James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff known as Jim Callaghan, was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980. To date, Callaghan remains the only person to have held all four Great Offices of State, having served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Home Secretary and Foreign Secretary prior to his appointment as Prime Minister; as Prime Minister, he had some successes, but is remembered for the "Winter of Discontent" of 1978–79. During a cold winter, his battle with trade unions led to immense strikes that inconvenienced the public, leading to his defeat in the polls by Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher. Born into a working class family, Callaghan started his career at age 17 as a tax inspector, before becoming a trade union official in the 1930s, he served in the Royal Navy during World War II, he entered the House of Commons in 1945, was on the left wing of the party. Callaghan moved towards the right of the party, but maintained his reputation as "The Keeper of the Cloth Cap"—that is, he was seen as dedicated to maintaining close ties between the Labour Party and the trade unions.

Callaghan's period as Chancellor of the Exchequer coincided with a turbulent period for the British economy, during which he had to wrestle with a balance of payments deficit and speculative attacks on the pound sterling. On 18 November 1967, the government devalued the pound sterling. Callaghan became Home Secretary, he sent the British Army to support the police in Northern Ireland, after a request from the Northern Ireland Government. After Labour was defeated at the 1970 general election, Callaghan played a key role in the Shadow Cabinet, he became Foreign Secretary in 1974 upon Labour regaining government, taking responsibility for renegotiating the terms of the UK's membership of the European Communities, supporting a "Yes" vote in the 1975 referendum to remain in the EC. When Prime Minister Harold Wilson resigned in 1976, Callaghan defeated five other candidates to be elected as his replacement. Labour had lost its narrow majority in the House of Commons by the time he became Prime Minister, further by-election defeats and defections forced Callaghan to deal with minor parties such as the Liberal Party in the "Lib–Lab pact" from 1977 to 1978.

Industrial disputes and widespread strikes in the 1978 "Winter of Discontent" made Callaghan's government unpopular, the defeat of the referendum on devolution for Scotland led to the successful passage of a motion of no confidence on 28 March 1979. This was followed by a defeat at the ensuing general election. Callaghan remained Labour Party leader until November 1980, in order to reform the process by which the party elected its leader, before returning to the backbenches where he remained until he was made a life peer as Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, he went on to live longer than any other British prime minister in history -- 364 days. Leonard James Callaghan was born at 38 Funtington Road, Portsmouth, England, on 27 March 1912, he took his middle name from his father, the son of an Irish Catholic father who had fled to England during the Great Irish Famine, a Jewish mother. Callaghan's father ran away from home in the 1890s to join the Royal Navy, he rose to the rank of Chief Petty Officer.

His mother was Charlotte Callaghan an English Baptist. As the Catholic Church at the time refused to marry Catholics to members of other denominations, James Callaghan senior abandoned Catholicism and married Charlotte in a Baptist chapel, their first child was Dorothy Gertrude Callaghan. James Callaghan senior served in the First World War on board the battleship HMS Agincourt. After he was demobbed in 1919, he joined the Coastguard and the family moved to the town of Brixham in Devon, however he died only two years of a heart attack in 1921 at the age of 44, leaving the family without an income, forced to rely on charity to survive, their financial situation was improved in 1924 when the first Labour government was elected, introduced changes allowing Mrs Callaghan to be granted a widows pension of ten shillings a week, on the basis that her husband's death was due to his war service. In his early years, Callaghan was known by his first name Leonard, when he entered politics in 1945 he decided to be known by his middle name James, from on he was referred to as James or Jim.

He attended Portsmouth Northern Grammar School. He gained the Senior Oxford Certificate in 1929, but could not afford entrance to university and instead sat the Civil Service entrance exam. At the age of 17, Callaghan left to work as a clerk for the Inland Revenue at Maidstone in Kent. While working as a tax inspector, Callaghan joined the Maidstone branch of the Labour Party and the Association of the Officers of Taxes a trade union for those in his profession, and within a year of joining he became the office secretary of the union. In 1932 he passed a Civil Service exam which enabled him to become a senior tax inspector, that same year he became the Kent branch secretary of the AOT; the following year he was elected to the AOT's national executive council. In 1934, he was transferred to Inland Revenue offices in London. Following a merger of unions in 1936, Callaghan was appointed a full-time union official and to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Inl

Jose Serrano Adobe

The José Serrano Adobe is a historic 1863 adobe house in Lake Forest, Orange County, California. The property is one of four historic buildings in the Heritage Hill Historic Park, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 24, 1976. The adobe was built by José Serrano in 1863, on the 10,688-acre Rancho Canada de los Alisos granted by Governor Juan B. Alvarado in 1842 and Governor Pio Pico in 1846, it is the second of five adobe structures built by the Serranos on the rancho. Serrano and his family lived in the adobe raising longhorn cattle until a series of droughts, beginning in 1863 and continuing intermittently through 1883, forced the family to divide the ranch and mortgage several sections. Dwight Whiting, who played a major role in the development of El Toro, purchased the Serrano Adobe and a significant area of the rancho in 1884, his son, George Whiting, made extensive additions to the dwelling in 1932, adding a dining room and kitchen. Shortly after George Whiting's restoration effort, the Serrano Adobe was nominated and accepted as California State Landmark #199.

The extensive gardens include both over a hundred years old. The last private owner, V. P. Baker, used the home from 1958 to 1969, restoring and refurnishing the house as a vacation home and a meeting place for the Aliso Water Company; the Bakers sold the 5,000-acre Baker Ranch to Occidental Petroleum in 1969 for $11 million with the requirement that the new owners donate the Serrano Adobe to a public agency for preservation. In 1974, Deane Brothers, a development subsidiary of Occidental Petroleum, proceeded to donate 55.9 acres round the Serrano Adobe and Serrano Creek to the County of Orange. Orange County set aside 4.1 acres surrounding the Serrano Adobe for the development of a historical park, now dedicated to interpreting the early history of the Saddleback Valley and El Toro area. The Saddleback Area Historical Society formed in 1973 and supported the preservation of El Toro's first church, St. George's Episcopal Mission, the first schoolhouse, the El Toro Grammar School, by moving these buildings to the Serrano Adobe site in 1976.

The Harvey Bennett Ranch House, built in 1908, was moved to the site in 1978 with the cooperation of the developers of the Bennett Ranch subdivision, the William Lyon Company. The José Serrano Adobe site opened as Orange County's first historical park under the name Heritage Hill Historical Park in May 1981. After the completion of the Bennett House restoration, the County rededicated the park in September 1985. State of California Historic Landmark No. 199, La Casa de Adobe de Jose Serrano, Home of Jose Serrano, original grantee of Rancho Canada de los Alisos Restored A. D. 1932 National Register of Historic Places listings in Orange County, California California Historical Landmarks in Orange County, California Orange County Parks: Heritage Hill Historical Park

Juice Newton

Judy Kay "Juice" Newton is an American pop and country singer and musician. To date, Newton has received five Grammy Award nominations in the Pop and Country Best Female Vocalist categories - winning once in 1983 - as well as an ACM Award for Top New Female Artist and two Billboard Female Album Artist of the Year awards. Newton's other awards include a People's Choice Award for "Best Female Vocalist" and the Australian Music Media's "Number One International Country Artist." Newton has several Gold and Platinum records to her credit, including Juice, Quiet Lies and her first Greatest Hits album. During the 1980s, she charted 14 Top-10 hits across the Billboard Country, AC, Billboard Hot 100 charts, with many of the recordings achieving crossover success and six of the songs hitting the No. 1 position. Newton was born on February 18, 1952, in Lakehurst, New Jersey, graduated from First Colonial High School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, her mother encouraged her interest in music. After graduating from high school, Newton attended Foothill College in Los Altos Hills, where she played folk music in local coffeehouses.

She formed a folk-rock band with guitarist and songwriter Otha Young, played bars around northern California. In the early 1970s, Otha Young and Tom Kealey formed a band that would be called Juice Newton & Silver Spur, signed to RCA Records; the group released two albums for RCA, in 1975 and 1976, but scored only one charting country single with "Love Is a Word." The band was dropped by RCA joined Capitol Records in 1977. The band disbanded shortly after releasing just one more album. In late 1977, Newton went solo and continued to record for Capitol, although Silver Spur would remain the name of her backup band until 1982; that year, Newton provided backing vocals for Bob Welch's platinum solo debut album on three tracks, including his hit "Ebony Eyes". In 1977, "It's a Heartache" became Newton's first solo record and a major hit in Mexico, where it was certified Gold. In 1978, Newton released the song in the United States, it became the first of her 11 "Hot 100" pop hits. In 1978, The Carpenters' version of the Newton/Young-penned song "Sweet, Sweet Smile" reached the Top 10 on both the Country and Adult Contemporary charts, #44 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.

Newton's solo debut album, Well Kept Secret, was released in 1978 and stands as Newton's most rock-oriented record, to date. Neither the record nor its sole single "Hey Baby" charted, though Capitol Records proceeded to renew Newton's contract. Capitol's investment in Newton began to pay off in 1979, when Newton had her first Top-40 Country hit with "Let's Keep It That Way"; that year, the album Take Heart featured five modestly charting singles: "Until Tonight". The last became Newton's second top-40 single on the country charts in 1980, with "You Fill My Life" reaching No. 41 and "Until Tonight" reaching No. 42. Both of Newton's initial solo efforts performed with modest success but failed to have lasting impacts on the album charts. In 1981, Newton's third solo album titled Juice, was released, it spawned three consecutive Top-10 pop hits: "Angel of the Morning". A fourth single, "Ride'Em Cowboy," was lifted from Juice in 1984 to support Newton's first Greatest Hits album and reached the Top 40 of the Billboard Country chart.

Newton's video for "Angel of the Morning" was the first country-music video to air on MTV and the 40th video to air on the channel overall. Newton was the third female solo artist to be featured on MTV its first air date, after videos by Pat Benatar and Carly Simon. Juice went Triple-Platinum in Canada. "Angel of the Morning" and "The Sweetest Thing" each reached #1 on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart, where Newton would chart for the next several years. In 1982, Newton received two Grammy nominations for Best Female Vocalist: one for "Angel of the Morning" in the Pop category, another for "Queen of Hearts" in Country; these two singles became her biggest sellers in the United States, each earning an RIAA Gold certification. The songs were sizable hits in Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, other countries. For example, "Angel of the Morning" peaked at No. 1 in Canada and No. 43 in the UK Singles Chart in 1981. While "The Sweetest Thing" failed to receive a U. S. certification, the song's popularity propelled album sales from Gold to Platinum, the recording remained in the Top 40 for 18 weeks.

"Shot Full Of Love" was released as a single in the UK, but failed to chart. In the spring of 1982 Newton released her fourth solo album, Quiet Lies, which sold 900,000 copies in the United States; the album went platinum in Canada. From Quiet Lies came the Top 10 Pop and Adult Contemporary hit "Love's Been a Little Bit Hard on Me". "Break It to Me Gently" was the second single and hit #1 on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart, #2 on the Billboard Country chart