Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Dropkick Murphys are an American Celtic punk band formed in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1996. The band was signed to independent punk record label Hellcat Records, releasing five albums for the label, making a name for themselves locally through constant touring and yearly St. Patrick's Day week shows, held in and around Boston; the 2004 single "Tessie" became the band's first mainstream hit and one of their biggest charting singles to date. The band's final Hellcat release, 2005's The Warrior's Code, included the song "I'm Shipping Up to Boston"; the band is known for their energetic live shows. In 2007, the band began releasing music through their own imprint label, Born & Bred via Alternative Distribution Alliance. 2007's The Meanest of Times made its debut at No. 20 on the Billboard charts and featured the successful single, "The State of Massachusetts", while 2011's Going Out in Style was an bigger success, making its debut at No. 6, giving the band their highest-charting album to date. The band's eighth studio album and Sealed in Blood was released in 2013 making its debut at No. 9 on the Billboard charts and featured the single "The Season's Upon Us", a Christmas song, one of the band's highest charting singles.
The band's ninth album, 11 Short Stories of Pain & Glory was released on January 6, 2017 and debuted at number 8 on the Billboard charts. They have yet to have a Billboard Top 100 hit; the Dropkick Murphys were formed in 1996 in Quincy, Massachusetts consisting of lead vocalist Mike McColgan, bassist/vocalist Ken Casey, guitarist Rick Barton, drummer Jeff Erna. The band was named; the "Dropkick Murphys", first started playing in the basement of a friend's barbershop and soon began to tour and record. They received their first big break when The Mighty Mighty Bosstones selected them as the opening act for their 1997 tour in support of Let's Face It. After putting out a series of EPs, they were signed by Hellcat Records in 1997. In 1998 they released their first full-length album, Do or Die, produced by Rancid's Lars Frederiksen. Lead singer Mike McColgan left the band in 1998 during the middle of a US tour with The Business. According to McColgan he wanted to follow in the footsteps of his uncle and join the Boston Fire Department, which he would do in 2001.
The band gave a different explanation for McColgan's departure in the liner notes of their 1998 7" release Curse of a Fallen Soul: "We'd like to take this time to let you know that Mike McColgan, our former lead singer has quit the band. We apologize to anyone, a fan of Mike as our singer, however contrary to popular rumor, he did not leave the band to join the fire department. Mike left the band because he is no longer interested in being a member of this band or the movement of which we are a part." The band goes on to explain that their music is serious to them and that it did not feel right having a singer, going through the motions. Mike felt that the band deserved a singer, invested in the music. Mike would return to the punk scene in 2003 as singer of the Street Dogs. Following McColgan's departure, the band searched for a replacement however were not having much luck. Al Barr, lead singer for The Bruisers was well aware of the Dropkick Murphys and at first resented the fact that the Dropkick Murphys were becoming one of the biggest bands in the area, opening for all the bigger bands to come through, a slot Barr and The Bruisers would have obtained.
Barr was informed of McColgan's departure and assumed that the band was finished however he was contacted by Derek TC NYSR producer-founder of the groundbreaking 1990s Oi!-Skampilation series at the Middle East Club in Cambridge and informed to contact Ken Casey right away. Barr went in to audition for the band, first performing a new song titled "10 Years of Service" and was offered the job right away, which he accepted. Barr's first release with the band was the 1998 7" single for "Curse of a Fallen Soul". On March 9, 1999, the band released their second studio album and first with Barr, The Gang's All Here; the album featured more of a hardcore–street punk sound closer to that of Barr's former band, The Bruisers and more of an Irish influence than on their debut album. The band gained their first mainstream exposure when the video for their single "10 Years of Service" received airplay on the MTV show 120 Minutes; the band set out on a year-long tour to support the album. In late 1999, the band along with The Business, released a split single titled, "Mob Mentality" in 1999.
A year they released a full-length album of the same name featuring the two bands covering each other's songs along with songs from other artists. Dropkick Murphys re-recorded their own song "Boys on the Docks" with Al on vocals; as the band began the process of recording their third album in 2000, Rick Barton decided to quit during the recording sessions. In 2014 Barton discussed his departure saying "Kenny ended up hating each other. We've since made amends, but you know, touring in a band for four straight years… that same old story." With Barton gone, the band added four new members which included former The Ducky Boys guitarist James Lynch, who joined shortly prior to Barton's departure, 17-year-old guitarist Marc Orrell and tin whistle player Ryan Foltz and bagpipe player Robbie "Spicy McHaggis" Mederios, whose nickname was inspired by a McDonald's menu item while the band w
Melissa Lou Etheridge is an American singer-songwriter and activist. Her self-titled debut album Melissa Etheridge was released in 1988 and became an underground success; the album peaked at No. 22 on the Billboard 200, its lead single, "Bring Me Some Water", garnered Etheridge her first Grammy Award nomination for Best Rock Vocal Performance, Female. In 1993, Etheridge won her first Grammy award for her single "Ain't It Heavy" from her third album, Never Enough; that year, she released what would become her mainstream breakthrough album, Yes I Am. Its tracks "I'm the Only One" and "Come to My Window" both reached the top 30 in the United States, the latter earned Etheridge her second Grammy award. Yes I Am peaked at No. 15 on the Billboard 200, spent 138 weeks on the chart, earning a RIAA certification of 6× Platinum, her largest to date. In October 2004, Etheridge was diagnosed with breast cancer, underwent surgery and chemotherapy. At the 2005 Grammy Awards, she made a return to the stage and, although bald from chemotherapy, performed a tribute to Janis Joplin with the song "Piece of My Heart".
Etheridge's performance was lauded, with India. Arie writing "I Am Not My Hair" about Etheridge; that year, Etheridge released her first compilation album, Greatest Hits: The Road Less Traveled. The album was a success, peaking at No. 14 on the Billboard 200, going Gold immediately. Her latest studio album is Soul. Etheridge is known for her mixture of "confessional lyrics, pop-based folk-rock, raspy, smoky vocals." She has been a gay and lesbian activist since her public coming out in January 1993. She has received fifteen Grammy Award nominations throughout her career, winning two, in 1993 and 1995. In 2007, she won an Academy Award for Best Original Song for "I Need to Wake Up" from the film An Inconvenient Truth. In September 2011, Etheridge received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Etheridge was born in Leavenworth, the younger of two girls of Elizabeth, a computer consultant, John Etheridge, an American Constitution teacher at Leavenworth High School, her father was a high school psychology teacher and athletic director at her alma mater, Leavenworth High School.
He died in August 1991. Her mother is now retired. Etheridge attended David Brewer School, still located at 17th and Osage Streets, she graduated in 1979 from Leavenworth High School at 10th Halderman. She was a member of the first "Power and Life" musical/dance group at LHS, her childhood home was at 1902 Miami Street. Etheridge's interest in music began early, she began to play in all-men country music groups throughout her teenage years, until she moved to Boston to attend Berklee College of Music. While at Berklee, Etheridge played the club circuit around Boston. After three semesters, Etheridge decided to drop out of Berklee and head to Los Angeles to attempt a career in music. Etheridge was discovered in a bar called Vermie's in Pasadena, CA, she had made some friends on a women's soccer team and those new friends came to see her play. One of the women was Karla Leopold, whose husband, Bill Leopold, was a manager in the music business. Karla convinced Bill to see her perform live, he was impressed, has remained a pivotal part of Etheridge's career since.
This, in addition to her gigs in lesbian bars around Los Angeles, led to her discovery by Island Records chief Chris Blackwell. She received a publishing deal to write songs for movies including the 1986 movie Weeds. In 1985, prior to her signing, Etheridge sent her demo to Olivia Records, a lesbian record label, but was rejected, she saved the rejection letter, signed by "the women of Olivia", featured in Intimate Portrait: Melissa Etheridge, the Lifetime Television documentary of her life. After an unreleased first effort, rejected by Island Records as being too polished and glossy, she completed her stripped-down self-titled debut in just four days, her eponymous debut album Melissa Etheridge, released in 1988, was an underground hit, the single, "Bring Me Some Water", a hit on radio, was nominated for a Grammy. At the time of the album's release, it was not known that Etheridge was a lesbian. While on the road promoting the album, she paused in Memphis, Tennessee, to be interviewed for the syndicated radio program Pulsebeat—Voice of the Heartland, explaining the intensity of her music by saying: "People think I'm sad—or angry.
But my songs are written about the conflicts I have... I have no anger toward anyone else." She invited the radio syndication producer to attend her concert that night. He was surprised to find himself one of the few men in attendance. Etheridge followed up her first album's success by contributing background vocals to Don Henley's album The End of the Innocence, she went into the studio and recorded her second album Brave and Crazy, released in 1989. Brave and Crazy followed the same musical formula as her eponymous debut garnering a Grammy nomination; the album peaked at #22 on the Billboard charts. Etheridge went on the road, like one of her musical influences, Bruce Springsteen, built a loyal fan base. Etheridge has "Born to Run" during live shows. In 1992, Etheridge released her third album, Never Enough. Similar to her prior two albums, Never Enough didn't reach the top of the charts peaking at #21 but gave Etheridge her first Grammy for Best Rock Vocal Performance, Female for her single "Ain't It Heavy".
Never Enough was considered a more mature album from Etheridge at that time. With rumors circulating around her sexuality (Ethe
Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist; the concertina and bandoneón are related. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds; these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block; the performer plays the melody on buttons or keys on the right-hand manual, the accompaniment, consisting of bass and pre-set chord buttons, on the left-hand manual. The accordion is spread across the world. In some countries it is used in popular music, whereas in other regions it tends to be more used for dance-pop and folk music and is used in folk music in Europe, North America and South America.
In Europe and North America, some popular music acts make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, jazz music and in both solo and orchestral performances of classical music; the piano accordion is the official city instrument of California. Many conservatories in Europe have classical accordion departments; the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning "harmonic, musical". Today, native versions of the name accordion are more common; these names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side". Accordions have many types. What may be technically possible to do with one accordion could be impossible with another: Some accordions are bisonoric, producing different pitches depending on the direction of bellows movement Others are unisonoric and produce the same pitch in both directions; the pitch depends on its size. Some use a chromatic buttonboard for the right-hand manual Others use a diatonic buttonboard for the right-hand manual Yet others use a piano-style musical keyboard for the right-hand manual Some can play in different registers Craftsmen and technicians may tune the same registers differently, "personalizing" the end result, such as an organ technician might voice a particular instrument The bellows is the most recognizable part of the instrument, the primary means of articulation.
Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal, it is used to create pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibrations, applied pressure increases the volume. The keyboard touch is not expressive and does not affect dynamics: all expression is effected through the bellows. Bellows effects include: Volume control and fade Repeated change of direction, popularized by musicians such as Renato Borghete and Luiz Gonzaga, extensively used in Forró, called resfulengo in Brazil Constant bellows motion while applying pressure at intervals Constant bellows motion to produce clear tones with no resonance Using the bellows with the silent air button gives the sound of air moving, sometimes used in contemporary compositions for this instrument The accordion's body consists of two wooden boxes joined together by the bellows.
These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals. Each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, to allow the sound to project better; the grille for the right-hand manual is larger and is shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment; the size and weight of an accordion varies depending on its type and playing range, which can be as small as to have only one or two rows of basses and a single octave on the right-hand manual, to the standard 120-bass accordion and through to large and heavy 160-bass free-bass converter models. The accordion is an aerophone; the manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it: The term accordion covers a wide range of instruments, with varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format. Not all have switches; the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, used for many musical genres.
Another type of accordion is the button accordion, used in several musical traditions, including Cajun and Tejano music and Austro-German Alpine music, Argentinian tango music. Different systems exist for the right-hand manual of an accordion, used for playing the melody; some use a button layout arranged in another, while others use a piano-style keyboard. Each system has different claimed benefits by those, they are used to define one accordion or another as a different "type": Chromatic button accordions and the bayan, a Russian variant, use a buttonboard where notes are arranged chromatically. Two major systems exist, referred to as the B-
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.8 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Oldham, Stockport, Trafford and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles, which covers the territory of the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, the second most populous urban area in the UK, it is landlocked and borders Cheshire, West Yorkshire and Merseyside. There is a mix of high-density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is urban—the product of concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry, it has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs.
Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which consists of political leaders from each of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development and transport. Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchester, elected in 2017. For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government; the county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts became unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county, with a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Several county-wide services were co-ordinated through the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities between 1985 and 2011. Before the creation of the metropolitan county, the name SELNEC was used for the area, from the initials of "South East Lancashire North East Cheshire". Greater Manchester is an amalgamation of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Since deindustrialisation in the mid-20th century, Greater Manchester has emerged as an exporter of media and digital content and dance music, association football. Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created until 1974, the history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation at Mellor, Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochion, believed to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Stretford was part of the land believed to have been occupied by the Celtic Brigantes tribe, lay on their border with the Cornovii on the southern side of the River Mersey; the remains of 1st-century forts at Castlefield in Manchester, Castleshaw Roman fort in Saddleworth, are evidence of Roman occupation. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of 1086. During the Middle Ages, much of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire – an ancient division of the county of Lancashire. Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townships, some of which, like Rochdale, were important market towns and centres of England's woollen trade.
The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade. In the late-18th century, the Industrial Revolution transformed the local domestic system. Infrastructure such as rows of terraced housing and roads were constructed to house labour, transport goods, produce cotton goods on an industrial scale for a global market; the townships in and around Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by a boom in industrial textile production and processing. This population increase resulted in the "vigorous concentric growth" of a conurbation between Manchester and an arc of surrounding mill towns, formed from a steady accretion of houses and transport infrastructure. Places such as Bury and Bolton played a central economic role nationally, by the end of the 19th century had become some of the most important and productive cotton-producing towns in the world.
However, it was Manchester, the most populous settlement, a major city, the world's largest marketplace for cotton goods, the natural centre of its region. By 1835 "Manchester was without challenge the first and greatest industrial city in the world". In the 1910s, local government reforms to administer this conurbation as a single entity were proposed. In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. However, the English term "Greater Mancheste
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita