James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck, was a Scottish biographer and lawyer, born in Edinburgh. He is best known for his biography of his friend and older contemporary, the English writer Samuel Johnson, said to be the greatest biography written in the English language. A great mass of his diaries and private papers were recovered from the 1920s to the 1950s, their ongoing publication has transformed his reputation. Boswell was born in Blair's Land on the east side of Parliament Close behind St Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh on 29 October 1740, he was the eldest son of a judge, Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck, his wife Euphemia Erskine. As the eldest son, he was heir to his family's estate of Auchinleck in Ayrshire. Boswell's mother was a strict Calvinist, he felt that his father was cold to him; as a child, he was delicate. Kay Jamison, Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins, in her book Touched by Fire, believes that Boswell may have suffered from bipolar disorder, this condition would afflict him sporadically all through his life.
At the age of five, he was sent to James Mundell's academy, an advanced institution by the standards of the time, where he was instructed in English, Latin and arithmetic. The eight-year-old Boswell was unhappy there, suffered from nightmares and extreme shyness, he was removed from the academy and educated by a string of private tutors. The most notable and supportive of these, John Dunn, exposed Boswell to modern literature, such as the Spectator essays, religion. Dunn was present during Boswell's serious affliction of 1752, when he was confined to the town of Moffat in northern Dumfriesshire; this afforded Boswell his first experience of genuine society. His recovery was rapid and complete, Boswell may have decided that travel and entertainment exerted a calming therapeutic effect on him. At thirteen, Boswell was enrolled into the arts course at the University of Edinburgh, studying there from 1753 to 1758. Midway through his studies, he recovered fully. Boswell had black hair and dark eyes.
His appearance was alert and masculine, he had an ingratiating sense of humour. Upon turning nineteen, he was sent to continue his studies at the University of Glasgow, where he attended the lectures of Adam Smith. While at Glasgow, Boswell decided to become a monk. Upon learning of this, his father ordered him home. Instead of obeying, Boswell ran away to London, where he spent three months, living the life of a libertine, before he was taken back to Scotland by his father. Upon returning, he was re-enrolled at Edinburgh University and forced by his father to sign away most of his inheritance in return for an allowance of £100 a year. On 30 July 1762, Boswell passed his oral law exam, after which his father decided to raise his allowance to £200 a year and permitted him to return to London. In this period, Boswell wrote his London Journal and, on 16 May 1763, met Johnson for the first time; the pair became friends immediately, though Johnson became more of a parental figure in Boswell’s eyes.
Johnson nicknamed him "Bozzy". The first conversation between Johnson and Boswell is quoted in Life of Samuel Johnson as follows: "Mr Johnson, I do indeed come from Scotland, but I cannot help it." "That, Sir, I find, is what a great many of your countrymen cannot help." It was around three months after this first encounter with Johnson that Boswell departed for Europe with the initial goal of continuing his law studies at Utrecht University. He spent a year there and although unhappy the first few months quite enjoyed his time in Utrecht, he befriended and fell in love with Isabelle de Charrière known as Belle van Zuylen, a vivacious young Dutchwoman of unorthodox opinions, his social and intellectual superior. Boswell admired the young widow Geelvinck. After this, Boswell spent most of the next two years travelling around the continent, his Grand Tour. During this time he met Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire with a recommendation letter of Constant d'Hermenches, made a pilgrimage to Rome, where his portrait was painted by George Willison.
Boswell travelled to Corsica to meet one of his heroes, the independence leader Pasquale Paoli. His well-observed diaries and correspondence of this time have been compiled into two books, Boswell in Holland and Boswell on the Grand Tour. Boswell returned to London in February 1766 accompanied by Rousseau's mistress, with whom he had a brief affair on the journey home. After spending a few weeks in the capital, he returned to Scotland, buying the former house of David Hume on James Court on the Lawnmarket, he studied for his final law exam at Edinburgh University. He became an advocate, he practised for over a decade, during which time he spent no more than a month every year with Johnson. He returned to London annually to mingle with Johnson and the rest of the London literary crowd, to escape his mundane existence in Scotland, he found enjoyment in playing the intellectual rhyming game crambo with his peers. Some of his journal entries and letters from this period describe his amatory exploits.
Thus, in 1767, in a letter to William Johnson Temple, he wrote, "I got myself quite intoxicated, went to a Bawdy-house and past a whole night in the arms of a Whore. She indeed was a fine strong spirited Girl, a Whore worthy of Boswell if Boswell must have a whore." A few years earlier, he wrote that during a night with an actress named Louisa, "five times was I lost in supreme rapture. Louisa wa
Thomas Lilburne was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1656 and 1659. He fought in the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. Lilburne was the son of his first wife Jane Chambers, he was a parliamentary officer in 1644. He was steward of the manor of Holm Cultram from 1652 until his death. In 1656, Lilburne was elected Member of Parliament for County Durham in the Second Protectorate Parliament, he was elected MP for Newcastle in 1659 for the Third Protectorate Parliament. He was a major in the army of General Monck and was described as one of the persons instrumental in His Majesty's happy restoration, it is noted that Charles II made Lilburne a grant'concerning Holme' as from Lady day 1664. Lilburne died in 1665 and was buried at the church of Houghton-le -Spring, where he is commemorated on a plain blue slab. Lilburne married Margaret Scurfield, widow of George Scurfield, he was the cousin of Robert Lilburne, the parliamentary soldier, John Lilburne, known as Free-Born John for his championing of democratic freedom
There are many types of foods in the Philippines because of its residents. Many of the Chinese Filipinos have businesses involving Chinese cuisine. Restaurants are seen where there are many Chinese Filipino residents; the food is Cantonese because the chefs are from Hong Kong. The Chinese name of a particular food is given a Filipino name or close equivalent in name to simplify its pronunciation. Philippine cuisine is influenced principally by China and the integrated into the pre-colonial indigenous Filipino cooking practices; when restaurants were established in the 19th century, Chinese food became a staple of the pansiterias, with the food given Spanish names. The "comida China" includes arroz caldo, morisqueta tostada; when the Spaniards came, the food influences they brought were from both Spain and Mexico, as it was through the vice-royalty of Mexico that the Philippines were governed. In the Philippines, trade with China started in the 11th century, as documents show, but it is conjectured that undocumented trade may have started two centuries earlier.
Trade pottery excavated in Laguna province, for example, includes pieces dating to the Tang dynasty. The Chinese trader supplied the silk sent to Spain in the Manila galleon trade. In return, they took back products of field and sea. Evidence of Chinese influence in Philippine food is easy to find, since the names are an obvious clue. Pansit, noodles flavored with seafood and/or meat and/or vegetables, for example, comes from the Hokkien piān-ê-si̍t, meaning something, conveniently cooked: fried. Modern day pansit, however, is not limited only to noodle dishes that are stir fried or sauteed, but those shaken in hot water and flavored with a sauce or served with broth. A its form, not noodle shaped, but is of the same flour-water recipe, such as pansit molo. One can conjecture without fear that the early Chinese traders, wishing for the food of their homeland, made noodles in their temporary Philippine homes. Since they had to use the ingredients locally available, a sea change occurred in their dishes.
Further adaptation and indigenization would occur in the different regions. Thus Malabon, a fishing town in Metro Manila, has developed the pansit Malabon, which features oyster and squid. While in Lucban, inland and far from the sea has pansit Lucban or pansit habhab, prepared with some meat and vegetables. With lumpia, the Chinese eggroll which now has been incorporated into Philippine cuisine when it was still called lumpiang Shanghai. Serving meat and/or vegetable in an edible wrapper is a Chinese technique now found in all of Southeast Asia in variations peculiar to each culture; the Filipino version has meat, vegetables, heart of palm and combinations thereof, served fresh or fried or bare. The Chinese influence goes deep into Philippine cooking, way beyond food names and restaurant fare; the use of soy sauce and other soybean products is Chinese, as is the use of such vegetables as petsay, mustasa. Many cooking implements still bear their original Chinese name, like turner; the Filipino carajay is the Chinese wok.
Cooking process derive from Chinese methods. Pesa is Hokkien for "plain boiled" and is used only in reference to the cooking of fish, the complete term being peq+sa+hi, the last morpheme meaning fish. In Tagalog, it can mean both chicken; as well, foods such as pa ta tim and pa to tim refer to the braising technique used in Chinese cooking. Since most of the early Chinese traders and settlers in the country were from the Fujian province, it is Fujian/Hokkien food, most widespread in influence. However, since restaurant food is Cantonese, most of the Chinese restaurants in the country would serve both cuisines. Other styles of Chinese cuisine are available though in the minority. Batchoy Hopia Kiampong - a variant of fried rice. Kikiam Kwapau Lomi Lumpia - a derivative of popiah Machang - a derivative of zongzi Maki - pork, beef or fish in a thick cornstarch-based soup Mami - a noodle soup invented by Ma Mon Luk Pancit Siomai Siopao Taho Goto - rice porridge with ox tripe Pork Tito Bicho-Bicho / Shakoy - youtiao Tikoy