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Mariko Bando

Mariko Bando is a Japanese writer and former bureaucrat. Bando started her career in the Prime Minister's office becoming a consul general and the first director general of the Japanese Cabinet Office's Gender Equality Bureau, her 2006 book The Dignity of a Woman has sold more than three million copies in Japan. She is the president and chancellor of Showa Women's University. Bando attended Toyama Chubu High School. Bando completed her undergraduate education at the University of Tokyo. In 2001 she received an honorary doctorate from Queensland University of Technology. After graduating from the University of Tokyo in 1969, Bando entered the Japanese civil service, she became the first woman in a career post in the office of the Prime Minister of Japan. Her civil service career included numerous posts in the office of the Prime Minister of Japan, the Bureau of Statistics, the Cabinet Secretariat, including posts overseeing policy on gender equality and the elderly. In 1978 she wrote the first white paper on gender inequality in Japan.

In 1981 she spent a term at Harvard University's Mary I. Bunting Institute studying women managers. From 1995 to 1998 Bando was the Vice Governor of Saitama Prefecture. In 1998, with her appointment as consul general in Brisbane, she became the first woman to hold a Japanese consul general post. From 2001 to 2003 Bando was the inaugural director general of the Japanese government's Gender Equality Bureau. During Bando's tenure Japan enacted the 2001 Law on Prevention of Spouse Violence and Protection of Victims, which expanded the range of possible domestic violence offenses and penalties and increased government support for survivors. In 2003 she led the Japanese delegation to the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Bloomberg Businessweek described Bando as "the Japanese government's front-and-center spokeswoman and champion of its policy of leveling the playing field for women". In the same year, Bando lost to Kiyoshi Ueda. Since 2003 Bando has worked in various capacities at Showa Women's University, most as president and chancellor.

She has claimed that the career change reflected her desire to help women workers more directly through education. During her tenure as chancellor, Showa Women's University eliminated its junior college and partnered with Temple University to move the Temple University, Japan Campus to the Showa Women's University campus. Bando has written books on a variety of topics, including aging and etiquette. At age 60 she wrote The Dignity of a Woman, a practical guide for women younger working women, on how to maintain "dignity" in speech and dress; the Dignity of a Woman, published in 2006, became the number one bestseller in Japan in 2007. Bando attributed its sales success to "the public's appetite for books on traditional values". A study by scholar Hiroko Hirakawa found that many women objected to the book's portrayal of the "dignified woman" as a "superwoman who projects an upper-class aura while remaining modest and grounded in an appreciation for the old-fashioned values of frugality and sentiment".

The Dignity of a Woman sold over three million copies in Japan. Bando married at the age of 24, while working in the office of the Prime Minister of Japan, had her first child at age 26, she has two children. Toward a Gender Equality Society, Keisō Shobō, 2004, ISBN 9784326652990 The Dignity of a Woman, PHP Kenkyūjo, 2006, ISBN 9784569657059 Utsukushii nihongo no susume, Shōgakukan, 2009, ISBN 9784098250516 Iiwake shiteru bāi ka: datsu mō osoikamo shōkōgun, Hōken, 2017, ISBN 9784865134384

Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants

Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants is an anti-nuclear organization and campaign in Japan. Translated, its full name means "Citizens' Commission for the Ten Million People's Petition to Say Goodbye to Nuclear Power Plants", as the name would suggest, its aim is to gather 10 million signatures protesting against nuclear power plants; as of December 2013, the campaign had collected 8.3 million signatures. The group would like to see Japan's energy policy shifted away from nuclear power and towards renewable energy; the group's petition says, "What has become clear from the Fukushima nuclear disaster and developments is this hard fact: there is no nuclear energy, safe. In other words, nuclear technology and humanity cannot coexist." As well as collecting signatures, the organization has held several anti-nuclear rallies. It held a rally of 60,000 people in Meiji Park, Tokyo, on September 17, 2011, a rally in Koriyama, Fukushima, on March 11, 2012, the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

On July 16, 2012, it held a rally in Yoyogi Park, which drew 170,000 people. It has been suggested that these anti-nuclear protests and related activities may indicate new levels of political activism from urban workers and young people; the group counts well-known celebrities in its ranks. Among the founding members are writer Kenzaburō Ōe, historian Shunsuke Tsurumi, authors Hisae Sawachi, Katsuto Uchihashi and Keiko Ochiai. According to the group, its supporters include Minamisoma Mayor Katsunobu Sakurai and Tokai Village Mayor Tatsuya Murakami, as well as film director Yoji Yamada and actress Sayuri Yoshinaga. Anti-nuclear groups Anti-nuclear power movement in Japan Genpatsu-shinsai Japanese reaction to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster Politics of nuclear power Official website

Goodnews Bay, Alaska

Goodnews Bay is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 243, up from 230 in 2000. Goodnews Bay is located on the north shore of Goodnews Bay at the mouth of the Goodnews River, at 59°7′17″N 161°35′9″W, it is 116 miles south of Bethel, 110 miles northwest of Dillingham and 400 miles west of Anchorage. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.7 square miles, all of it land. Goodnews Bay first reported on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Mumtrahamute" with 162 residents, it reported on the 1890 census as "Mumtrahamiut". It next reported in 1920 as "Mumtrakmut." It next reported in 1940 as "Good News Bay." It returned in 1950 as "Mumtrak." From 1960-70, it returned as Mumtrak with the alternative name of Goodnews Bay. It formally incorporated in 1970 as Goodnews Bay, has returned as such since 1980; as of the census of 2000, there were 230 people, 71 households, 47 families residing in the city.

The population density was 72.6 people per square mile. There were 87 housing units at an average density of 27.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 5.65% White, 92.61% Native American, 1.74% from two or more races. There were 71 households out of which 45.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 23.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.24 and the average family size was 4.04. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 36.1% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, 7.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 122.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $16,250, the median income for a family was $21,563.

Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $0 for females. The per capita income for the city was $6,851. About 37.8% of families and 39.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.3% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates a PreK-12 school; as of 2018 it has one of the lowest enrollments in LKSD. Alaska Community Database Community Information Summaries

Retinal waves

Retinal waves are spontaneous bursts of action potentials that propagate in a wave-like fashion across the developing retina. These waves occur before cone maturation and before vision can occur; the signals from retinal waves drive the activity in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex. The waves are thought to propagate across neighboring cells in random directions determined by periods of refractoriness that follow the initial depolarization. Retinal waves are thought to have properties that define early connectivity of circuits and synapses between cells in the retina. There is still much debate about the exact role of retinal waves. One of the first scientists to theorize the existence of spontaneous cascades of electrical activity during retinal development was, computational neurobiologist David J. Willshaw, he proposed that adjacent cells generate electrical activity in a wave-like formation through layers of interconnected pre-synaptic and postsynaptic cells.

Activity propagating through a close span of pre- and postsynaptic cells is thought to result in strong electrical activity in comparison to pre- and postsynaptic cells that are farther apart, which results in weaker activity. Willshaw thought this difference in firing strength and location of cells was responsible for determining the activities boundaries; the lateral movement of firing from neighboring cell to neighboring cell, starting in one random area of cells and moving throughout both the pre- and postsynaptic layers, is thought to be responsible for the formation of the retinotopic map. To simulate the cascade of electrical activity, Willshaw wrote a computer program to demonstrate the movement of electrical activity between pre- and postsynaptic cell layers. What Willshaw called spontaneous patterned electrical activity is today referred to as retinal waves. From this purely theoretical concept, Italian scientists Lucia Galli and Lamberto Maffei used animal models to observe electrical activity in ganglion cells of the retina.

Before Galli and Maffei, retinal ganglion cell activity had never been recorded during prenatal development. To study ganglion activity and Maffei used premature rat retinas, between embryonic day 17 and 21, to record electrical activity. Several isolated, single cells were used for this study; the recordings showed. Galli and Maffei speculated that the electrical activity seen in the retinal ganglion cells may be responsible for the formation of retinal synaptic connections and for the projections of retinal ganglion cells to the superior colliculus and LGN; as the idea of retinal waves became established, neurobiologist Carla Shatz used calcium imaging and microelectrode recording to visualize the movement of action potentials in a wave-like formation. For more information on calcium imaging and microelectrode recording, see section below; the calcium imaging showed ganglion cells initiating the formation of retinal waves, along with adjacent amacrine cells, which take part in the movement of the electrical activity.

Microelectrode recordings were thought to show LGN neurons being driven by the wave-like formation of electrical activity across neighboring retinal ganglion cells. From these results, it was suggested that the waves of electrical activity were responsible for driving the pattern of spatiotemporal activity and playing a role in the formation of the visual system during prenatal development. Rachel Wong is another researcher involved in the study of retinal waves. Wong speculated that electrical activity, within the retina, is involved in the organization of retinal projections during prenatal development. More the electrical activity may be responsible for the segregation and organization of the dLGN. Wong speculated that specific parts of the visual system, such as the ocular dominance columns, require some form of electrical activity in order to develop completely, she believed being able to figure out the signals encoded by retinal waves, may allow scientists to better understand how retinal waves play a role in retinal development.

Some of the most recent research being conducted is attempting to better understand the encoded signals of retinal waves during development. According to research conducted by Evelyne Sernagor, it is thought that retinal waves are not just necessary for their spontaneous electrical activity but are responsible for encoding information to be used in the formation of spatiotemporal patterns allowing retinal pathways to become more refined. Using turtles to test this concept, Sernagor used calcium imaging to look at the change in retinal waves during various stages of retinal development. From the study, at the first stages of development, retinal waves fire and causing what is thought to be a large wave of action potentials across the retina. However, as the turtle nears completion of development, the retinal waves stop spreading and instead become immobile clumps of retinal ganglion cells; this is thought to be a result of GABA changing from excitatory to inhibitory during continual retinal development.

Whether the change in retinal wave formation during development is unique to turtles, is still unknown. Spontaneous generation and propagation of waves is seen elsewhere in developing circuits. Similar synchronized spontaneous activity early in development has been seen in neurons of the hippocampus, spinal cord, auditory nuclei. Patterned activity shaping neuronal connections and control of synaptic efficiency in multiple systems including the retina are impor

Jerzy Toeplitz

Jerzy Toeplitz AO was born in 1909 in Kharkiv. He was educated in Warsaw. After World War II he was the co-founder of the Polish Film School, took up an appointment in Australia for the Film and TV School. Between 1948 and 1972 he was Vice-President of the International Television Council. In 1959, he was a member of the jury at the 1st Moscow International Film Festival. Two years he was a member of the jury at the 2nd Moscow International Film Festival, he was an author and published a number of books which have been translated into many languages. Toeplitz for 30 years, was the president of the International Federation of Films Archives, where he accomplished a important role, overall in the Cold War conjuncture into a big crisis of the FIAF's history, when Henri Langlois left the FIAF. Toeplitz's job was a important differential because he was a cinema's teacher and a leader of an educational project in the Polish city of Łódź; this school had a decisive impact on the modern cinema in Poland.

In 1985 he was appointed an Honorary Officer of the Order of Australia for his services to Australian film. In 1986, he was a member of the jury at the 36th Berlin International Film Festival. History of Cinema Art Five volume set translated from Polish into Russian and German Film and TV in the USA Translated into Russian and Slovak Hollywood and After: The changing Face of American Cinema Translated into English by Boleslaw Sulik Borde, Raymond. Les Cinémathèques, L'Age D'Homme, 1983, Lausanne. Obituary in The Independent by Adrian Dannatt