South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Imperial Brands plc Imperial Tobacco Group plc, is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in Bristol, United Kingdom. It is the world’s fourth-largest international cigarette company measured by market share after Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco, the world's largest producer of cigars, fine-cut tobacco, tobacco papers. Imperial Brands produces over 320 billion cigarettes per year, has 51 factories worldwide, its products are sold in over 160 countries, its brands include Davidoff, Gauloises Blondes, Golden Virginia and Rizla. Imperial Brands is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization around £24.3 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 19th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Imperial Tobacco Canada has no relationship to Imperial Tobacco Group plc. Imperial Tobacco Canada is the Canadian subsidiary of British American Tobacco; the Imperial Tobacco Company was created in 1901 through the amalgamation of 13 British tobacco and cigarette companies: W.
D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol, John Player & Sons of Nottingham, 11 other independent family businesses, which were in competition with companies from the United States by the American Tobacco Company. First W. D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol merged with Stephen Son of Glasgow. Subsequently, other smaller companies including Lambert & Butler, William Clarke & Son, Franklyn Davey, Edwards Ringer & Bigg, Hignett Brothers, Hignett's Tobacco, Adkins & Sons, Richmond Cavendish, D&J MacDoland, F&J Smith joined in the amalgamation. In 1904, James & Finlay Bell Ltd merged with Stephen Son; the Company's first chairman was Sir William Henry Wills, Bt. of the Wills Company. In 1902, the Imperial Tobacco Company and the American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture: the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd; the parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses, overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. It built the Imperial Tobacco Company Building at Mullins, South Carolina, between 1908 and 1913.
American Tobacco sold its share in 1911, but Imperial maintained an interest in British American Tobacco until 1980. In 1973, the Imperial Tobacco Company, having become diversified by acquisition of restaurant chains, food services and distribution businesses, changed its name to Imperial Group. In 1910, Imperial Tobacco formed the Imperial Tobacco Company of India. In 1985, the company acquired the Peoples Drugstore chain and all subsidiaries from A. C. Israel. In 1986 the Company was acquired by the conglomerate Hanson Trust plc for £2.5billion. Divestments during the period of ownership by Hanson included Courage Brewery to Elders, Golden Wonder to Dalgety, Finlays to Arunbhai J. Patel, the wholesaling arm of Sinclair & Collis to Palmer & Harvey, Imperial Hotels and Catering to Trust House Forte and Ross Frozen Foods to United Biscuits; this led to a dispute over pension payments to employees, as seen in Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd. In 1996, following a decision to concentrate on core tobacco activities, Hanson de-merged Imperial and it was listed as an independent company on the UK stock exchange.
In 2003, Imperial acquired the world's fourth-largest tobacco company, Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH of Germany: the deal added brands such as Davidoff, Peter Stuyvesant, West to its portfolio. In 2007, Imperial Tobacco entered the United States tobacco market with its $1.9-billion acquisition of Commonwealth Brands Inc. the fourth-largest tobacco company in the US. In February 2008, Imperial acquired the world's fifth-largest tobacco company, whose brands included Fortuna, Gauloises Blondes, Gitanes. A number of factory closures were subsequently announced, including the long-running cigar factory in Bristol. Following the Scottish Parliament's decision in January 2010 to ban the display of tobacco products in shops, as well as the availability of tobacco vending machines in public buildings with effect from autumn 2011, Imperial Tobacco attempted to challenge the change in the law on the grounds that regulations of the sale goods rested with the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. However, this case was dismissed on 30 September 2010 by Lord Bracadale in the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
In 2011, Altadis USA Inc. said it would add to its Fort Lauderdale, Florida and move Commonwealth Brands Inc. employees from Bowling Green, Kentucky. The company's name changed to Commonwealth-Altadis Inc. In 2013, Imperial opened a new global headquarters in Bristol. In April 2014, Imperial announced the closure of its long-running Horizon factory in Nottingham; the factory closed in 2016. On 15 July 2014, Reynolds American agreed to buy Greensboro, North Carolina-based Lorillard Tobacco Company, for $27.4 billion. The deal included the sale of the Kool, Winston and blu eCigs brands to Imperial for $7.1 billion. In November 2014, Imperial said Commonwealth-Altadis and the Lorillard operations being acquired would be called ITG Brands LLC; the deal with Lorillard was completed on 12 June 2015, as part of the deal, Greensboro became the location of the ITG headquarters. On 1 November 2018, ITG announced production would move from the former American Tobacco Company plant in Reidsville, North Carolina, built in 1892 and expanded, to Greensboro by 2020.
The plant made USA Gold, Sonoma, Mo
Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort; the main campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. East Campus, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2018, 13 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university.
Further, Duke alumni include 25 Churchill Scholars. The university has produced the 5th highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015; as of 2018, Duke holds a top-ten position in several national rankings. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter; the academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men."
In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name. At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men.
With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college. A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission.
In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Martin Luther King Jr. to speak at the University in November 1964 on the progress of the Civil Rights Movement. Following Douglas Knight's resignation from the office of university president, Terry Sanford, the former governor of North Carolina, was elected president of the university in 1969, propelling The Fuqua School of Business' opening, the William R. Perkins library completion, the founding of the Institute of Policy Sciences and Public Affairs; the separate Woman's College merged back with Trinity as the liberal arts college for both men and women in 1972. Beginning in the 1970s, Duke administrators began a long-term effort to strengthen Duke's r
Robber baron (industrialist)
"Robber baron" is a derogatory metaphor of social criticism applied to certain late 19th-century American businessmen who were accused of using unscrupulous methods to get rich, or expand their wealth, for example Cornelius Vanderbilt taking money from government-subsidized shippers, in order to not compete on their routes. The term was based on an analogy to the German robber barons, local feudal lords or bandits in Germany who waylaid travellers through their ostensible territory, claiming some tax or fine was owed; the term robber baron derives from the Raubritter, the medieval German lords who charged nominally illegal tolls on the primitive roads crossing their lands or larger tolls along the Rhine river—all without adding anything of value, but instead lining their pockets at the cost of the common good. The metaphor appeared as early as February 9, 1859, when The New York Times used it to characterize the business practices of Cornelius Vanderbilt. Historian T. J. Stiles says the metaphor "conjures up visions of titanic monopolists who crushed competitors, rigged markets, corrupted government.
In their greed and power, legend has it, they held sway over a helpless democracy."The first such usage was against Vanderbilt, for taking money from high-priced, government-subsidized shippers, in order to not compete on their routes. Political cronies had been granted special shipping routes by the state, but told legislators their costs were so high that they needed to charge high prices and still receive extra money from the taxpayers as funding. Vanderbilt's private shipping company began running the same routes, charging a fraction of the price, making a large profit without taxpayer subsidy; the state-funded shippers began paying Vanderbilt money to not ship on their route. A critic of this tactic drew a political comic depicting Vanderbilt as a feudal robber baron extracting a toll. Charles R. Geisst says, "in a Darwinist age, Vanderbilt developed a reputation as a plunderer who took no prisoners." Hal Bridges said that the term represented the idea that "business leaders in the United States from about 1865 to 1900 were, on the whole, a set of avaricious rascals who habitually cheated and robbed investors and consumers, corrupted government, fought ruthlessly among themselves, in general carried on predatory activities comparable to those of the robber barons of medieval Europe."The term combines the pejorative senses of criminal and aristocrat.
Hostile cartoonists might dress the offenders in royal garb to underscore the offense against democracy. Historian Richard White argues that the builders of the transcontinental railroads have attracted a great deal of attention but the interpretations are contradictory: at first hostile and very favorable. At first, White says, they were depicted as: Robber Barons, standing for a Gilded Age of corruption and rampant individualism, their corporations were the Octopus. In the twentieth century and the twenty-first they became entrepreneurs, necessary business revolutionaries, ruthlessly changing existing practices and demonstrating the protean nature of American capitalism, their new corporations transmuted and became manifestations of the "Visible Hand," a managerial rationality that eliminated waste, increased productivity, brought bourgeois values to replace those of financial buccaneers. Historian John Tipple has examined the writings of the 50 most influential analysts who used the robber baron model in the 1865–1914 period.
He argues:The originators of the Robber Baron concept were not the injured, the poor, the faddists, the jealous, or a dispossessed elite, but rather a frustrated group of observers led at last by protracted years of harsh depression to believe that the American dream of abundant prosperity for all was a hopeless myth.... Thus the creation of the Robber Baron stereotype seems to have been the product of an impulsive popular attempt to explain the shift in the structure of American society in terms of the obvious. Rather than make the effort to understand the intricate processes of change, most critics appeared to slip into the easy vulgarizations of the "devil-view" of history which ingenuously assumes that all human misfortunes can be traced to the machinations of an located set of villains—in this case, the big businessmen of America; this assumption was implicit in all of the criticism of the period. American historian Matthew Josephson further popularized the term during the Great Depression in a 1934 book.
Josephson alleged that, like the German princes, American big businessmen amassed huge fortunes immorally and unjustly. The theme was popular during the 1930s amid public scorn for big business. Historian Steve Fraser says the mood was hostile toward big business:Biographies of Mellon and Rockefeller were laced with moral censure, warning that "tories of industry" were a threat to democracy and that parasitism, aristocratic pretension and tyranny have always trailed in the wake of concentrated wealth, whether accumulated dynastically or more impersonally by the faceless corporation; this scholarship, the cultural persuasion of which it was an expression, drew on a rooted sensibility–partly religious egalitarian and democratic–that stretched back to William Jennings Bryan, Andrew Jackson and Tom Paine. However a counterattack by academic historians began. Business historian Allan Nevins challenged this view of American big businessmen by advocating the "Industrial Statesman" thesis. Nevins, in his John D. Rockefeller: The Heroic Age of American Enterprise, took on Josephson
George Washington Duke was an American tobacco industrialist and philanthropist who fought in the American Civil War. Washington Duke was born on December 18, 1820 in eastern Orange County, North Carolina, in what is today the township of Bahama; the eighth of ten children of Taylor Duke and Dicey Jones, Washington worked as a tenant farmer until he married Mary Caroline Clinton in 1842. At the time of their marriage, his father-in-law gave the couple 72 acres of land located in what is today Durham County, it was on this land. The couple had two sons: Sidney Taylor Duke, Brodie Leonidas Duke. Mary Duke died in 1847 at the age of 22. In 1852, Duke built a homestead for his second wife, Artelia Roney, from Alamance County, North Carolina, it still exists. Artelia gave birth to three children between 1853 and 1856: daughter, Mary Elizabeth Duke, sons, Benjamin Newton Duke, James Buchanan Duke. In 1858, oldest son Sidney died. Artelia, caring for Sidney succumbed to the illness ten days later. Little is known about Duke's antebellum views on politics.
However, a majority of people in the Piedmont region of North Carolina leaned towards the Unionist position. Furthermore, the region's views on the issue of slavery was more of ambivalence, rather than strong feelings in favor or in opposition to slavery, "while substantial numbers of white in the piedmont were not directly connected to the institution, they nonetheless accepted its presence without thinking." It is known that Duke owned one enslaved person, named Caroline, whom he purchased for $601, had hired out the labor of an enslaved person from his neighbors to work on his farm. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Duke was 40 years old, too old for the initial conscription into service for the Confederacy. However, the second Confederate Conscription Act passed in September 1862 increased the draft-eligible age to 45. Duke, aware that he would soon be called into military service, held a sale at his home on October 20, 1863, to sell the entirety of his farm equipment, he enlisted in the Confederate navy, served in Charleston, SC, Richmond, VA, until his capture by Union forces in April 1865.
After a brief stint in a Federal prison, he was paroled and was sent by ship to New Bern, from there, walked 134 miles back to his homestead. After the war, Duke abandoned farming in favor of tobacco manufacture. In 1865, using a converted corn crib as a factory, Duke started his first company, "W. Duke and Sons," and began production of pipe tobacco under the brand name "Pro Bono Publico" According to Duke, he, along with his sons Ben and Buck, produced between 400 and 500 pounds of pipe tobacco per day; as their company prospered, they built a two-story factory on the homestead in 1869. In 1874, Washington Duke sold his farm and moved his family into the growing city of Durham, he and his sons built a factory on Main Street, Washington spent the rest of the decade as a traveling salesman for "Pro Bono Publico." In 1880, at the age of 60, Washington Duke sold his share in the business to Richard Harvey Wright, a farmer from nearby Franklin County. W. Duke & Sons & Co. led by Washington Duke's son Buck as president achieved great success as a manufacturer of cigarettes.
This business became the American Tobacco Company around 1890. Through merging multiple partners and through floating stock, the company became the largest tobacco manufacturer in the world. After selling his share in the company, Duke became more involved with local politics as a member of the Republican Party, devoted more time to charitable and philanthropic works. A lifelong member and supporter of the Methodist church, Duke began support local churches financially, as well as institutions of higher learning. Duke helped to bring Trinity College, a Methodist college, to Durham from Randolph County in 1890. In 1896 while Trinity College was struggling financially, Duke donated $100,000 to the institution on the condition "open its doors to women, placing them on equal footing with men." In appreciation, the school offered to rename itself after Duke. Washington Duke died on May 8, 1905, at the age of 84. Interred at Maplewood Cemetery in Durham, he was re-interred after the completion of the Duke Memorial Chapel.
In the 1910s, members of the Duke family began to plan what would become The Duke Endowment of Trinity College. After the indenture for the $40,000,000 Duke Endowment was signed in December 1924 by Washington's youngest son, James B. Duke, Trinity College renamed itself to Duke University in honor of Washington Duke. Today, a statue of Washington Duke sits on Duke University's East Campus. Durden, Robert Franklin, "The Dukes of Durham: 1865–1929", Duke University Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8223-0330-2 North Carolina Historic Sites, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources Office of Archives & History Duke, D. W.. The Duke Legacy. IUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4917-2621-1. OCLC 875351886. Asoldierswalkhome.com library.duke.edu Duke Homestead and Tobacco Factory Duke University biography of Washington Duke
Duke Farms is an estate, established by James Buchanan Duke, an American entrepreneur who founded Duke Power and the American Tobacco Company. Located in Hillsborough, New Jersey the property is managed by the Doris Duke Foundation after the death of Doris Duke, the second owner. After extensive reorganization "Duke Farms" was opened to the public on May 19, 2012. Starting in 1893, "Buck" Duke started to buy land next to the Raritan River in rural New Jersey, his vision was to create a farm similar to those in North Carolina. He engaged a number of architects and engineers to fulfill his dream including Buckenham & Miller, James Leal Greenleaf and Elizabeth Biddle Shipman, he had assembled about 2,700 acres of farm and wood lands that contained 45 buildings, 9 lakes, 18 miles of roads and 1.5 miles of stone walls. Duke died in 1925, his 12-year-old daughter, Doris Duke, gained control of the property after suing her mother, she moved in at the age of fifteen. She was invested in the property and made it her main residence.
She incorporated innovative ecological farming methods she learned from Louis Bromfield's Malabar Farm. Starting in 1958 she created and designed over a five-year period a unique botanical display in the Horace Trumbauer conservatory and greenhouses known as Duke Gardens. Duke Gardens opened to the public in 1964. Doris Duke died in 1993. Duke Farms is owned by the Duke Farms Foundation, established in 1998 to manage the estate; the Foundation, in turn, is part of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. A decision was made to renovate the estate as "a model of environmental stewardship in the 21st Century and inspire visitors to become informed stewards of the land." While reorganizing the estate little was accessible to the public. In 2008, the DFF created some controversy when it permanently closed Duke Gardens demolishing the indoor display gardens, created by Doris Duke. Over years the DFF created new indoor and outdoor display gardens that are eco-friendly, use native plants, are wheelchair accessible.
In the process of rehabilitation numerous invasive foreign plants were removed including Norwegian maple and Asian Ailanthus and replaced by native species. The property has a number of notable trees, including four of the ten oldest trees of New Jersey, two champion trees, a Great Oak and an Amur Cork Tree; as part of the rehabilitation the conservatory and greenhouses known as the Orchid Range were renovated and became more energy-efficient. The Farm Barn was remodeled to become the Orientation Center. In 2016, the mansion where Doris Duke lived was demolished in order to open up the north side of the property. Rough Point Shangri La Falcon's Lair Official website Doris Duke Charitable Foundation
Duke Gardens (New Jersey)
Duke Gardens in Somerset County, New Jersey were among the most significant glass house collections in America. Created by Doris Duke herself, the aerial view confirms they were larger than the New York Botanical Garden's Haupt Conservatory, were open to the public from 1964, they were dismantled. Duke Gardens were part of the 2,700-acre Duke Farms estate built by James Buchanan Duke, founder of the American Tobacco Company and benefactor of Duke University. Duke Farms is located on U. S. Route 206, 1.75 miles south of the Somerville Circle, in Hillsborough Township in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. The Gardens were designed and installed by Doris Duke herself, therefore several alternative names are used: The Doris Duke Indoor Display Gardens at Duke Farms, Duke Farms Indoor Display Gardens, The Doris Duke International Display Gardens, The Duke Gardens Foundation; the Gardens were The Duke Gardens Foundation, Inc, a 501 Private Operating Foundation established 1960. Miss Duke developed these exotic display gardens in honor of her beloved father James Buchanan Duke, Inspired by DuPont's Longwood Gardens, each of the eleven Duke Display Gardens is a full-scale re-creation of a garden theme, country or period.
Display construction began in 1958. Miss Duke both designed the displays and labored on their installation, sometimes working 16-hour days. In 1960 she donated 10 acres of her estate, including the greenhouses, to the Duke Gardens Foundation, Inc; the Duke Farms website stated that "Doris Duke had long been involved in the construction and remodeling of her properties, she was directly involved in the physical design of the Indoor Display Gardens. Although she lacked specific botanical knowledge, she had a clear vision of the spaces and features she wanted to create. According to the New York Post, she designed all but one of the gardens, incorporating her interests in color and fragrance.". Doris Duke continued her involvement with her gardens throughout her life, bringing designers with her to modify them during the summer season when they were closed to tourists. In the 1970s she added extensive night-lighting, introduced public tours of the gardens at night. A rediscovered image of the "stunning nightlighting of the French Gardens" was used as one centerpiece of social protest against the closure.
Duke Gardens formed four sides of a quadrangle, took at least one hour to view. The entry fell on the side formed by a Conservatory designed by Horace Trumbauer and constructed 1909-17; the other three sides were formed by greenhouses in styles. The greenhouse over the English Garden was installed in the 1990s. Duke Gardens were visited in the following sequence: Central entry into an Italian courtyard - statues amid lush plantings in the Romantic style, including a replica of Antonio Canova's sculpture The Three Graces. Colonial Garden - representing gardens of the South Atlantic United States, with camellias, azaleas and crepe myrtle. Edwardian Garden - ferns and orchids French Parterre - flowers planted in a geometric parterre. English Gardens - five miniature gardens, including a topiary. American Desert - cacti and succulents, including barrel cactus, giant aloe, crown of thorns, with desert apple, aloe vera, mother-in-law's tongue, etc. Chinese Garden - koi stream and rock formations, with bamboo, camphor trees, bleeding heart, hybrid tulips, jasmine.
Japanese Garden - tea house with bonsai trees, red maples, etc. Indo-Persian Garden - water course and carved marble screens, with orange trees, Mediterranean cyprus, a Persian rose garden. Tropical Garden - tropical trees and vines. Semi-Tropical Garden - papyrus, fiddlehead ferns, Bird of Paradise, etc. In March 2008 Duke Farms announced "an expansive and bold new vision for the 2,740-acre property, in which it will refocus its programs and operations to become an environmental showcase and learning center; the first major change will be the conclusion in May 2008 of tours of the 11 indoor display gardens". Although the Duke Farms website states that "The Indoor Display Gardens reveal the interests and philanthropic aspirations of Doris Duke, as well as an appreciation for other cultures and a yearning for global understanding", representatives of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation more stated that the Gardens are "perpetuating the Duke family history of personal passions and conspicuous consumption."
"The jewel-like gardens will remain open until May 25. According to DDCF sources, the day of the display gardens is past, they consume an inordinate share of financial and staff resources, they would require a expensive modernization, they no longer reflect the vision of Duke Farm’s future. A video record has been made for archival purposes."The current garden tours are closing to use the building as a staging area for plants, while the other conservatory building is emptied and renovated, officials said. As for the plants there, Taylor said some may be used in the new gardens, though the concept will be different. "It will not be replicated in terms of the gardens of the nations. We'll put a different spin on them, come up with a logical connecting story of native horticulture to exotic horticulture," he said. Leftover plants will be donated to other botanical and display gardens, Taylor said. "We're not destroying anything." In April 20