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James Eastland

James Oliver Eastland was an American politician from the state of Mississippi who served in the United States Senate as a Senator in 1941. He has been called the "Voice of the White South" and the "Godfather of Mississippi Politics." A Democrat, Eastland was known as the symbol of Southern resistance to racial integration during the civil rights era speaking of blacks as "an inferior race."The son of a prominent attorney and cotton planter, Eastland attended the local schools of Scott County and took courses at several universities, including the University of Mississippi, Vanderbilt University and the University of Alabama. He completed his legal education by studying in his father's office, attained admission to the bar in 1927. Eastland practiced law in Sunflower County and took over management of his family's cotton plantation, he became active in politics as a Democrat, served in the Mississippi House of Representatives from 1928 to 1932. In 1941, Senator Pat Harrison died in office, the governor appointed Eastland to fill the vacancy on the condition that he not run in the year in the special election to complete the term.

Eastland kept his word, served from June to September. The special election was won by Congressman Wall Doxey. In 1942, Eastland defeated Doxey in the primary for the Democratic nomination in the election for a full term; the Democratic party was Mississippi's dominant party, making Eastland's primary victory tantamount to election, he returned to the Senate in January 1943. He was reelected five times, served until resigning in December 1978, days before the end of his final term. Eastland advanced to the chairmanship of the Senate Judiciary Committee and President pro tempore of the Senate. Eastland was buried at Forest Cemetery in Forest, Mississippi. Eastland was born in Doddsville, in the Mississippi Delta, the son of Woods Caperton Eastland, a lawyer and cotton planter, Alma Teresa Eastland. In 1905 he moved with his parents to the county seat of Scott County, Mississippi, his father served as a district attorney. The son attended the local segregated public schools. Eastland attended the University of Mississippi, Vanderbilt University, the University of Alabama.

He studied law in his father's office, attained admission to the bar in 1927, practiced in Sunflower County. Active in politics, he was elected to one term in the Mississippi House of Representatives, served from 1928 to 1932. After completing his House term, Eastland remained active in politics and government, he was a sought-after campaign speaker, including speeches on behalf of the gubernatorial candidacies of Paul B. Johnson Sr. in 1935 and 1939. In addition, he was a member of the board of trustees of the state hospital for the insane. In the 1930s, Eastland took over management of his family's Sunflower County plantation. After entering politics, he considered himself first and foremost a cotton planter. Cotton plantations were adopting mechanization but he still had many African-American laborers on the plantation, most of whom worked as sharecroppers. Eastland was appointed to the US Senate in 1941 by Governor Paul B. Johnson Sr. following the death of Senator Pat Harrison. Johnson first offered the appointment to Woods Eastland.

Johnson appointed James Eastland on the condition that he would not run that year in the special election to complete the term, ensuring that no candidate would have the advantage of incumbency. Eastland kept his word, the election was won by 2nd District Congressman Wall Doxey. In 1942, Eastland was one of three candidates. Doxey had the support of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mississippi's senior US Senator, Theodore G. Bilbo, but Eastland defeated him in the Democratic primary. At the time, Mississippi was a one-party state, dominated by white Democrats since the disfranchisement of African Americans with the passage of the 1890 state constitution; the state used poll taxes, literacy tests and white primaries to exclude African Americans from the political system. Eastland returned to the Senate on January 3, 1943. Roosevelt and Eastland developed a working relationship that enabled Eastland to oppose New Deal programs that were unpopular in Mississippi, while he supported the President's agenda on other issues.

Eastland was effective in developing that type of arrangement with presidents of both parties during his long tenure in the Senate. Effective because of his seniority, he gained major federal investment in the state, such as infrastructure construction including the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway and federal relief after disasters such as Hurricane Camille. Early 1947 saw a renewed effort by the Truman administration to promote civil rights with activities such as President Truman addressing the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and delivering an address to Congress dedicated to the subject. Eastland, among many other Southerners who saw the civil rights backing of the administration as an attack on their way of life, addressed the Senate floor a week after Truman's speech on the matter, saying Southerners were expected to "remain docile" in light of their laws and culture being destroyed "under the false guise of another civil-rights bill." Six weeks before the 1948 United States Presidential election, Eastland predicted the defeat of the incumbent President Harry Truman, telling an audience in Memphi

Sound Off (film)

Sound Off is a 1952 comedy film featuring several songs, filmed in SuperCinecolor for Columbia Pictures and starring Mickey Rooney. The film was shot in August 1951; this was the first of a three-picture contract between Rooney and producer Jonie Taps for Columbia in which Rooney was paid $75,000 for each picture. It is the first collaboration between Richard Quine, Blake Edwards and Dick Crockett; the same team next collaborated with Rooney in the Navy in All Ashore made the following year. The three worked together again on Rooney's television series The Mickey Rooney Show/Hey, Mulligan in 1954-55, their final film in the Columbia contract was the white crime drama Drive a Crooked Road. The film's title comes from the military cadence by Willie Lee Duckworth, a major 1951 chart hit for Vaughn Monroe. An obnoxious nightclub comedian at Ciro's is drafted into the U. S. Army during the Korean War. At his arrival at his basic training he romantically pursues her, his activities irritate the entire army when he goes AWOL for her.

He is sentenced to thirty days hard labour that turns him into a soldier. He is shipped overseas to join the Special Services. Mickey Rooney as Mike Donnelly Anne James as Lt. Rafferty John Archer as Maj. Whitlock Gordon Jones as Sgt. Crockett Sound Off on IMDb

List of cicadas of Australia

This is a list of the cicadas found in Australia including its outlying islands and territories. The outlying islands covered include: Christmas, Ashmore, Torres Strait, Coral Sea, Lord Howe, Norfolk and Heard/McDonald; the taxonomy followed is from Moulds 2012, Marshall 2018, Popple 2018. Genus Burbunga Distant, 1905 Burbunga albofasciata Distant, 1907 Burbunga aterrima Burbunga gilmorei Burbunga hillieri Burbunga inornata Distant, 1905 Burbunga mouldsi Olive, 2012 Burbunga nanda Burbunga nigrosignata Burbunga occidentalis Burbunga parva Moulds, 1994 Burbunga queenslandica Moulds, 1994 Genus Diceropyga Stål, 1870 Dyceropyga subapicalis Genus Anapsaltoda Ashton, 1921 Anapsaltoda pulchra Ashton, 1921 Genus Arenopsaltria Ashton, 1921 Arenopsaltria fullo Arenopsaltria nubivena Arenopsaltria pygmaea Genus Henicopsaltria Stål, 1866 Henicopsaltria danielsi Moulds, 1993 Henicopsaltria eydouxii Henicopsaltria kelsalli Distant, 1910 Henicopsaltria rufivelum Moulds, 1978 Genus Illyria Moulds, 1985 Illyria australensis Illyria burkei Illyria hilli Illyria major Moulds, 1985 Genus Macrotristria Stål, 1870 Macrotristria angularis Macrotristria bindalia Burns, 1964 Macrotristria doddi Ashton, 1912 Macrotristria dorsalis Ashton, 1912 Macrotristria douglasi Burns, 1964 Macrotristria extrema Macrotristria frenchi Macrotristria godingi Distant, 1907 Macrotristria hieroglyphicalis Macrotristria intersecta Macrotristria kabikabia Burns, 1964 Macrotristria kulungura Burns, 1964 Macrotristria lachlani Moulds, 1992 Macrotristria maculicollis Ashton, 1914 Macrotristria stevewilsoni Popple, 2016 Macrotristria sylvara Macrotristria thophoides Ashton, 1914 Macrotristria vittata Moulds, 1992 Macrotristria worora Burns, 1964 Genus Neopsaltoda Distant, 1910 Neopsaltoda crassa Distant, 1910 Genus Psaltoda Stål, 1861 Psaltoda adonis Ashton, 1914 Psaltoda antennetta Moulds, 2002 Psaltoda aurora Distant, 1881 Psaltoda brachypennis Moss and Moulds, 2000 Psaltoda claripennis Ashton, 1921 Psaltoda flavescens Distant, 1892 Psaltoda fumipennis Ashton, 1912 Psaltoda harrisii Psaltoda insularis Ashton, 1914 Psaltoda maccallumi Moulds, 2002 Psaltoda magnifica Moulds, 1984 Psaltoda moerens Psaltoda mossi Moulds, 2002 Psaltoda pictibasis Psaltoda plaga Genus Cyclochila * Amyot and Serville, 1843 Cyclochila australasiae Cyclochila virens Distant, 1906 Genus Jassopsaltria Ashton, 1914 Jassopsaltria rufifacies Ashton, 1914 Genus Oxypleura * Amyot and Serville, 1843 Oxypleura calypso Genus Talcopsaltria Moulds, 2008 Talcopsaltria olivei Moulds, 2008 Genus Parnkalla Distant, 1905 Parnkalla muelleri Genus Parnquila Moulds, 2012 Parnquila hillieri Parnquila magna Parnquila venosa Parnquila unicolor Genus Tamasa Distant, 1905 Tamasa burgessi Tamasa caverna Moulds and Olive, 2014 Tamasa doddi Tamasa rainbowi Ashton, 1912 Tamasa tristigma Genus Arunta Distant, 1904 Arunta interclusa Arunta perulata Genus Thopha * Amyot and Serville, 1843 Thopha colorata Distant, 1907 Thopha emmotti Moulds, 2001 Thopha hutchinsoni Moulds, 2008 Thopha saccata Thopha sessiliba Distant, 1892 Genus Adelia Moulds, 2012 Adelia borealis Broad-winged TigerGenus Atrapsalta * Owen and Moulds, 2016 Atrapsalta collina Atrapsalta corticina Atrapsalta dolens Atrapsalta emmotti Atrapsalta encaustica Atrapsalta furcilla Owen and Moulds, 2016 Atrapsalta fuscata Atrapsalta siccana Atrapsalta vinea Owen and Moulds, 2016 Pauropsalta rubra Goding and Froggatt, 1904 Genus Auscala Moulds, 2012 Auscala spinosa (Goding

Afrin, Syria

Afrin is a city in northern Syria. In the Afrin District, it is part of the Aleppo Governorate; the total population of the district as of 2005 was recorded at 172,095 people, of whom 36,562 lived in the town of Afrin itself. The town and district are named after the Afrin River; the city is split into two distinct halves by the river. As a result of the Turkish military operation in Afrin, the Kurdish-led People's Protection Units and Women's Protection Units withdrew from Afrin on 17 March 2018 and Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army and the Turkish Armed Forces captured Afrin the next day. An estimated 50,000 to 70,000 people have remained in Afrin city after the Turkish capture. About 8 km south of the town of Afrin, there are the remains of a Neo-Hittite settlement known as Tell Ain Dara. In a field northwest of the city, a 9th or 8th century BC Luwian stele was discovered; the stele's front shows a part of a relief. Cyrrhus overlooking the Afrin River once served as a military base for the Romans conducting campaigns against the Armenian Empire to the north.

By the 4th Century it had become an important centre for Christianity with its own bishop. The Afrin valley was part of Roman Syria until the Muslim conquest of the Levant in 637; the Afrin river was known as Oinoparas in the Seleucid era, in the Roman era the name became Ufrenus, whence the Arab vernacular ʿAfrīn, ʿIfrīn, adopted as Kurdish Efrîn. The area was conquered by the Principality of Antioch, but again came under Muslim rule in 1260 following the Mongol invasions. In the Ottoman period, the area was part of the Kilis Province. Although it is not contiguous with the main area of Kurdish settlement, the Afrin valley seems to have seen Kurdish settlement by at least the 18th century, as by that time it is referred to as the Sancak of the Kurds in Ottoman documents. With the drawing of the Syria–Turkey border in 1923, Afrin became detached from Kilis Province and was part of French-administrated Syria and was incorporated in modern Syria at the state's formation in 1961; the town of Afrin was founded as a market in the 19th century.

In 1929, the number of permanent residents was 800, growing to 7,000 by 1968. The town was developed by France under the French mandate of Syria; the main square is Afrin bus station, the old settlement area stretches northward on the slope of a hill, but more habitations have spread to the other side of the river and extend as far to the south-east as the neighboring village of Turandah. Since the Turkish annexation of Hatay Province in 1939, the Afrin District is now surrounded by the Syria–Turkey border, apart from the border with the Azaz District to the east and a short border with the Mount Simeon District to the southeast. There was an outbreak of civil unrest on 21 March 1986, during which three people were killed by Syrian police. In 1999, the arrest of Kurdish leader Abdullah Öcalan triggered renewed clashes between Kurdish protesters and the police. During the Syrian Civil War, Syrian government forces withdrew from the city during the summer of 2012; the Popular Protection Units took control of the city soon afterward.

Afrin Canton as a de facto autonomous part was declared on 29 January 2014, the town of Afrin of being the administrative center. The assembly elected Hêvî Îbrahîm Mustefa prime minister, who appointed Remzi Şêxmus and Ebdil Hemid Mistefa to work as deputies. Between 2012 and 2018, the YPG, the official defence force of the canton, was criticized for recruiting child soldiers, committing arbitrary arrests and failing to address unsolved killings and disappearances. According to the reports, the YPG and Asayish were accused of forcibly recruiting civilians, arresting political activists and displacing Arabs whose homes were stolen and looted. Displaced Arabs accused the Kurdish security forces of imposing taxes and restrictions on the population in order to force them to leave and change the demography. On 20 January 2018, Turkish Air Force bombed more than 100 targets in Afrin. On 28 January 2018 Syria's antiquities department and the British-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said that Turkish shelling had damaged the ancient temple of Ain Dara at Afrin.

Syria called for international pressure on Turkey “to prevent the targeting of archaeological and cultural sites”. On 20 February 2018, the Syrian army convoy consisting of 50 vehicles had arrived in Afrin through the Ziyarat border crossing and were deployed to different areas. Five vehicles reached the center of the city of Afrin. On 18 March 2018, on the 58th day of the Turkish military operation in Afrin, the Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army and the Turkish Armed Forces captured Afrin from the YPG and the YPJ. Shortly after its capture, TFSA fighters looted parts of the city and destroyed numerous Kurdish symbols, including a statue of Kāve, as Turkish Army troops solidified control by raising Turkish flags and banners over the city. On 26 March 2018, Turkish state media outlet Anadolu Agency published video showing children in Afrin attending a school with a large photo of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan near the front door; the video additionally shows children in Afrin waving Turkish flags and teachers instructing the students to chant pro-Erdogan slogans.

On 12 March 2018, the Br


Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire. His De Re Rustica in twelve volumes has been preserved and forms an important source on Roman agriculture, together with the works of Cato the Elder and Varro, both of which he cites. A smaller book on trees, De arboribus, is attributed to him. In 1794 the Spanish botanists Jose Antonio Pavón y Jimenez and Hipólito Ruiz López named a genus of Peruvian asterid Columellia in his honour. Little is known of Columella's life, he was born in Gades, Hispania Baetica to Roman parents. After a career in the army, he turned to farming his estates at Ardea and Alba in Latium. In ancient times, Columella's work "appears to have been but little read", cited only by Pliny the Elder, Servius and Isidorus, having fallen "into complete neglect" after Palladius published an abridgement of it; this book is presented as advice to a certain Publius Silvinus. Known only in fragments, the complete book was among those discovered in monastery libraries in Switzerland and France by Poggio Bracciolini and his assistant Bartolomeo di Montepulciano during the Council of Constance, between 1414 and 1418.

Structure of De Re Rustica: soils viticulture fruits olive trees big animals: cattle and mules small animals: asses, goats, dogs fish and fowl: chickens, thrushes, Numidian chicken and guinea fowl, ducks, fish ponds wild animals: enclosures for wild animals, bee-keeping, production of honey and wax gardens personnel management calendars household managementBook 10 is written in dactylic hexameter verse, in imitation of or homage to, Virgil. It may have been intended to be the concluding volume, books 11 and 12 being an addition to the original scheme. A complete but anonymous translation into English was published by Millar in 1745. Excerpts had been translated by Bradley; the short work De arboribus, "On Trees", is in manuscripts and early editions of Columella considered as book 3 of De Re Rustica. However it is clear from the opening sentences that it is part of a separate and earlier work; as the anonymous translator of the Millar edition notes, there is in De arboribus no mention of the Publius Silvinus to whom the De Re Rustica is addressed.

A recent critical edition of the Latin text of the De Re Rustica of Columella includes it, but as incerti auctoris, by an unknown hand. Cassiodorus mentions sixteen books of Columella, which has led to the suggestion that De arboribus formed part of a work in four volumes. In addition to Cato the Elder and Varro, Columella used many sources that are no longer extant and for which he is one of the few references; these include works by Aulus Cornelius Celsus, the Carthaginian writer Mago, Tremellius Scrofa, many Greek sources. His uncle Marcus Columella, "a clever man and an exceptional farmer", had conducted experiments in sheep breeding, crossing colourful wild rams, introduced from Africa for gladiatorial games, with domestic sheep, may have influenced his nephew's interests. Columella owned farms in Italy; the earliest editions of Columella group his works with those on agriculture of Cato the Elder, Varro Reatinus and Palladius. Some modern library catalogues follow Brunet in listing these under "Rei rusticae scriptores" or "Scriptores rei rusticae".

Iunii Moderati Columellae hortulus Georgius Merula, Franciscus Colucia De re rustica Opera et impensa Nicolai Ienson: Venetiis, 1472. Lucii Iunii Moderati Columellae de Cultu hortorum Liber.xi. Quem. Pub. Virgilius. M. I Georgicis Posteris edendum dimisit.: D S, Opera Agricolationum: Columellæ: Varronis: Catonisque: nec non Palladii: cū excriptionibus. D. Philippi Beroaldi: & commentariis quæ in aliis impressionibus non extāt. Impensis Benedicti hectoris: Bonon. Xiii. calen. Octob. 1494 Beroaldo, Filippo "il vecchio" Oratio de felicitate habita in enarratione Georgicon Virgilii et Columellae Bononiae: per Ioannemantonium De Benedictis, 1507 Lucii Junii moderati Columell de cultu hortorum carme: Necno Palladius de arboru insitione una cu Nicolai Barptholomaei Lochensis hortulo. Parisiis: Venundantur parisiis in aedibus Radulphi Laliseau, Lucius Iunius Moderatus Columella De cultu ortorum. Interprete Pio Bononiensi. Impressum Bononiae: a Hieronymo de Benedictis bibliopola et calcographo, 1520 mense Augusto Libri De Re Rustica...

Additis Nuper Commentariis Iunii Pompo. Fortunati in Librum De Cultu Hortorum, Cum Adnotationibus Philippi Beroaldi... Florence: Filippo Giunta, 1521 De re rustica libri XII. Euisdem de Arboris liber, separatus ab aliis. Lyon, Sébastien Gryphe, 1541 Columella, Lucius Iunius Moderatus De l'agricoltura libri XII. / Lutio Giunio Moderato Columella. Trattato de gli alberi, tradotto nuouamente di latino in lingua italiana per Pietro Lauro Modonese In Venetia:, 1544 Les Douze livres des choses rustiques. Traduicts de Latin en François, par feu maistre Claude Cotereau Chanoine de Paris. La traduction duquel ha esté soingneusement reveue & en la plupart corrigée, & illustrée de doctes annotations par maistre Jean Thierry de Beauvoisis Paris: Jacques Kerver, 1551, 1555 Columella, Lucius Junius Moderatus Les douze liures... des choses rustiques, tr. par C. Cotereau. La tr. corrigée & illustrée de doctes annotations par J. Thiery de Beauoisis Paris, 155


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