The Pont Saint-Bénézet known as the Pont d'Avignon, is a famous medieval bridge in the town of Avignon, in southern France. A wooden bridge spanning the Rhône between Villeneuve-lès-Avignon and Avignon was built between 1177 and 1185; this early bridge was destroyed forty years during the Albigensian Crusade when Louis VIII of France laid siege to Avignon. Beginning in 1234 the bridge was rebuilt with 22 stone arches, it was abandoned in the mid-17th century as the arches tended to collapse each time the Rhône flooded making it expensive to maintain. Four arches and the gatehouse at the Avignon end of the bridge have survived; the Chapel of Saint Nicholas sits on the second pier of the bridge. It was constructed in the second half of 12th century but has since been altered; the western terminus, the Tour Philippe-le-Bel, is preserved. The bridge was the inspiration for the song Sur le pont d'Avignon and is considered a landmark of the city. In 1995, the surviving arches of the bridge, together with the Palais des Papes and Cathédrale Notre-Dame des Doms were classified as a World Heritage Site.
The bridge spanned the Rhône between Villeneuve-lès-Avignon. The first bridge was built with an length of some 900 m, it was destroyed during the siege of Avignon by Louis VIII of France in 1226 but beginning in 1234 it was rebuilt. Historians have suggested that the first bridge would have been either constructed of wood or may have been a wooden superstructure supported on stone piers. Only when rebuilt was the bridge constructed in stone; the stone bridge had 21 piers. It did not run directly between the two gatehouses, but instead followed a curved path an adaption to the position of the islands when it was first built. Over the centuries the Rhône has shifted across its floodplain; the position of the islands in the 13th century is not well documented but a 17th century map shows that the southern end of the Île de la Barthelasse was upstream of the bridge. The bridge crossed small islands; the spacing between the piers varied between 52 m. The bridge was only 4.9 m including the parapets at the sides.
The arches were liable to collapse when the river flooded and were sometimes replaced with temporary wooden structures before being rebuilt in stone. The bridge fell into a state of disrepair during the 17th century. By 1644 the bridge was missing four arches, a flood in 1669 swept away more of the structure. Since its surviving arches have successively collapsed or been demolished, only four of the arches remain; the only other visible vestige of the bridge is some masonry from pier 11, attached to a private building on the Île de la Barthelasse. Remains of other piers are buried under a thick layer of sediment on the island or at the bottom of the Rhône; the locations of piers 9 and 10, both now on the Île de la Barthelasse, were confirmed by cores drilled at their expected positions. Masonry from the piers was reached at a depth of 3 m below ground level. Just below the masonry, at a depth of around 6.7 m, wooden fragments, identified as silver fir, were recovered. Carbon-14 dating of this material gave dates of 1238–1301 AD for pier 9 and 1213–1280 AD for pier 10.
The arches are segmental rather than the semi-circular shape used in Roman bridges. Of the remaining arches the largest span is 35.8 m between the fourth piers. The piers have cutwaters that are pointed both downstream; these reduce the scour around one of the main threats to the stability of stone bridges. The piers were constructed with openings in the stone work to reduce the pressure from the flow of water when river was in flood. With the collapse of the Saint-Bénézet bridge the Rhône at Avignon was crossed by ferry until the beginning of the 19th century. Between 1806 and 1818 a wooden bridge was built across the two branches of the river; the section across the Avignon branch was replaced by a suspension bridge in 1843. This was demolished in 1960 with the opening of the Edouard Daladier bridge; the section across the Villeneuve branch of the Rhône was not replaced until 1909. The replacement stone bridge, the Nouveau Pont, was damaged by bombing in 1944, it was repaired after the war but was replaced by the Pont du Royaume in 1972.
The bridge's construction was inspired by Saint Bénézet, a shepherd boy from the hamlet of Villard in the Ardèche, who while tending his flock heard the voice of Jesus Christ asking him to build a bridge across the river. Although he was ridiculed at first, he "proved" his divine inspiration by miraculously lifting a huge block of stone, he formed a Bridge Brotherhood to oversee its construction. After his death, he was interred on the bridge itself, in a small chapel standing on one of the bridge's surviving piers on the Avignon side; the Saint Nicholas Chapel sits on a platform on the upstream side of the second pier. The bridge chapel has undergone several phases of restoration, it is now divided into each with a nave and an apse. The upper floor is on a level with the platform of the bridge and reduces the width of the walkway to 1.75 m. The lower floor is accessed by a set of steps; the exterior of the chapel shows evidence of the rebuilding work with blocked windows on the south-eastern wall.
The nave is covered with stone roof tiles. The polygonal apse has a flat roo
Le Puy-en-Velay is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France near the Loire river. Its inhabitants are called Ponots; the city is famous for its cathedral, for a kind of lentil, for its lace-making. Le Puy-en-Velay was a major bishopric in medieval France, founded early, its early history is legendary. According to a martyrology compiled by Ado of Vienne, published in many copies in 858, supplemented in the mid-10th century by Gauzbert of Limoges, a priest named George accompanied a certain Front, the first Bishop of Périgueux, when they were sent to proselytize in Gaul. Front was added to the list of the apostles to Gaul, who in tradition are described as being sent out to reorganize Christians after the persecutions that are associated with Decius, circa 250; as with others of the group, notably Saint Martial of Limoges mythology pushed the activities of Saint Front and the priest George back in time. It tells; the expanding legend of this St. George, according to the Church historian Duchesne is not earlier than the 11th century makes that saint one of the Seventy Apostles of the Gospel of Luke.
It tells that he founded the church of the que dicitur Vetula in pago Vellavorum, the city "called Vetula in the pays of the Vellavi" was how a document of 1004 termed it. This was. Vetula means "the old woman", pagans were still making small images of her as late as the 6th century in Flanders, according to the vita of Saint Eligius; this was the first cathedral at Le Puy. Following St. George the founder medieval local traditions evoke a legendary list of bishops at this chief town of the pays of Le Velay: Macarius, Roricius, Eusebius and Vosy, all of them canonized by local veneration; the Gaulish settlement of Ruessium/Vellavorum was given its Christianizing name, Saint-Paulien, from Bishop Paulianus. A bishop Evodius attended the Council of Valence in 374. In the early 1180s peasants of Le Puy, led by a carpenter named Durandus, formed a conspiratio called the Capucciati, they challenged seigneurial dominance in a short-lived attempt at reformation. The Christianization legends of Mons Anicius relate that at the request of Bishop Martial of Limoges, Bishop Evodius/Vosy ordered an altar to the Virgin Mary to be erected on the pinnacle that surmounts Mont Anis.
Some such beginning of the shrine Christianized the pagan site. This marked one starting-point for the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostela, a walk of some 1600 km, as it still does today; the old town of Le Puy developed around the base of the cathedral. Pilgrims came early to Le Puy, this was the most popular destination in France during the Middle Ages. Charlemagne came twice, in 772 and 800. There is a legend that in 772, he established a foundation at the cathedral for ten poor canons, he chose Le Puy, with Aachen and Saint-Gilles, as a center for the collection of Peter's Pence. Charles the Bald visited Le Puy in 877, count of Paris in 892, Robert II in 1029, Philip Augustus in 1183. Louis IX met James I of Aragon there in 1245, in 1254, when passing through Le Puy on his return from the Holy Land, he gave the cathedral an ebony image of the Blessed Virgin clothed in gold brocade, she is one of the many dozens of venerable "Black Virgins" of France. It was destroyed during the Revolution, but replaced at the Restoration with a copy that continues to be venerated.
After him, Le Puy was visited by Philip the Bold in 1282, by Philip the Fair in 1285, by Charles VI in 1394, by Charles VII in 1420, by Isabelle Romée, the mother of Joan of Arc, in 1429. Louis XI made the pilgrimage in 1436 and 1475, in 1476 halted three leagues from the city and walked barefoot to the cathedral. Charles VIII visited it in 1495, Francis I in 1533; the legendary early shrine on the summit of Mons Anicius, which drew so many, would seem to predate the founding of an early church of Our Lady of Le Puy at Anicium. It was attributed to Bishop Vosy. Crowning the hill was a megalithic dolmen. A local tradition rededicated the curative virtue of the sacred site to Mary, who cured ailments when a person touched the standing stone; when the founding bishop Vosy climbed the hill, he found. The Bishop was apprised in a vision that the angels themselves had dedicated the future cathedral to the Blessed Virgin, whence the epithet "Angelic" given to the cathedral of Le Puy; the great dolmen was left standing in the center of the Christian sanctuary, constructed around it.
By the 8th century, the stone, popularly known as the "stone of visions", was taken down and broken up. Its pieces were incorporated into the floor of a particular section of the church that came to be called the Chambre Angélique, or the "angels' chamber." It is impossible to say whether this St. Evodius is the same person who signed the decrees of the Council of Valence in 374. Neither can it be affirmed that St. Benignus, who in the 7th century founded a hospital at the gates of the basilica, St. Agrevius, the 7th-century martyr from whom the town of Saint-Agrève Chiniacum took its name, were bishops. Duchesne thinks that the chronology of these early bishops rests on littl
Violet Oakley was an American artist. She was the first American woman to receive a public mural commission. During the first quarter of the twentieth century, she was renowned as a pathbreaker in mural decoration, a field, practiced by men. Oakley excelled at murals and stained glass designs that addressed themes from history and literature in Renaissance-revival styles. Oakley was born in New Jersey, into a family of artists, her parents were Cornelia Swain. Both of her grandfathers were member of the National Academy of Design. In 1892, she studied at the Art Students League of New York with James Carroll Beckwith and Irving R. Wiles. A year she studied in England and France, under Raphaël Collin and others. After her return to the United States in 1896, she studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts before she joined Howard Pyle's famous illustration class at Drexel Institute, she had early success as a popular illustrator for magazines including The Century Magazine, Collier's Weekly, St. Nicholas Magazine, Woman's Home Companion.
The style of her illustrations and stained glass reflects her emulation of the English Pre-Raphaelites. Oakley's commitment to Victorian aesthetics during the advent of Modernism led to the decline of her reputation by the middle of the twentieth century. Oakley's political beliefs were shaped by the Quaker William Penn whose ideals she represented in her murals at the Pennsylvania State Capitol, she became committed to the Quaker principles of pacifism, equality of the races and sexes and social justice, international government. When the United States refused to join the League of Nations after the Great War, Oakley went to Geneva and spent three years drawing portraits of the League's delegates which she published in her portfolio, "Law Triumphant", she was an early advocate of nuclear disarmament after World War II. Oakley was raised in the Episcopal church but in 1903 became a devoted student of Christian Science after a significant healing of asthma while she was doing preparatory study for the first set of Harrisburg murals in Florence, Italy.
She was a member of Second Church of Christ, Philadelphia from 1912, when it was organized, until her death in 1961. She received many honors through her life including an honorary Doctorate of Laws Degree in 1948 from Drexel Institute. At the 1904 Saint Louis International Exposition, Oakley won the gold medal in illustration for her watercolors for "The Story of Vashti," and the silver medal in mural decoration for her murals at All Angels' Church. In 1905, she became the first woman to receive the Gold Medal of Honor from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. In 1915, Oakley was awarded the Medal of Honor in the painting category at the 1915 Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco for her 1912 portrait of Philadelphia poet Florence Earle Coates as "The Tragic Muse". Around 1897, Oakley and her sister Hester rented a studio space at 1523 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia in the Love Building; the sisters decorated the space with furniture loaned by their mother and a combination of antiques and copies of Old Master paintings.
Oakley and her friends, the artists Elizabeth Shippen Green and Jessie Willcox Smith, all former students of Pyle, were named the Red Rose Girls by him. The three illustrators received the "Red Rose Girls" nickname while they lived together in the Red Rose Inn in Villanova, Pennsylvania from 1899 to 1901, they lived, along with Henrietta Cozens, in a home in the Mt. Airy neighborhood of Philadelphia that they named Cogslea after their four surnames. In 1996, Oakley was elected to the Society of Illustrators Hall of Fame, the last of the'Red Rose Girls' to be inducted, but one of only ten women in the hall. Cogslea was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977 as the Violet Oakley Studio, her home and studio at Yonkers, New York, where she resided intermittently between 1912 and 1915 is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Plashbourne Estate. Oakley was a member of Philadelphia's The Plastic Club, an organization established to promote "Art for art's sake".
Other members included Elenore Abbott, Jessie Willcox Smith, Elizabeth Shippen Green. Many of the women who founded the organization had been students of Howard Pyle, it was founded to provide a means to encourage one another professionally and create opportunities to sell their works of art. On June 14, 2014, Miss Oakley was featured in the first gay-themed tour of Green-Wood Cemetery, where she is interred in the Oakley family plot, Section 63, Lot 14788; as educational opportunities were made more available in the 19th-century, women artists became part of professional enterprises, including founding their own art associations. Artwork made by women was considered to be inferior, to help overcome that stereotype women became "increasingly vocal and confident" in promoting women's work, thus became part of the emerging image of the educated and freer "New Woman". Artists "played crucial roles in representing the New Woman, both by drawing images of the icon and exemplifying this emerging type through their own lives."
In the late 19th-century and early 20th century about 88% of the subscribers of 11,000 magazines and periodicals were women. As women entered the artist community, publishers hired women to create illustrations that depict the world through a woman's perspective. Other successful illustrators were Jennie Augusta Brownscombe, Jessie Wilcox Smith, Rose O'Neill, Elizabeth Shippen Green. Oakley painted a series of 43 murals in the Pennsylvania State Capitol Buildin
Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, parties, inn scenes, street scenes. Such representations imagined, or romanticized by the artist; some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, so on. Rather confusingly, the normal meaning of genre, covering any particular combination of an artistic medium and a type of subject matter, is used in the visual arts. Thus, genre works when referring to the painting of the Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque painting—the great periods of genre works—may be used as an umbrella term for painting in various specialized categories such as still-life, marine painting, architectural painting and animal painting, as well as genre scenes proper where the emphasis is on human figures. Painting was divided into a hierarchy of genres, with history painting at the top, as the most difficult and therefore prestigious, still life and architectural painting at the bottom.
But history paintings are a genre in painting, not genre works. The following concentrates on painting, but genre motifs were extremely popular in many forms of the decorative arts from the Rococo of the early 18th century onwards. Single figures or small groups decorated a huge variety of objects such as porcelain, furniture and textiles. Genre painting called genre scene or petit genre, depicts aspects of everyday life by portraying ordinary people engaged in common activities. One common definition of a genre scene is that it shows figures to whom no identity can be attached either individually or collectively—thus distinguishing petit genre from history paintings and portraits. A work would be considered as a genre work if it could be shown that the artist had used a known person—a member of his family, say—as a model. In this case it would depend on whether the work was to have been intended by the artist to be perceived as a portrait—sometimes a subjective question; the depictions imagined, or romanticized by the artist.
Because of their familiar and sentimental subject matter, genre paintings have proven popular with the bourgeoisie, or middle class. Genre themes appear in nearly all art traditions. Painted decorations in ancient Egyptian tombs depict banquets and agrarian scenes, Peiraikos is mentioned by Pliny the Elder as a Hellenistic panel painter of "low" subjects, such as survive in mosaic versions and provincial wall-paintings at Pompeii: "barbers' shops, cobblers' stalls, asses and similar subjects". Medieval illuminated manuscripts illustrated scenes of everyday peasant life in the Labours of the Months in the calendar section of books of hours, most famously Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry; the Low Countries dominated the field until the 18th century, in the 17th century both Flemish Baroque painting and Dutch Golden Age painting produced numerous specialists who painted genre scenes. In the previous century, the Flemish Renaissance painter Jan Sanders van Hemessen painted innovative large-scale genre scenes, sometimes including a moral theme or a religious scene in the background in the first half of the 16th century.
These were part of a pattern of "Mannerist inversion" in Antwerp painting, giving "low" elements in the decorative background of images prominent emphasis. Joachim Patinir expanded his landscapes, making the figures a small element, Pieter Aertsen painted works dominated by spreads of still life food and genre figures of cooks or market-sellers, with small religious scenes in spaces in the background. Pieter Brueghel the Elder made peasants and their activities naturalistically treated, the subject of many of his paintings, genre painting was to flourish in Northern Europe in Brueghel's wake. Adriaen and Isaac van Ostade, Jan Steen, Adriaan Brouwer, David Teniers, Aelbert Cuyp, Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch were among the many painters specializing in genre subjects in the Low Countries during the 17th century; the small scale of these artists' paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers. The subject of a genre painting was based on a popular emblem from an emblem book.
This can give the painting a double meaning, such as in Gabriel Metsu's The Poultry seller, 1662, showing an old man offering a rooster in a symbolic pose, based on a lewd engraving by Gillis van Breen, with the same scene. The merry company showed a group of figures at a party, whether making music at home or just drinking in a tavern. Other common types of scenes showed village festivities, or soldiers in camp. In Italy, a "school" of genre painting was stimulated by the arrival in Rome of the Dutch painter Pieter van Laer in 1625, he acquired the nickname "Il Bamboccio" and his followers were called the Bamboccianti, whose works would inspire Giacomo Ceruti, Antonio Cifrondi, Giuseppe Maria Crespi among many others. Louis le Nain was an important exponent of genre painting in 17th-century France, painting groups of peasants at home, where the 18th century would bring a heightened interest in the depiction of everyday life, whether through the romanticized paintings of Watteau and Fragonard, or the careful realism of Chardin.
Jean-Baptiste Greuze and others painted detailed and rather sentimental groups or individual portraits of peasants that were to be influential on 19th-century painting. In England, William Hoga
En plein air
En plein air is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with academic rules that might create a predetermined look. Artists have long painted outdoors, but in the mid-19th century, working in natural light became important to the Barbizon school, Hudson River School, Impressionists. In 1830, the Barbizon School in France, inspired by John Constable, enabled artists like Charles-François Daubigny and Théodore Rousseau to more depict the appearance of outdoor settings in various light and weather conditions. In the late 1800s, the en plein air approach was incorporated with the impressionists’ style, artists such as Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille, Edgar Degas began creating their work outdoors. From France, the movement expanded to America, starting in California moving to other American locales notable for their natural light qualities, including the Hudson River Valley in New York; the Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light and colour.
This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes. Their movement began in Florence in the late 1850s; the Newlyn School in England is considered another major proponent of the technique in the latter 19th century. The popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1840s with the introduction of paints in tubes. Painters made their own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil; the act of outdoor painting from observation has been continually popular well into the 21st century. It was during the mid-19th century that the'box easel' known as the'French box easel' or'field easel', was invented, it is uncertain who developed it, but these portable easels with telescopic legs and built-in paint box and palette made it easier to go into the forest and up the hillsides. Still made today, they remain a popular choice since they fold up to the size of a brief case and thus are easy to store.
The Pochade Box is a compact box that allows the artist to keep all their supplies and palette within the box and have the work on the inside of the lid. Some designs allow for a larger canvas. There are designs which can hold a few wet painting canvases or panels within the lid; these boxes have a rising popularity as while they are used for plein air painting, can be used in the studio, home, or classroom. Since pochade boxes are used for painting on location, the canvas or work surface may be small not more than 20 inches. Challenges include the type of paint used to paint outdoors, bugs and environmental conditions such as weather. Acrylic paint may harden and dry in warm, sunny weather and it cannot be reused. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the challenge of painting in moist or damp conditions with precipitation; the advent of plein air painting predated the invention of acrylics. The traditional and well-established method of painting en plein air incorporates the use of oil paint.
French impressionist painters such as Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir advocated plein air painting, much of their work was done outdoors in the diffuse light of a large white umbrella. Claude Monet was an avid en plein air artist who deduced that to seize the closeness and likeness of an outside setting at a specific moment one had to be outside to do so rather than just paint an outside setting in their studio. In the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in Russia, painters such as Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and I. E. Grabar were known for painting en plein air, but enthusiasts of plein air painting were not limited to the Old World. American impressionists too, such as those of the Old Lyme school, were avid painters en plein air. American impressionist painters noted for this style during this era included Guy Rose, Robert William Wood, Mary DeNeale Morgan, John Gamble, Arthur Hill Gilbert. In Canada, the Group of Seven and Tom Thomson are examples of en plein air advocates.
Art colonies Heidelberg School Urban Sketchers Media related to Painting en plein air at Wikimedia Commons
William Merritt Chase
William Merritt Chase was an American painter, known as an exponent of Impressionism and as a teacher. He is responsible for establishing the Chase School, which would become Parsons School of Design. William Merritt Chase was born on November 1, 1849, in Williamsburg, Indiana, to the family of Sarah Swain and David H. Chase, a local businessman. Chase's father moved the family to Indianapolis in 1861, employed his son as a salesman in the family business. Chase showed an early interest in art, studied under local, self-taught artists Barton S. Hays and Jacob Cox. After a brief stint in the Navy, Chase's teachers urged him to travel to New York to further his artistic training, he arrived in New York in 1869, met and studied with Joseph Oriel Eaton for a short time enrolled in the National Academy of Design under Lemuel Wilmarth, a student of the famous French artist Jean-Léon Gérôme. In 1870, declining family fortunes forced Chase to leave New York for St. Louis, where his family was based. While he worked to help support his family he became active in the St. Louis art community, winning prizes for his paintings at a local exhibition.
He exhibited his first painting at the National Academy in 1871. Chase's talent elicited the interest of wealthy St. Louis collectors who arranged for him to visit Europe for two years, in exchange for paintings and Chase's help in securing European art for their collections. In Europe, Chase settled at the Academy of Fine Arts, Munich, a long-standing center of art training, attracting increasing numbers of Americans and attracted Chase because it had fewer distractions than Paris, he studied under Alexander von Wagner and Karl von Piloty, befriended American artists Walter Shirlaw, Frank Duveneck, J Frank Currier. In Munich, Chase employed his burgeoning talent most in figurative works that he painted in the loosely brushed style popular with his instructors. In January 1876 one of these figural works, a portrait titled "Keying Up" – The Court Jester was exhibited at the Boston Art Club. Chase traveled to Venice, Italy in 1877 with Duveneck and John Henry Twachtman before returning to the United States in the summer of 1878, a skilled artist representing the new wave of European-educated American talent.
Home in America, he exhibited his painting Ready for the Ride with the newly formed Society of American Artists in 1878. He opened a studio in New York in the Tenth Street Studio Building, home to many of the important painters of the day, he was a member of the Tilers, a group of artists and authors, among whom were some of his notable friends: Winslow Homer, Arthur Quartley and Augustus Saint Gaudens. In 1881, friend and artist William Preston Phelps travelled back to Europe to team up with Chase to go on a working tour of Italy, Capri back to Germany. Chase cultivated multiple personae: sophisticated cosmopolitan, devoted family man, esteemed teacher. Chase married Alice Gerson in 1887 and together they raised eight children during Chase's most energetic artistic period, his eldest daughters, Alice Dieudonnee Chase and Dorothy Bremond Chase modeled for their father. In New York City, Chase became known for his flamboyance in his dress, his manners, most of all in his studio. At Tenth Street, Chase had moved into Albert Bierstadt's old studio and had decorated it as an extension of his own art.
Chase filled the studio with lavish furniture, decorative objects, stuffed birds, oriental carpets, exotic musical instruments. The studio served as a focal point for the sophisticated and fashionable members of the New York City art world of the late 19th century. By 1895 the cost of maintaining the studio, in addition to his other residences, forced Chase to close it and auction the contents. In addition to his painting, Chase developed an interest in teaching, he took on private pupils, among his first being Dora Wheeler, a student from 1879 to 1881 who became a professional artist and a lifelong friend. Dora's mother Candace Wheeler wrote in her memoirs of Chase's contagious enthusiasm, "the most generous of teachers, not only giving exhaustively of his stored knowledge of how to do things, but fostering as well the will to do it. Somewhat against his will, he was persuaded to take charge of an art-school at Shinnecock Hills, Long Island... "At the instigation of Mrs. William Hoyt, Chase opened the Shinnecock Hills Summer School of Art on eastern Long Island, New York in 1891.
He taught there until 1902. Chase adopted the plein air method of painting, taught his students in outdoor classes, he opened the Chase School of Art in 1896, which became the New York School of Art two years with Chase staying on as instructor until 1907. Chase taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1896 to 1909. Along with Robert Henri, who became a rival instructor, Chase was the most important teacher of American artists around the turn of the 20th century. In addition to his instruction of East Coast artists like George Bellows, Louise Upton Brumback, Kate Freeman Clark, Jay Hall Connaway, Mariette Leslie Cotton, Charles Demuth, Silas Dustin, Lydia Field Emmet, George Pearse Ennis, Marsden Hartley, Annie Traquair Lang, John Marin, M. Jean McLane, Frances Miller Mumaugh, Georgia O'Keeffe, Leopold Seyffert, Elizabeth Sparhawk-Jones, Joseph
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a world's fair held in Paris, from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution; the fair included a reconstruction of the Bastille and its surrounding neighborhood, but with the interior courtyard covered with a blue ceiling decorated with fleur-de-lys and used as a ball room and gathering place. The exhibition was "used as showcases for scientific and technological advances, but often included exhibits of objects from the past, including prehistoric times." The 1889 Exposition covered a total area of 0.96 km2, including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai d'Orsay, a part of the Seine and the Invalides esplanade. Transport around the Exposition was provided by the 3 kilometre 600 mm gauge Decauville railway at Exposition Universelle, it was claimed. Some of the locomotives used on this line saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados and the Diégo Suarez Decauville railway.
The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, would be the site of the 1900 exposition. Since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform. Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the necessary construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure; when speaking of the dedicated workers, M. Salles, the son-in-law of Eiffel made the statement that "no soldier on the battle field deserved better mention than these humble toilers, will never go down in history." No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform. An significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin, it was reused at the exposition of 1900 and destroyed in 1910.
At 111 meters, the Galerie spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches made of steel or iron. Although described as being constructed of steel, it was made of iron. There is an extensive description, with illustrations, of the Exposition's two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering. A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation: the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features. In the first place, for its buildings the Eiffel tower and the Machinery Hall; the 28 June issue of Engineering mentions a remarkable "Great Model of the Earth" created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard. There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing some distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition, as reported by the Engineering issues at that time; the Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq. This was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style.
After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, the work being completed by 1893. Known as the Schoelcher Library it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today, it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, stands as a tribute to the man it is named after who led the movement to abolish slavery in Martinique. A "Negro village" where 400 people were displayed constituted the major attraction. Matching the opening day of the Exposition, the Opéra Comique premiered on 14 May 1889 with a work specially composed for that event: Jules Massenet's Esclarmonde and entertaining crowds of visitors for the more than 50 evenings the Exposition lasted. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music, performed by an ensemble from Java; this influenced some of his compositions. William Stroudley, locomotive superintendent of the London and South Coast Railway died whilst at the exhibition, where he was exhibiting one of his locomotives.
Heineken received the Grand Prix at the exposition. Buffalo Bill recruited American sharpshooter Annie Oakley to rejoin his "Wild West Show" which performed for packed audiences throughout the Exposition. Other prominent visitors included the Shah of Persia Nasereddin Shah, Prince of Wales and his wife, Princess Alexandra. S. journalist and diplomat Whitelaw Reid. A central attraction in the French section was the Imperial Diamond, at the time the largest diamond in the world; the Mexican pavi