John Howard Northrop
John Howard Northrop was an American biochemist who, with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley, won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The award was given for these scientists' isolation and study of enzymes and viruses. Northrop was a Professor of Bacteriology and Medical Physics, Emeritus, at University of California, Berkeley. Northrop was born in Yonkers, New York to John Isaiah, a zoologist and instructor at Columbia University, Alice Rich Northrop, a teacher of botany at Hunter College, his father died in a lab explosion two weeks. The son was educated at Yonkers High School and Columbia University, where he earned his PhD in chemistry in 1915. During World War I, he conducted research for the U. S. Chemical Warfare Service on the production of acetone and ethanol through fermentation; this work led to studying enzymes. In 1929, Northrop isolated and crystallized the gastric enzyme pepsin and determined that it was a protein. In 1938 he isolated and crystallized the first bacteriophage, determined that it was a nucleoprotein.
Northrop isolated and crystallized pepsinogen, trypsin and carboxypeptidase. For his 1939 book, Crystalline Enzymes: The Chemistry of Pepsin and Bacteriophage, Northrop was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal from the National Academy of Sciences, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1949. Northrop was employed by the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in New York City from 1916 until his retirement in 1961. In 1949 he joined the University of California, Berkeley as Professor of Bacteriology, he was appointed Professor of Biophysics. In 1917, Northrop married Louise Walker, with whom he had two children: John, an oceanographer, Alice, who married Nobel laureate Frederick C. Robbins; the family lived in a small home just outside of New York. As their children grew older and Northrop looked for a more desirable workplace, the family bought a home in Cotuit, Massachusetts; this move shortened Northrop's commute to the laboratory in Princeton, New Jersey, put him in closer contact with the wilderness which he enjoyed.
Northrop committed suicide in Wickenburg, Arizona in 1987. Economos, A. C.. "Growth rate and life span in Drosophila V. The effect of prolongation of the period of growth on the total duration of life --revisited", Mech. Ageing Dev. 33, pp. 103–13, doi:10.1016/0047-637490112-5, PMID 3908838 Herriott, R. M. "John Howard Northrop", J. Gen. Physiol. 77, pp. 597–9, doi:10.1085/jgp.77.6.597, PMC 2215443, PMID 7021760 Herriott, R. M. "John Howard Northrop: July 5, 1891-May 27, 1987", Biographical Memoirs. National Academy of Sciences, 63, pp. 423–50, PMID 11615389See this version of Northrop's National Academy of Science biography. Northrop, J. H. Crystalline Enzymes, Columbia University Press Shampo, M A. "John Northrop--definitive study of enzymes", Mayo Clin. Proc. 75, p. 254, doi:10.4065/75.3.254, PMID 10725951 van Helvoort, T. "The controversy between John H. Northrop and Max Delbrück on the formation of bacteriophage: bacterial synthesis or autonomous multiplication?", Annals of Science, 49, pp. 545–75, doi:10.1080/00033799200200451, PMID 11616207 Works by or about John Howard Northrop at Internet Archive Northrop's Nobel Foundation biography Northrop's Nobel Lecture The Preparation of Pure Enzymes and Virus Proteins
The Rockefeller University is a center for scientific research in the biological and medical sciences, that provides doctoral and postdoctoral education. Rockefeller is the oldest biomedical research institute in the United States; the 82-person faculty has 37 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 17 members of the National Academy of Medicine, seven Lasker Award recipients, five Nobel laureates. As of 2017, a total of 36 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Rockefeller University; the university is located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, between 63rd and 68th streets on York Avenue. Richard P. Lifton became the university's eleventh president on September 1, 2016; the Rockefeller University Press publishes the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the Journal of Cell Biology, The Journal of General Physiology. The Rockefeller University was founded in June 1901 as The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research—often called The Rockefeller Institute—by John D. Rockefeller, who had founded the University of Chicago in 1889, upon advice by his adviser Frederick T. Gates and action taken in March 1901 by his son, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Greatly elevating the prestige of American science and medicine, it was America's first biomedical institute, like France's Pasteur Institute and Germany's Robert Koch Institute.
The Rockefeller Foundation, a philanthropic organization, founded in 1913, is a separate entity, but had close connections mediated by prominent figures holding dual positions. The first director of laboratories was Simon Flexner, who supervised the development of research capacity at the Institute, whose staff made major discoveries in basic research and medicine. While a student at Johns Hopkins University, Flexner had studied under the Institute's first scientific director, William H. Welch, first dean of Hopkins' medical school and known as the dean of American medicine. Flexner was succeeded by Herbert Gasser, he was succeeded in 1953 by Detlev Bronk, who broadened The Rockefeller Institute into a university that began awarding the PhD degree in 1954. In 1965 The Rockefeller Institute's name was changed to The Rockefeller University. For its first six decades, the Institute focused on basic research to develop basic science, on applied research as biomedical engineering, since 1910—when The Rockefeller Hospital opened on its campus as America's first facility for clinical research—on clinical science.
The Rockefeller Hospital's first director Rufus Cole retired in 1937 and was succeeded by Thomas Milton Rivers. As director of The Rockefeller Institute's virology laboratory, he established virology as an independent field apart from bacteriology. Notable figures to emerge from the institution include Alexis Carrel, Peyton Rous, Hideyo Noguchi, Thomas Milton Rivers, Richard Shope, Thomas Francis Jr, Oswald T. Avery, Rebecca Lancefield, Wendell Meredith Stanley, René Dubos, Ashton Carter, Cornelius P. Rhoads. Others attained eminence before being drawn to the university. Joshua Lederberg, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958, served as president of the university from 1978 to 1990. Paul Nurse, who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2001, was president from 2003 to 2010. In all, 36 Nobel Prize recipients have been associated with the University. In the mid-1970s, the University attracted a few prominent academicians in the humanities, such as Saul Kripke. Rockefeller Sr, urged by Rockefeller Jr, his only son, enthusiastic about the Institute, visited the University once.
Rockefeller Jr's youngest son David would visit with his father. David Rockefeller joined the board of trustees in 1940, was its chairman from 1950 to 1975, chaired the board's executive committee from 1975 to 1995, became honorary chairman and life trustee, remained active as a philanthropist until his death; the archives of Rockefeller University are at the Rockefeller Archive Center, established in 1974 as part of the university and organized as an independent foundation since 2008. Dr. Reginald Archibald, an endocrinologist at the university from 1948 to 1982 abused dozens of boys during his time at the University while studying growth problems in children, including molestation and photographing them naked. Officials at Rockefeller University knew of the legitimacy of the claims for years before notifying the public; the University and hospital has issued a statement confirming that he had "engaged in certain inappropriate conduct during patient examinations" and that they "deeply regret" any "pain and suffering" the former patients have felt.
Governor Andrew Cuomo has stated that he will sign a bill, passed in the New York congress that would null the statute of limitations for the civil suits of child victims, which will allow them to make cases against the University. More than 80 heads of laboratories 200 research and clinical scientists 350 postdoctoral investigators 1,050 clinicians, technicians and support staffTo foster an interdisciplinary atmosphere among its laboratories, faculty members are grouped into one or more of ten interconnecting research areas: biochemistry, chemical biology, structural biology cancer biology cell biology genetics and genomics immunology and microbiology mechanisms of human disease neurosciences and behavior organismal biology and evolution physical and computational biology stem cells, development and aging Rockefeller has a history of research breakthroughs including: First to culture the infectious agent associated with syphilis Showed that viruses can be oncogenic, enabled the field tumor biology Development of tissue culture technique
Farrington Daniels, was an American physical chemist, is considered one of the pioneers of the modern direct use of solar energy. Daniels was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on March 8, 1889. Daniels began day school in 1895 at the Kenwood School and on to Douglas School; as a boy, he was fascinated with Thomas Edison, Samuel F. B. Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, John Charles Fields, he decided early that he wanted to be an inventor. He attended East Side high schools. By this point he liked chemistry and physics, but enjoyed “Manual Training." In 1906 he entered the University of Minnesota, majoring in chemistry and adding to the usual mathematics and analytical courses some courses in botany and scientific German. He was initiated into the Beta Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma in 1908, he sometimes worked summers as a railroad surveyor. He took his degree in chemistry in 1910; the following year he spent half his time in teaching and received an M. S. for graduate work in physical chemistry. He entered Harvard in 1911, paying for his studies through a teaching fellowship, received a Ph.
D. in 1914. His doctoral research on the electrochemistry of thallium alloys was supervised by Theodore William Richards. In the summer of 1912, Daniels had visited Europe. After earning his Ph. D. Harvard would have sent him on a traveling fellowship in Europe, but World War I broke out. So instead he accepted a position as instructor at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, besides teaching, he found he had considerable time for research in calorimetry, for which he received a grant from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he joined the University of Wisconsin in 1920 as an assistant professor in 1920, remained until his retirement in 1959 as chairman of the chemistry department. Daniels was director of the Metallurgical Laboratory of the Manhattan Project and, after the war, became concerned to limit or stop the nuclear arms race. In that regard, he became a Board Member of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. In 1947 Daniels conceived the pebble bed reactor, in which helium rises through fissioning uranium oxide or carbide pebbles and cools them by carrying away heat for power production.
The "Daniels' pile" was an early version of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor developed further at ORNL without success, but being developed as nuclear power plant by Rudolf Schulten. Daniels is known for writing several textbooks on physical chemistry, including Mathematical preparation for physical chemistry, Experimental physical chemistry, co-authored with J. Howard Mathews and John Warren, Chemical Kinetics, Physical Chemistry, co-authored with Robert Alberty; some of these books went through many subsequent editions until about 1980. He was awarded the Priestley Medal in 1957. Daniels died on June 1972 from complications from liver cancer, he was survived by his wife, four children, twelve grandchildren. He was inducted posthumously to the Alpha Chi Sigma Hall of Fame in 1982. Daniels became a leading American expert on the principles involved with the practical utilization of solar energy, he pursued understanding of the heat and the convection that can be derived from it, as well as the electrical energy that could be derived from it.
As Director of the University of Wisconsin–Madison's Solar Energy Laboratory, he explored such areas of practical application as cooking, space heating and industrial drying, distillation and refrigeration, photo- and thermo-electric conversion, he was interested in energy storage. In particular, he believed there were many practical applications of solar energy for ready use in the developing world. Daniels was active with the Association for Applied Solar Energy in the mid-1950s, he suggested that AFASE embark upon the publication of a scientific journal, the first issue of The Journal of Solar Energy Science and Engineering appeared in January, 1957. As Professor Emeritus of Chemistry of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he led a group of solar scientists who proposed that AFASE be reorganized, that its directors and officers be elected by the membership, that the name be changed to The Solar Energy Society – all of, done, he supported solar energy because, as he said in 1955, "We realize, as never before, that our fossil fuels – coal and gas – will not last forever."One of his classic books is Direct Use of the Sun's Energy, published by Yale University Press in 1964.
The book was reprinted in a mass market edition in 1974 by Ballantine Books, after the 1973 oil crisis, was described as "The best book on solar energy that I know of" by the Whole Earth Catalog's Steve Baer. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life. A sub-discipline of both biology and chemistry, biochemistry can be divided in three fields. Over the last decades of the 20th century, biochemistry has through these three disciplines become successful at explaining living processes. All areas of the life sciences are being uncovered and developed by biochemical methodology and research. Biochemistry focuses on understanding how biological molecules give rise to the processes that occur within living cells and between cells, which in turn relates to the study and understanding of tissues and organism structure and function. Biochemistry is related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.
The chemistry of the cell depends on the reactions of smaller molecules and ions. These can be inorganic, for example water and metal ions, or organic, for example the amino acids, which are used to synthesize proteins; the mechanisms by which cells harness energy from their environment via chemical reactions are known as metabolism. The findings of biochemistry are applied in medicine and agriculture. In medicine, biochemists investigate the cures of diseases. In nutrition, they study how to maintain health wellness and study the effects of nutritional deficiencies. In agriculture, biochemists investigate soil and fertilizers, try to discover ways to improve crop cultivation, crop storage and pest control. At its broadest definition, biochemistry can be seen as a study of the components and composition of living things and how they come together to become life, in this sense the history of biochemistry may therefore go back as far as the ancient Greeks. However, biochemistry as a specific scientific discipline has its beginning sometime in the 19th century, or a little earlier, depending on which aspect of biochemistry is being focused on.
Some argued that the beginning of biochemistry may have been the discovery of the first enzyme, diastase, in 1833 by Anselme Payen, while others considered Eduard Buchner's first demonstration of a complex biochemical process alcoholic fermentation in cell-free extracts in 1897 to be the birth of biochemistry. Some might point as its beginning to the influential 1842 work by Justus von Liebig, Animal chemistry, or, Organic chemistry in its applications to physiology and pathology, which presented a chemical theory of metabolism, or earlier to the 18th century studies on fermentation and respiration by Antoine Lavoisier. Many other pioneers in the field who helped to uncover the layers of complexity of biochemistry have been proclaimed founders of modern biochemistry, for example Emil Fischer for his work on the chemistry of proteins, F. Gowland Hopkins on enzymes and the dynamic nature of biochemistry; the term "biochemistry" itself is derived from a combination of chemistry. In 1877, Felix Hoppe-Seyler used the term as a synonym for physiological chemistry in the foreword to the first issue of Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie where he argued for the setting up of institutes dedicated to this field of study.
The German chemist Carl Neuberg however is cited to have coined the word in 1903, while some credited it to Franz Hofmeister. It was once believed that life and its materials had some essential property or substance distinct from any found in non-living matter, it was thought that only living beings could produce the molecules of life. In 1828, Friedrich Wöhler published a paper on the synthesis of urea, proving that organic compounds can be created artificially. Since biochemistry has advanced since the mid-20th century, with the development of new techniques such as chromatography, X-ray diffraction, dual polarisation interferometry, NMR spectroscopy, radioisotopic labeling, electron microscopy, molecular dynamics simulations; these techniques allowed for the discovery and detailed analysis of many molecules and metabolic pathways of the cell, such as glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, led to an understanding of biochemistry on a molecular level. Philip Randle is well known for his discovery in diabetes research is the glucose-fatty acid cycle in 1963.
He confirmed. High fat oxidation was responsible for the insulin resistance. Another significant historic event in biochemistry is the discovery of the gene, its role in the transfer of information in the cell; this part of biochemistry is called molecular biology. In the 1950s, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins were instrumental in solving DNA structure and suggesting its relationship with genetic transfer of information. In 1958, George Beadle and Edward Tatum received the Nobel Prize for work in fungi showing that one gene produces one enzyme. In 1988, Colin Pitchfork was the first person convicted of murder with DNA evidence, which led to the growth of forensic science. More Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the 2006 Nobel Prize for discovering the role of RNA interference, in the silencing of gene expression. Around two dozen of the 92
Canton is a town in Norfolk County, United States. The population was 21,561 at the 2010 census. Canton is part of Greater Boston, about 15 miles southwest of downtown Boston. Canton was incorporated on February 23, 1797 from the town of Stoughton, Massachusetts; the name "Canton" was suggested by Elijah Dunbar and comes from the early belief that Canton, China was on the complete opposite side of the earth, however this theory has been debunked. In addition to being a prominent Canton citizen, Elijah Dunbar was the first president of the Stoughton Musical Society from 1786 to 1808. Now named the Old Stoughton Music Society, it is the oldest choral society in the United States. Paul Revere built the nation's first copper rolling mill in Canton in 1801, his poem entitled Canton Dale expresses his affection for the town. Canton was the location of the Rising Sun Stove Polish Company, founded by Elijah Morse, a wealthy merchant and creator of the pot-belly stove. Canton is the headquarters of Dunkin' Donuts, Organogenesis, Inc.
Boston Mutual Life Insurance Company, Interpolymer Corporation, Casual Male Retail Group, Tweeter. It is home to the Massachusetts Division headquarters of the Salvation Army. According to the Town's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 19.6 square miles, of which, 18.9 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. Canton lies at the foot of Great Blue Hill; the Canton River flows through the center of the town, linking a chain of small lakes including Bolivar and Forge Ponds and flowing into the Neponset River. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Canton and its western neighbors: Norwood and Dedham. In addition to wooded land, the area includes wetlands in the eastern part along Route 138 near the Randolph and Stoughton borders, in the western part along I-95. Canton borders the towns of Dedham, Norwood, Sharon, Stoughton and the Hyde Park neighborhood in the city of Boston.
As of the 2010 census, there were 21,561 people, 7,952 households, 5,550 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,097.3 people per square mile. There were 8,163 housing units at an average density of 431.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.1% White, 6.96% African American, 0.05% Native American, 6.74% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.80% of the population. 83.3% of the population was non-Hispanic white in 2010, down from 98.0% in 1980. There were 7,952 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.2% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 5.6% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $109,260, the median income for a family was $132,904. Males had a median income of $52,216 versus $40,755 for females; the per capita income for the town was $43,510. About 5.2% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.7% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. The town of Canton has three public elementary schools: the John F. Kennedy School, Lt. Peter M. Hansen School, Dean S. Luce School; the area in which one lives determines. Canton has one public middle school, the William H. Galvin Middle School, where all of the three elementary schools combine, it is located next to the Lt. Peter M. Hansen Elementary School. Canton has a public high school, Canton High School, that provides grades 9-12. There is one private school, St. John the Evangelist, open since 1883 and serves students in grades Preschool-8.
In addition, the state's Pappas Rehabilitation Hospital for Children known as the Massachusetts Hospital School, is in Canton. In addition, the Marilyn G. Rodman Educational and Administrative Center is located next to Canton High School, housing administrative buildings as well as a preschool; the Blue Hills Regional Technical School and the Canton campus of Massasoit Community College are located within the town as well. Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech Clarke School for the Deaf, operates a satellite school, "Clarke Boston", in Canton for children who are diagnosed with deafness at an early age and are mainstreamed to a public school. Clarke is the oldest school for the deaf in the country that teaches children to lip-read and speak orally, rather than use sign language. CHS AwardsCanton High Boys Varsity Hockey team won the Division II State Championships at the TD North Garden in Boston in 2010. 2011 Hockomock Davenport Champions in Field Hockey, Girls Soccer, Boys Soccer 2011 Hock Golf Championships: 1st Place 2011 Hockomock Classic Cup Champions in Field Hockey, Girls Soccer, Boys Soccer 2011 South Sectional Champions in Field Hockey & Girls Soccer 2014 EMASS Champions: Girls Soccer Also, The CHS Math
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Wendell Meredith Stanley was an American biochemist and Nobel laureate. Stanley was born in Ridgeville and earned a BS in Chemistry at Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana, he studied at the University of Illinois, gaining an MS in science in 1927 followed by a Ph. D. in chemistry two years later. His accomplishments include writing the book "Chemistry: A Beautiful Thing" and being a Pulitzer Prize nominee; as a member of National Research Council he moved temporarily for academic work with Heinrich Wieland in Munich before he returned to the States in 1931. On return he was approved as an assistant at The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, he remained with the Institute until 1948, becoming an Associate Member in 1937, a Member in 1940. In 1948, he became Professor of Biochemistry at the University of California and built the Virus Laboratory and a free-standing Department of Biochemistry building, now called Stanley Hall. Stanley's work contributed to on lepracidal compounds, diphenyl stereochemistry and the chemistry of the sterols.
His researches on the virus causing the mosaic disease in tobacco plants led to the isolation of a nucleoprotein which displayed tobacco mosaic virus activity. Stanley was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1946, his other notable awards included the Rosenburger Medal, Alder Prize, Scott Award, the AMA Scientific Achievement Award. He was awarded honorary degrees by many universities both American and foreign, including Harvard, Yale and the University of Paris. Most of the conclusions Stanley had presented in his Nobel-winning research were soon shown to be incorrect. Stanley had three daughters and a son. Stanley Hall at UC Berkeley and Stanley Hall at Earlham College are named in his honor, his daughter, married Dr. Robert Albo, physician to the Golden State Warriors basketball team as well as the Oakland Raiders football team. Wendell's Nobel Foundation biography Wendell's Nobel Lecture The Isolation and Properties of Crystalline Tobacco Mosaic Virus Wendell Meredith Stanley and the birth of biochemistry at UC Berkeley Guide to the Wendell M. Stanley Papers at The Bancroft Library Works by or about Wendell Meredith Stanley at Internet Archive
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th