Hagley Hall is a Grade I listed 18th-century house in Hagley, the home of the Lyttelton family. It was the creation of George, 1st Lord Lyttelton, secretary to Frederick, Prince of Wales and man of letters and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Before the death of his father in 1751, he began to landscape the grounds in the new Picturesque style, between 1754 and 1760 it was he, responsible for the building of the Neo-Palladian house that survives to this day. After a fire in 1925, most of the house was restored, but the uppermost floor of the servants' quarters was not, which means that the present roof line between the towers is lower than it was when first constructed; the estate incurred a mounting debt beginning in the 1970s. The 11th Viscount Cobham was forced to sell off large tracts of estate land to keep it afloat, his brother and successor Christopher Charles Lyttelton, 12th Viscount Cobham began restoration works in both the main house and the park. The park is open to the public and part of the house is available as a venue for hire.
As of 2012, the hall is the family home to Christopher Charles Lyttelton, 12th Viscount Cobham and his wife Tessa. The fashion for Neo-Palladian houses had started in London between 1715 and 1720, it did not reach Worcestershire until the 1750s. The two finest examples of this style in Worcestershire were Croome Court built between 1751 and 1752 and Hagley Hall designed by Sanderson Miller between 1754 and 1760. Notable Neo-Palladian features incorporated into Hagley Hall include the plain exterior and the corner towers with pyramidal roofs, of Venetian windows; the house contains a fine example of Rococo plasterwork by Francesco Vassali and a unique collection of 18th-century Chippendale furniture and family portraits, including works by Van Dyck, Joshua Reynolds, Cornelius Johnson, Peter Lely. A catalogue of the collection was published in 1900. On Christmas Eve 1925, a disastrous fire swept through the house destroying much of the Library and many of the pictures. Despite boiling lead pouring from the roof through the house, all those within managed to escape.
At the height of the blaze when nothing more could be salvaged from inside, the 9th Viscount was heard to mutter "my life's work destroyed". He and his wife painstakingly restored the house, except for the staff quarters on the top floor. To the north of the Hall, separated from it only by the narrow Hall Drive, is the extensive stable block; the buildings are grouped around two courtyards. The stable block no longer serves its original purpose, but is now operated as a business park for small local businesses. A short walk to the west of the Hall, facing its rear facade, is the parish church of St John the Baptist, its surrounding churchyard. With two earlier exceptions, members of the Lyttelton family, owners of Hagley Hall and their relatives, have only been buried in the churchyard since 1875. Adjacent to the church is the local cricket ground with its separate clubhouse. Hagley Cricket Club, first formed in 1834, was for long associated with the Lyttelton family. Hagley House is set in 350 acres of landscaped deer park grazed by herds of fallow deer.
The grounds were landscaped between about 1739 and 1764, with follies designed by John Pitt, Thomas Pitt, James "Athenian" Stuart, Sanderson Miller. The follies include the Hagley Obelisk, built in 1764 for Sir Richard Lyttelton, visible for many miles; the nearby reconstruction of the Temple of Theseus, built between 1759–62, was a gift from Admiral Smith, Lyttelton's half-brother. This is in poor condition and has been listed on Historic England's Heritage at Risk register for some years. Others in the main park included some more classical erections and a sham ruined castle in mediaeval style; the grounds drew many admiring visitors, including other writers interested in landscaping such as Alexander Pope and William Shenstone, to both of whom monuments were erected in the park. James Thomson was another commemorated visitor, who included a description of the grounds in the Spring section of The Seasons, which he revised following his first visit to Hagley in 1743. Although the gardening poet William Mason did not consider Hagley by name in "The English Garden", there is a section dedicated to it in his earlier "Ode to a water nymph" which does.
Horace Walpole, notoriously hard to please, wrote after a visit in 1753, "I wore out my eyes with gazing, my feet with climbing, my tongue and vocabulary with commending". In April 1786 John Adams visited Hagley and other notable houses in the area, after visiting them he wrote in his diary "Stowe and Blenheim, are superb. Wotton is both great and elegant, though neglected". In his diary he was damning about the means used to finance the estates, but he was enamoured with Hagley, although he did not think that such embellishments would suit the more rugged American countryside. After many decades of neglect, restoration work has begun in the grounds, starting with the Hagley Obelisk on Wychbury Hill in 2010; the Palladian Bridge was rebuilt and the vista opened up the valley to the repaired Rotunda at its head. 50 years before the construction of the Palladi
Mount Stewart is a 19th-century house and garden in County Down, Northern Ireland, owned by the National Trust. Situated on the east shore of Strangford Lough, a few miles outside the town of Newtownards and near Greyabbey, it was the Irish seat of the Vane-Tempest-Stewart family, Marquesses of Londonderry; the house and its contents reflect the history of the Vane-Tempest-Stewart family, who played a leading role in British and Irish social and political life. Mount Stewart was formed by the Stewart family, holders of the title Marquess of Londonderry since 1816; the family bought the estate in 1744 with money acquired by Alexander Stewart. This new wealth came from the sales of materials like linen. At the time, the house was known as Mount Pleasant. Alexander Stewart's son, Robert Stewart, became the first Marquess of Londonderry. In about 1800 he added a temporary wing to the west, he died in 1821 leaving the house to his son Robert, better known as Viscount Castlereagh, one of Britain's most famous Foreign Secretaries.
Castlereagh lived in Mount Stewart during his childhood. Lord Castlereagh inherited his father's title only a year before his own death; the next owner of the house was Charles, 3rd Marquess of Londonderry. He married twice but it was his marriage which increased the family's finances greatly, his second wife was Lady Frances Anne Vane-Tempest. She was the greatest heiress of her time; this huge new wealth prompted the enlargement of the newly renamed Mount Stewart. Controversially the Londonderrys, while spending £150,000 on the refurbishment only gave £30 to famine relief in Ireland in the 1840s; this remodelling created the present exterior of Mount Stewart. The small Georgian house and the small portico on the west wing were demolished and the house was increased to eleven bays. On the entrance front, a huge portico was added in the centre, a smaller'half portico' was added to the other side; the marriage brought in much of the Vane-Tempest property, including land. Wynyard Park, County Durham was redesigned in the Neo-classical style.
The couple bought Seaham Hall in County Durham, later bought Holdernesse House on London's Park Lane. This was renamed Londonderry House; the 4th Marquess of Londonderry married the widow of Viscount Powerscourt and lived at her home, near Dublin. The 5th Marquess lived at his wife's ancestral property, Plas Machynlleth in Wales, his son, the 6th Marquess, lived at Wynyard; these long periods of neglect nearly destroyed Mount Stewart. The 7th Marquess, a well-known Ulster Unionist politician, his wife brought a new lease of life to the house and its plain grounds; the Marchioness of Londonderry's ancestral home was Dunrobin Castle in Scotland and it was that house's gardens which inspired the Mount Stewart's. She redesigned and redecorated much of the interior, for example, the huge drawing room, smoking room, the Castlereagh Room and many of the guest bedrooms, she named the latter after European cities including Moscow. The last chatelaine of the house, Lady Mairi Bury, gave the house and most of its contents to the National Trust in 1977.
Lady Mairi was the last Londonderry family member to live at Mount Stewart, the last member of this Anglo-Irish family to live in Ireland. She died at Mount Stewart on 18 November 2009, at the age of 88. On her death her daughter Lady Rose Lauritzen, wife of the American art historian, became the live-in family member; the National Trust took over the house and gardens in 1957. The Trust operates the property under the name "Mount Stewart House, Garden & Temple of the Winds". In 1999, the Mount Stewart Gardens were added to the United Kingdom "Tentative List" of sites for potential nomination as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2015, the National Trust completed an extensive restoration of the house and its contents as well as the purchase of the wider estate re-uniting it and plan to open for visitor access. Mount Stewart was in permanent use when the 3rd Marquess was alive and was extended to become the principal family residence, it was increased in size with a collection of new rooms which were suitable to house the family's growing art collections and general treasures.
The main room was the'Drawing Room'. This looks out onto the main gardens and in the past it would have been possible to see Strangford Lough. Another main entertaining room was the'Dining Room' which looks out onto the entrance front and was twice its present size, but was altered to make a new kitchen some time after its construction and lavish decoration. One of the most stunning rooms at Mount Stewart is the private'Chapel'; this hidden gem is a double-height room with stained glass windows and Italian paintings on its walls. After the house's interior, the Marchioness redesigned the gardens in the most lavish way possible. Prior to her husband's succession to the Marquessate in 1915 the gardens had been plain lawns with large decorative pots, she added the Shamrock Garden, the Sunken Garden, increased the size of the lake, added a Spanish Garden with a small hut, the Italian Garden, the Dodo Terrace with its'menagerie' of cement animals, the Fountain Pool and laid out walks in the Lily Wood and rest of the estate.
In 1957, she gave the gardens to the National Trust. The present-day estate of Mount Stewart extends to 950 acres with a large lake and many monuments and farm buildings. The'Temple of the Winds' is an octagonal building inspired by the Grand Tour the 1st Marquess took in his youth
Dr. Henry Walton "Indiana" Jones, Jr. is the title character and protagonist of the Indiana Jones franchise. George Lucas created the character in homage to the action heroes of 1930s film serials; the character first appeared in the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, to be followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in 1984, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles from 1992 to 1996, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull in 2008. The character is featured in novels, video games, other media. Jones is featured in several Disney theme parks, including the Indiana Jones Adventure, Indiana Jones et le Temple du Péril, Epic Stunt Spectacular! attractions. Jones is most famously portrayed by Harrison Ford and has been portrayed by River Phoenix and in the television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles by Corey Carrier, Sean Patrick Flanery, George Hall. Doug Lee has supplied the voice of Jones for two LucasArts video games, Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine, David Esch supplied his voice for Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, John Armstrong for Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings.
Jones is characterized by his iconic accoutrements, wry sense of humor, deep knowledge of ancient civilizations and languages, fear of snakes. Since his first appearance in Raiders of the Lost Ark, Indiana Jones has become one of cinema's most famous characters. In 2003, the American Film Institute ranked him the second greatest film hero of all time, he was named the 1st Greatest Movie Character by Empire magazine. Entertainment Weekly ranked Indy 2nd on their list of The All-Time Coolest Heroes in Pop Culture. Premiere magazine placed Indy at number 7 on their list of The 100 Greatest Movie Characters of All Time. 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark 1984 prequel film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 1989 film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade 2008 film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal SkullA native of Princeton, New Jersey, Indiana Jones was introduced as a tenured professor of archeology in the 1981 film Raiders of the Lost Ark, set in 1936. The character is an adventurer reminiscent of the 1930s film serial treasure hunters and pulp action heroes.
His research is funded by Marshall College, a fictional college in Connecticut, where he is a professor of archaeology. He attended the University of Chicago. In this first adventure, he is pitted against Nazis commissioned by Hitler to recover artifacts of great power from the Old Testament. In consequence, Dr Jones travels the world to prevent them from recovering the Ark of the Covenant, he is aided by Marion Sallah. The Nazis are led by Jones's archrival, a Nazi-sympathizing French archaeologist named René Belloq, Arnold Toht, a sinister Gestapo agent. In the 1984 prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, set in 1935, Jones travels to India and attempts to free enslaved children and the three Sankara stones from the bloodthirsty Thuggee cult, he is aided by Short Round, a young boy, is accompanied by singer Willie Scott. The prequel is not as centered on archaeology as Raiders of the Lost Ark and is darker; the third film, 1989's Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, set in 1938, returned to the formula of the original, reintroducing characters such as Sallah and Marcus Brody, a scene from Professor Jones's classroom, the globe trotting element of multiple locations, the return of the infamous Nazi mystics, this time trying to find the Holy Grail.
The film's introduction, set in 1912, provided some back story to the character the origin of his fear of snakes, his use of a bullwhip, the scar on his chin, his hat. The film was a buddy movie of sorts, teaming Jones with his father, Henry Jones, Sr. to comical effect. Although Lucas intended to make five Indiana Jones films, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade was the last for over eighteen years, as he could not think of a good plot element to drive the next installment; the 2008 film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, is the latest film in the series. Set in 1957, 19 years after the third film, it pits an older, wiser Indiana Jones against Soviet agents bent on harnessing the power of an extraterrestrial device discovered in South America. Jones is aided in his adventure by his former lover, Marion Ravenwood, her son—a young greaser named Henry "Mutt" Williams revealed to be Jones' unknown child. There were rumors that Harrison Ford would not return for any future installments and LaBeouf would take over the Indy franchise.
This film reveals that Jones was recruited by the Office of Strategic Services during World War II, attaining the rank of Colonel in the United States Army. He is tasked with conducting covert operations with MI6 agent George McHale against the Soviet Union. In March 2016, Disney announced a fifth Indiana Jones film in development, with Ford and Spielberg set to return to the franchise. Set for release on July 10, 2020, the film's release date was pushed back to July 9, 2021 due to production issues. Indiana Jones is featured at several Walt Disney theme park attractions; the Indiana Jones Adventure attractions at Disneyland and Tokyo DisneySea place Indy at the forefront of two similar archaeological discoveries. These two temples each contain a wrat
Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall. The name survives in Ludgate Hill, an eastward continuation of Fleet Street, Ludgate Circus and Ludgate Square. Despite the claim by the Norman-Welsh Geoffry of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae that Ludgate was so-called having been built by the ancient British king called Lud—a manifestation of the god Nodens—the name is believed by writers to be derived from "flood gate" or "Fleet gate", from "ludgeat", meaning "back gate" or "postern", or from the Old English term "hlid-geat" a common Old English compound meaning "postern" or "swing gate"; the Romans built a road along the north bank of the River Thames westwards through the gate called Lud Gate as part of the fortifications of London. Guarding the road from the west, it led to the Romans' main burial mound in what is now Fleet Street; the gate stood just above a crossing of the Fleet River. It stood opposite what is now St Martin's Church on what is now called Ludgate Hill; the site of the gate is marked by a plaque on the north side of Ludgate Hill, halfway between Ludgate Circus and St Paul's Cathedral.
Anti-royalist forces rebuilt the gate during the First Barons' War using materials recovered from the destroyed houses of opulent Jews. The rooms above the gate were used as a prison for petty offenders; the gate was one of three separate sites. In 1378 it was decided that Newgate Prison would be used for serious criminals, Ludgate for Freemen of the City and clergy who were imprisoned for minor offences such as debt. By 1419 it became clear that prisoners were far too comfortable here, as they were more to want to stay than to pay their debts and leave, they were all transferred to Newgate prison for this reason, although that prison was so overcrowded and unhealthy that they soon returned. It had a flat lead roof for prisoners to exercise on, as well as a'large walking place' at ground level; the gate was rebuilt about 1450 by a man called Foster who at one time was lodged in the Debtor's Prison over the gate. He became Sir Stephen Foster, Lord Mayor of London, his widow, Agnes and extended Ludgate and the Debtor's Prison and the practice of making the debtors pay for their own food and lodging was abolished.
Her gift was commemorated by a brass wall plaque, which read: Devout souls that pass this way, For Stephen Foster, late mayor, heartily pray. Rebuilt by the City in 1586, a statue of King Lud and his two sons was placed on the east side, one of Queen Elizabeth I on the west; these statues are now in Fleet Street. It was rebuilt again after being destroyed in the Great Fire. Like the other City gates it was demolished in 1760; the prisoners were moved to a section of the workhouse in Bishopsgate Street. Ludd's Gate is mentioned in Bernard Cornwell's novel Sword Song set during the reign of Alfred the Great. Ludgate is mentioned in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. According to the pseudohistorical work the name comes from the Welsh King Lud son of Heli whom he claims gave his name to London. Ludgate appears in Walter de la Mare's poem "Up and Down", from Collected Poems 1901–1918, Vol. II: Songs of Childhood, Peacock Pie, 1920. City gate City wall Fortifications of London London Lud son of Heli Nuada
A facsimile is a copy or reproduction of an old book, map, art print, or other item of historical value, as true to the original source as possible. It differs from other forms of reproduction by attempting to replicate the source as as possible in scale, color and other material qualities. For books and manuscripts, this entails a complete copy of all pages. Facsimiles are sometimes used by scholars to research a source that they do not have access to otherwise, by museums and archives for media preservation and conservation. Many are sold commercially accompanied by a volume of commentary, they may be produced in limited editions of 500–2,000 copies, cost the equivalent of a few thousand United States dollars. The term "fax" is a shortened form of "facsimile" though most faxes are not reproductions of the quality expected in a true facsimile. Advances in the art of facsimile are related to advances in printmaking. Maps, for instance, were the focus of early explorations in making facsimiles, although these examples lack the rigidity to the original source, now expected.
An early example is the Abraham Ortelius map. Innovations during the 18th century in the realms of lithography and aquatint, facilitated an explosion in the number of facsimiles of old master drawings that could be studied from afar. In the past, a technique such as the photostat, hectograph, or lithograph was used to create facsimiles. More facsimiles have been made by the use of some form of photographic technique. For documents, a facsimile most refers to document reproduction by a photocopy machine. In the digital age, an image scanner, a personal computer, a desktop printer can be used to make a facsimile. Important illuminated manuscripts like Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry are not only on display to the public as facsimiles, but available in high quality to scholars. However, unlike normal book reproductions, facsimiles remain truer to the original colors—which is important for illuminated manuscripts—and preserve defects. Facsimiles are best suited to printed or hand-written documents, not to items such as three-dimensional objects or oil paintings with unique surface texture.
Reproductions of those latter objects are referred to as replicas. Record type
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
Psamtik II was a king of the Saite-based Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. His prenomen, Nefer-Ib-Re, means "Beautiful Heart Re." He was the son of Necho II. Psamtik II led a foray into Nubia in 592 BC, marching as far south as the Third or the Fourth Cataract of the Nile, according to a contemporary stela from Thebes, which dates to Year 3 of this king's name and refers to a heavy defeat, inflicted upon the kingdom of Kush. A well-known graffito inscribed in Greek on the left leg of the colossal seated statue of Ramesses II, on the south side of the entrance to the temple of Abu Simbel, records that: "When King Psammetichus came to Elephantine, this was written by those who sailed with Psammetichus the son of Theocles, they came beyond Kerkis as far as the river permits; those who spoke foreign tongues were led by the Egyptians by Amasis. Kerkis was located near the Fifth Cataract of the Nile "which stood well within the Cushite Kingdom."This was the first confrontation between Egypt and Nubia since the reign of Tantamani.
A Kushite king named. Psamtik II's campaign was initiated to destroy any future aspirations the Kushites may have had to reconquer Egypt; the Egyptian army advanced to Pnubs and the capital city of Napata in a series of fierce battles, where they looted its temples and destroyed the royal Kushite statues. The Kushite capital was sacked under the reign of the native Kushite king Aspelta, the younger brother of Anlamani and the son of Senkamanisken; the Year 3 Karnak stela is dated to II Shemu day 10 of Psamtik II's reign and states that: The army that your Majesty sent to Nubia has reached the land of Pnubs.... Nubians from all parts had arisen against him, their hearts full of anger when he attacked those who had rebelled against him there, his Majesty took part in the combat as soon. The rebels capitulated before a single arrow was unleashed against them.... Those who tried to flee did not succeed and were brought back as prisoners: four thousand two hundred men; as a result of Psamtik's devastating campaign, Kush's power was crushed, its kings from Aspelta onwards lost any opportunity of regaining control of Egypt.
Instead, the Nubian rulers decided to shift their capital further south from Napata to the relative safety of Meroë. Curiously, Psamtik II does not appear to have capitalized on his victory, his troops retreated back to the First Cataract, Elephantine continued to be the southern border of Egypt. An outcome of this campaign was the deliberate destruction of monuments belonging to the 25th Dynasty Kushite kings in Egypt "by hacking out their names and the emblems of royalty from their statues and reliefs." In 591 BC, during the fourth year of his reign, Psamtik II launched an expedition into Palestine "to foment a general Levantine revolt against the Babylonians" that involved, among others, Zedekiah of the Kingdom of Judah. Psamtik II was both a dynamic warrior pharaoh as well as a prolific builder in his brief 6-year reign. A significant Saite temple was built by Psamtik II and his son Apries at the village of El-Mahalla El-Kubra which lies equidistant from Sebennytos and Behbeit El-Hagar in the Lower Nile Delta.
Officials from the Napoleonic expedition to Egypt observed "an extraordinary number of pharaonic building elements of granite and turquoise reused in modern buildings" at this site. A 1.8 metre long fragment of red granite with the name of Psamtik II and a door lintel of Apries was seen at El-Mahalla El-Kubra. Under Psamtik II's reign, a pair of obelisks more than 21.79 metres high were erected in the temple of Heliopolis. Psamtik II constructed a kiosk on Philae island; this kiosk today "represents the oldest known monument known on the island" and consisted "of a double row of four columns, which were connected by screen walls." Psamtik II was responsible for founding the Temple-house at Hibis in El-Kharga Oasis for the triad of Amun and Khonsu with significant installations for the cult of Osiris. This 19.5 x 26 metre temple was situated on the bank of an ancient lake which has now disappeared and its temple decorations were only completed under the Persian kings Darius I and Darius II. The Hibis temple consisted of a hypostyle hall with two-by-two papyrus capital columns, a hall of offerings, three sanctuaries in the rear section of the temple and a chapel at the side of the sanctuaries for the cult of Psamtik II.
The front of the temple house of Hibis featured: "a pronaos with four papyrus bundle columns and screen walls. During the construction of the pronaos, the side walls were extended for the addition of a court; this extension, however, only carried out in the 30th Dynasty The eight papyrus columns of the pronaos still show the New Kingdom type of open, bell-shaped capitals."A massive sandstone gateway through an outer enclosure wall still stands 5 metres tall and was constructed during the Ptolemaic or Roman periods. Many inscriptions and decrees were carved on the gateway on a wide variety of topics such as taxation, the court system and the rights of women, with the earliest text d