the rivers in Bengal and the adjoining areas, during the period since 1500 CE. Although positive evidence is lacking, similar changes can be assumed in the remoter past; the Teesta River is one of the rivers. The Teesta earlier ran due south from Jalpaiguri in three channels, the Karatoya to the east, the Punarbhaba in the west and the Atrai in the centre; the three channels gave the name to the river as Trisrota "possessed of three streams", shortened to Teesta. Of these three, the Punarbhaba joined the Mahananda; the Atrai passing through a vast marshy area known as Chalan Beel joined the Karatoya and the united stream joined the Padma near Jafarganj. In the destructive floods of 1787, the Teesta river forsook its old channel and rushing south-east it joined the Brahmaputra.
James Rennell made a survey between 1764 and 1777 and his maps are one of the earliest authentic maps of Bengal in existence. In these maps Teesta is shown as flowing through North Bengal in several branches—Punarbhaba, Karatoya, etc. All these streams combined lower down with the Mahananda, now the westernmost river in North Bengal, taking the name of Hoorsagar discharged into the Ganges at Jafarganj, near modern Goalundo; the Hoorsagar river still in existence, being the combined outfall of the Baral, a spill channel of the Ganges, the Atrai, the Jamuna or Jamuneswari, the Karatoya, but instead of falling into the Ganges, it falls into the main Jamuna, a few miles above its confluence with the Padma at Goalundo. India has an estimated total hydroelectric power potential of 84 GW. Of this, Sikkim's potential share is 2.9%, or about 4.29 GW. As of 2010, 13.9% of Sikkim's potential had been implemented and was under operation, 44.8% is under implementation, another 41.3% is yet to be examined from environment and engineering design perspective.
The completed major projects and dams are: Teesta -V dam, the largest project so far, was completed in 2007 on Teesta in Dikchu, East Sikkim district. Its height is 87 metres and its length is 176 metres, it generates 510 MW hydroelectric power and assists flood control. Rangit III hydroelectric project was completed in 2000 on Greater Rangit River, a tributary of Teesta River; the catchment area of Rangit III dam is 979 square kilometres and the dam is 47 metres high. The project has 60 MW generation capacity, is online; the other three completed projects are smaller and minor—Lower Lagyap, Upper Rongni Chhu and Mayang Chhu projects. The Teesta Barrage is a major irrigation project in Bangladesh, in Lalmonirhat District. Construction started 1979 and was completed in 1997-98. Disputes over the appropriate allocation and development of the water resources of the river have remained a subject of conflict for 35 years, with several bilateral agreements and rounds of talks failing to produce results.
Teesta river area is in the seismica
The Raidāk River is a tributary of the Brahmaputra River, a trans-boundary river. It flows through Bhutan and Bangladesh; the Wang Chhu, or Raidāk, rises in the Himalayas. In its upper reaches it is known as the Thimphu Chhu; the main river is a rapid stream. Between Thimphu and the confluence with the Paro Chhu, the course of the river is not confined but, after leaving the confluence, it runs through a narrow defile between steep cliffs, it subsequently flows southeast through a comparatively open valley, its course strewn with large boulders against which the water foams violently. It is joined by several small tributaries flowing from nearby mountains. Just above Paro Dzong a considerable feeder, the Ta Chhu, joins it from the left. To the west, the Ha Chhu drains into the Wong Chhu. At Tashichho Dzong the bed of the river is about 2,121 metres above sea level and at the point of its exit in the Dooars its elevation is only 90 metres, it debouches into the plains in Jalpaiguri district and flows through Cooch Behar district in West Bengal.
The Raidak confluences with the Brahmaputra at chainage 327 km in Kurigram District in Bangladesh, where it is sometimes referred to Dudhkumar River. The total length of the main river is 370 kilometres but along with its tributaries, it covers a length of nearly 610 kilometres in Bhutan alone; the 336MW Chukha hydel project, which harnesses the waters of the Wang Chhu or Raidak River, was one of the largest single investments undertaken in Bhutan, it represented a major step toward exploiting the country's huge hydroelectric potential. It was built by India on a turnkey basis, with India providing 60% of the capital in a grant and 40% in a loan at concessional terms and conditions. In the arrangement, India receives in turn all the electricity generated from the project in excess of Bhutan’s demand at much cheaper prices than India’s generation cost from alternative sources. Located between Thimphu and the Indian border, a 40 metres diversion dam was built at Chimakoti village, 1.6 kilometres upstream of the confluence of the Ti Chhu and Wong Chhu rivers.
From the dam water was diverted through 6.5-kilometre long tunnels to a fall of more than 300 metres to Chukha power house for generation of electricity. Construction started in 1974 and completed in 1986–88. Tala Hydroelectric Power Station is a run-of-the-river type hydroelectric power station on the Wangchu River in Chukha District, Bhutan; the station consists of a 92-metre tall gravity dam which diverts water through a 22 km long headrace tunnel to the power station, which contains six 170 megawatts Pelton turbine-generators. The Tala dam is located about 3 km downstream of Chukha power house
Torsa is one of the Slate Islands in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. Lying east of Luing and south of Seil, the island was inhabited until the 1960s. There is now only one house on the island, used for holiday lets, its main industry is farming, with cattle brought over from the neighbouring island of Luing. The Luing cattle were bred for their hardiness; the island is connected to Torsa Beag. In the bay beyond is a suspected crannog; the island is best known for the ruined sixteenth-century hunting lodge Caisteal nan Con. This is known locally as the Castle of the Dogs, it is doubtful that the castle would have been built as a hunting lodge, as it is in a fine defensive position built upon a sheer rocky outcrop overlooking the sea on three sides. However, over time this may have become the final use of the building before falling into disrepair