George P. Shultz
George Pratt Shultz is an American economist, elder statesman, businessman. He served in various positions under three different Republican presidents. Along with Elliot Richardson, he is one of two individuals to serve in four different Cabinet positions, he played a major policy role in shaping the foreign policy of the Ronald Reagan administration. In the 2010s, Shultz was a prominent figure in the scandal around biotech firm Theranos, continuing to support it as a board member in the face of mounting evidence of fraud. Born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University before serving in the United States Marine Corps during World War II. After the war, Shultz earned a PhD in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he taught at MIT from 1948 to 1957, taking a leave of absence in 1955 to take a position on President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers. After serving as dean of the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, he accepted President Richard Nixon's appointment as United States Secretary of Labor.
In that position, he imposed the Philadelphia Plan on construction contractors who refused to accept black members, marking the first use of racial quotas by the federal government. In 1970, he became the first Director of the Office of Management and Budget, he served in that position until his appointment as United States Secretary of the Treasury in 1972. In that role, Shultz supported the Nixon shock and presided over the end of the Bretton Woods system. Shultz left the Nixon administration in 1974 to become an executive at Bechtel. After becoming president and director of that company, he accepted President Ronald Reagan's offer to serve as United States Secretary of State, he held that office from 1982 to 1989. Shultz pushed for Reagan to establish relations with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, which led to a thaw between the United States and the Soviet Union, he opposed the U. S. aid to rebels trying to overthrow the Sandinistas using funds from an illegal sale of weapons to Iran that led to the Iran–Contra affair.
Shultz remained active in business and politics. He served as an informal adviser to George W. Bush and helped formulate the Bush Doctrine of preemptive war, he served on the Global Commission on Drug Policy, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Economic Recovery Council, on the boards of Bechtel and the Charles Schwab Corporation. Since 2013, he has advocated for a revenue-neutral carbon tax as the most economically sound means of mitigating anthropogenic climate change, he is a member of the Hoover Institution, the Institute for International Economics, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, other groups. Since the death of William Thaddeus Coleman Jr. Shultz is the oldest living former U. S. Cabinet member. Shultz was born December 13, 1920, in New York City, the only child of Margaret Lennox and Birl Earl Shultz, grew up in Englewood, New Jersey, his great-grandfather was an immigrant from Germany who arrived in the United States in the middle of the 19th century. Contrary to common assumption, Shultz is not a member of the Pratt family associated with John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Trust.
After attending the local public school, he transferred to the Engelwood School for Boys, through his second year of high school. In 1938, Shultz graduated from the elite private preparatory boarding high school, Loomis Chaffee School in Windsor, Connecticut, he earned a bachelor's degree, cum laude, at Princeton University, New Jersey, in economics with a minor in public and international affairs. His senior thesis examined the Tennessee Valley Authority's effect on local agriculture, for which he conducted on-site research, he graduated with honors in 1942. From 1942 to 1945, Shultz was on active duty in the U. S. Marine Corps, he was an artillery officer. He was detached to the U. S. Army 81st Infantry Division during the Battle of Angaur. In 1949, Shultz earned a Ph. D. in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 1948 to 1957, he taught in the MIT Department of Economics and the MIT Sloan School of Management, with a leave of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers as a Senior Staff Economist.
In 1957, Shultz left MIT and joined the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business as a professor of industrial relations, he served as the Graduate School of Business Dean from 1962 to 1968. During his time in Chicago, he was influenced by Nobel Laureates Milton Friedman and George Stigler, who reinforced Shultz's view of the importance of a free-market economy, he left the University of Chicago to serve for President Richard Nixon in 1969. Shultz was President Richard Nixon's Secretary of Labor from 1969 to 1970, he soon faced the crisis of the Longshoremen's Union strike. The Lyndon B. Johnson Administration had delayed it with a Taft Hartley injunction that expired, the press pressed him to describe his approach, he applied the theory he had developed in academia: he let the parties work it out, which they did quickly. He imposed the Philadelphia Plan requiring Pennsylvania construction unions, which refused to accept black members, to admit a certain number of blacks by an enforced deadline.
This marked the first use of racial quotas in the federal government. Shultz was Nixon's unofficial ambassador to the AFL-CIO. Shultz became the first director of the Office of Management and Budget, the renamed and reorganized Bureau of the Budget, on July 1, 1970, he was the agency's 19th director. Shultz was United States Secretary o
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
William Bauchop Wilson
William Bauchop Wilson was an American labor leader and progressive politician. He is best remembered for his service as the first Secretary of Labor. President Woodrow Wilson nominated him to the office. William B. Wilson was born in Blantyre, Scotland, he was the third child of Adam Black Wilson and Helen Nelson Bauchop Wilson, the first surviving early childhood. His father was a coal miner. During a mining strike in February 1868 the family was unceremoniously evicted from their company-owned home. Adam Wilson unsuccessfully traveled around Scotland attempting to find other work, he decided to emigrate to the United States to find employment there, leaving his wife and three children to set sail across the Atlantic in April 1870. Adam Wilson found his place in the bituminous coal region of Pennsylvania, setting in the little town of Arnot, located in Tioga County. After finding a job, Adam Wilson sent for his wife and family, who — together with his father-in-law — departed Glasgow for America in August 1870.
After arriving in the United States William was enrolled in public school in Arnot. This interval proved to be short-lived, however, as William's father began to suffer serious back problems and was unable to complete his work without assistance. Therefore, at the age of 9, William was removed from school and sent to help his father in the mines, he would continue to work as a miner for nearly two decades. In 1874, young William engaged in labor organizing for the first time when he attempted to launch a union for the boys who worked as trappers, manually operating the ventilation of the mines; when the fledgling union threatened a strike over a wage reduction, union representative Wilson discovered the limits of union solidarity in the face of superior force, when he was thrown over a foreman's knee and paddled. The incipient strike was broken; the event proved to be a valuable learning experience for William, who recalled in his unpublished memoirs: His argument had been forceful and effective, but it was applied to the wrong part of my anatomy to be permanently convincing....
It helped impress upon my mind the fact that until working men were as strong, collectively, as their employers, they would be forced...to accept whatever conditions were imposed upon them. In 1876, when Wilson was just 14 years old, declining membership in the local Miners' and Laborers' Benevolent Association caused the remaining members of that group to select the energetic youngster as the organization's Secretary. Wilson began to correspond with other labor activists around the country and the groundwork for his career as a trade union functionary was laid, he served as international secretary-treasurer of the United Mine Workers of America from 1900 to 1908. He was elected as a Democrat to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second Congresses, he served as chairman of the United States House Committee on Labor during the Sixty-second Congress. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1912 and for election in 1914, he was appointed United States Secretary of Labor in the Cabinet of President Woodrow Wilson and served from March 5, 1913, to March 5, 1921.
During the First World War, he was a member of the Council of National Defense. He was a member of the Federal Board for Vocational Education from 1914 to 1921 and served as chairman of the board in 1920 and 1921, he was appointed on March 4, 1921, a member of the International Joint Commission, created to prevent disputes regarding the use of the boundary waters between the United States and Canada, served until March 21, 1921, when he resigned. In December 1916, Wilson addressed a conference on social insurance in which he discussed State developments in that field such as the provision of mothers' pensions and workmen's compensation, spoke of the possibility of the United States introducing old-age pensions and universal health insurance. Wilson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1926 against Republican William Scott Vare. After his public service he was engaged in mining and agricultural pursuits near Blossburg, Pennsylvania, he died on board a train near Savannah, Georgia on May 25, 1934.
He was buried in Arbon Cemetery in Blossburg. In 2007, Wilson was named to the U. S. Department of Labor's Labor Hall of Fame, located inside the North Plaza of the Frances Perkins Building on 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D. C. List of foreign-born United States Cabinet Secretaries "William Bauchop Wilson: First U. S. Secretary of Labor," www.blossburg.org Retrieved March 6, 2010. "William B. Wilson: Labor Hall of Fame Honoree," U. S. Department of Labor biography. Retrieved March 6, 2010. United States Congress. "William Bauchop Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the William Bauchop Wilson Papers, including political letters, official correspondence, files from his tenure with the Department of Labor and many other materials, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
United States Secretary of Labor
The United States Secretary of Labor is a member of the Cabinet of the United States, as the head of the United States Department of Labor, controls the department, enforces and suggests laws involving unions, the workplace, all other issues involving any form of business-person controversies. There was a U. S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor, who led this department along with the U. S. Department of Commerce as one department. Since the two departments split in 1913, the Department of Commerce is now headed by a separate U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Alexander Acosta has been Secretary of Labor since April 28, 2017. Parties Democratic Republican As of April 2019, there are twelve living former Secretaries of Labor, the oldest being George P. Shultz; the most recent Secretary of Labor to die was William Usery Jr. on December 10, 2016. The line of succession for the Secretary of Labor is as follows: Deputy Secretary of Labor Solicitor of Labor Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management Assistant Secretary for Policy Assistant Secretary for Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training Assistant Secretary for Employee Benefits Security Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Assistant Secretary for Mine Safety and Health Assistant Secretary for Public Affairs Chief Financial Officer Administrator and Hour Division Assistant Secretary for Veterans' Employment and Training Assistant Secretary for Disability Employment Policy Deputy Solicitor of Labor Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary for Congressional Affairs Deputy Assistant Secretary for Employment and Training Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy Deputy Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Deputy Assistant Secretary for Mine Safety and Health Regional Solicitor—Dallas Regional Administrator for the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management—Region VI/Dallas If none of the above officials are available to serve as Acting Secretary of Labor, the Designated Secretarial Designee assumes interim operational control over the Department, except the Secretary's non-delegable responsibilities.
Director, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs Director of the Women's Bureau Regional Administrator and Training Administration—Dallas Regional Administration, Occupational Safety and Health Administration—Dallas United States Deputy Secretary of Labor List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Official website
Haiku listen is a short form of Japanese poetry in three phrases characterized by three qualities: The essence of haiku is "cutting". This is represented by the juxtaposition of two images or ideas and a kireji between them, a kind of verbal punctuation mark which signals the moment of separation and colours the manner in which the juxtaposed elements are related. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of 5, 7, 5 on, respectively. A kigo drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of such terms. Modern Japanese haiku are said by some to vary from the tradition of 17 on or taking nature as their subject. Despite the western influence, the use of juxtaposition continues to be honored in both traditional and modern haiku. There is a common, although recent, perception that the images juxtaposed must be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences. In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line while haiku in English appear in three lines parallel to the three phrases of Japanese haiku.
Called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the Japanese writer Masaoka Shiki at the end of the 19th century. In Japanese haiku a kireji, or cutting word appears at the end of one of the verse's three phrases. A kireji fills a role somewhat analogous to a caesura in classical western poetry or to a volta in sonnets. Depending on which cutting word is chosen, its position within the verse, it may cut the stream of thought, suggesting a parallel between the preceding and following phrases, or it may provide a dignified ending, concluding the verse with a heightened sense of closure; the fundamental aesthetic quality of both hokku and haiku is that it is internally sufficient, independent of context, will bear consideration as a complete work. The kireji lends the verse structural support, allowing it to stand as an independent poem; the use of kireji distinguishes hokku from second and subsequent verses of renku. However, renku employ kireji. In English, since kireji have no direct equivalent, poets sometimes use punctuation such as a dash or ellipsis, or an implied break to create a juxtaposition intended to prompt the reader to reflect on the relationship between the two parts.
The kireji in the Bashō examples "old pond" and "the wind of Mt Fuji" are both "ya". Neither the remaining Bashō example nor the Issa example contain a kireji although they do both balance a fragment in the first five on against a phrase in the remaining 12 on. In comparison with English verse characterized by syllabic meter, Japanese verse counts sound units known as "on" or morae. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of five and five on respectively. Among contemporary poems teikei haiku continue to use the 5-7-5 pattern while jiyuritsu haiku do not. One of the examples below illustrates that traditional haiku masters were not always constrained by the 5-7-5 pattern. Although the word "on" is sometimes translated as "syllable", one on is counted for a short syllable, two for an elongated vowel or doubled consonant, one for an "n" at the end of a syllable. Thus, the word "haibun", though counted as two syllables in English, is counted as four on in Japanese; this is illustrated by the Issa haiku below.
Conversely, some sounds, such as "kyo" may look like two syllables to English speakers but are in fact a single on in Japanese. In 1973, the Haiku Society of America noted that the norm for writers of haiku in English was to use 17 syllables, but they noted a trend toward shorter haiku. Shorter haiku are much more common in 21st century English haiku writing. While some translators of Japanese poetry infer that about 12 syllables in English approximate the duration of 17 Japanese on. A haiku traditionally contains a kigo, a word or phrase that symbolizes or implies the season of the poem and, drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but prescriptive list of such words. Kigo are in the form of metonyms and can be difficult for those who lack Japanese cultural references to spot; the Bashō examples below include "kawazu", "frog" implying spring, "shigure", a rain shower in late autumn or early winter. Kigo are not always included in non-Japanese haiku or by modern writers of Japanese "free-form" haiku.
The best-known Japanese haiku is Bashō's "old pond": 古池や蛙飛び込む水の音 ふるいけやかわずとびこむみずのおと furu ike ya kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto This separates into on as: fu-ru-i-ke ya ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu mi-zu-no-o-to Translated: old pond frog leaps in water's soundAnother haiku by Bashō: 初しぐれ猿も小蓑をほしげ也 はつしぐれさるもこみのをほしげなり hatsu shigure saru mo komino o hoshige nariThis separates into on as: ha-tsu shi-gu-re sa-ru mo ko-mi-no o ho-shi-ge na-ri Translated: the first cold shower the monkey seems to want a little coat of strawThis haiku by Bashō illustrates that he was not always constrained to a 5-7-5 on pattern. It contains 18 on in the pattern 6-7-5 富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産 ふじのかぜやおうぎにのせてえどみやげ Fuji no kaze ya ōgi ni nosete Edo miyage