The Flynn effect is the substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores that were measured in many parts of the world over the 20th century. When intelligence quotient tests are standardized using a sample of test-takers, by convention the average of the test results is set to 100 and their standard deviation is set to 15 or 16 IQ points; when IQ tests are revised, they are again standardized using a new sample of test-takers born more than the first. Again, the average result is set to 100. However, when the new test subjects take the older tests, in every case their average scores are above 100. Test score increases have been continuous and linear from the earliest years of testing to the present. For the Raven's Progressive Matrices test, a study published in the year 2009 found that British children's average scores rose by 14 IQ points from 1942 to 2008. Similar gains have been observed in many other countries in which IQ testing has long been used, including other Western European countries and South Korea.
There are numerous proposed explanations of the Flynn effect, as well as some skepticism about its implications. Similar improvements have been reported for other cognitions such as episodic memory. Research suggests that there is an ongoing reversed Flynn effect, i.e. a decline in IQ scores, in Norway, Australia, the Netherlands, Finland and German-speaking countries, a development which appears to have started in the 1990s. The Flynn effect is named for James R. Flynn, who did much to document it and promote awareness of its implications; the term itself was coined by authors of The Bell Curve. Although the general term for the phenomenon—referring to no researcher in particular—continues to be "secular rise in IQ scores", many textbooks on psychology and IQ testing have now followed the lead of Herrnstein and Murray in calling the phenomenon the Flynn effect. IQ tests are updated periodically. For example, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children developed in 1949, was updated in 1974, 1991, 2003 and again in 2014.
The revised versions are standardized based on the performance of test-takers in standardization samples. A standard score of IQ 100 is defined as the median performance of the standardization sample, thus one way to see changes in norms over time is to conduct a study in which the same test-takers take both an old and new version of the same test. Doing so confirms IQ gains over time; some IQ tests, for example tests used for military draftees in NATO countries in Europe, report raw scores, those confirm a trend of rising scores over time. The average rate of increase seems to be about three IQ points per decade in the United States, as scaled by the Wechsler tests; the increasing test performance over time appears on every major test, in every age range, at every ability level, in every modern industrialized country, although not at the same rate as in the United States. The increase was continuous and linear from the earliest days of testing to the mid-1990s. Though the effect is most associated with IQ increases, a similar effect has been found with increases in attention and of semantic and episodic memory.
Ulric Neisser estimated that using the IQ values of 1997, the average IQ of the United States in 1932, according to the first Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales standardization sample, was 80. Neisser states that "Hardly any of them would have scored'very superior', but nearly one-quarter would have appeared to be'deficient.'" He wrote that "Test scores are going up all over the world, but whether intelligence itself has risen remains controversial."Trahan et al. found that the effect was about 2.93 points per decade, based on both Stanford–Binet and Wechsler tests. In contrast and Voracek reported, in their meta-analysis of studies involving nearly 4 million participants, that the Flynn effect had decreased in recent decades, they reported that the magnitude of the effect was different for different types of intelligence, that the effect was stronger for adults than for children. Raven found that, as Flynn suggested, data interpreted as showing a decrease in many abilities with increasing age must be re-interpreted as showing that there has been a dramatic increase of these abilities with date of birth.
On many tests this occurs at all levels of ability. Some studies have found the gains of the Flynn effect to be concentrated at the lower end of the distribution. Teasdale and Owen, for example, found the effect reduced the number of low-end scores, resulting in an increased number of moderately high scores, with no increase in high scores. In another study, two large samples of Spanish children were assessed with a 30-year gap. Comparison of the IQ distributions indicated that the mean IQ scores on the test had increased by 9.7 points, the gains were concentrated in the lower half of the distribution and negligible in the top half, the gains decreased as the IQ of the individuals increased. Some studies have found a reverse Flynn effect with declining scores for those with high IQ. In 1987, Flynn took the position that the large increase indicates that IQ tests do not measure intelligence but only a minor sort of "abstract problem-solving ability" with little practical significance, he argued that if IQ gains do reflect intelligence increases, there would have been consequent ch
1996 New Zealand general election
The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional electoral system, produced a parliament more diverse than previous elections, it saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First's position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome. In the 1993 election, the National Party and the Labour Party had won 45 seats, respectively; the Alliance and the New Zealand First party had each won two seats. In the approach to MMP, there had been considerable rearrangement in parliament, with three new parties being established; as such, the situation just before the 1996 election was markedly different from the situation, established at the 1993 election.
The 1996 election was notable for the significant change of electorate boundaries, based on the provisions of the Electoral Act 1993. Because of the introduction of the MMP electoral system, the number of electorates had to be reduced, leading to significant changes. Many electorates were abolished, with their territories being incorporated into new electoral districts. More than half of the electorates contested in 1996 were newly constituted, most of the remainder had seen significant boundary changes. Wanganui was renamed as Whanganui. In total, 73 electorates were abolished, 29 electorates were newly created, 10 electorates were recreated, giving a net loss of 34 electorates. South IslandSince the 1967 electoral redistribution, the South Island had its number of general electorates fixed at 25. For the 1996 election and onwards, the number of South Island electorates is fixed at 16; the number of electors on the general roll of the South Island divided by 16 gives the target size for North Island and Māori electorates.
The electorates of Avon, Christchurch North, Dunedin West, Lyttelton, Rangiora, Selwyn, St Albans, St Kilda, Tasman, Waitaki, West Coast, Yaldhurst were abolished in the South Island. Six existing electorates were kept. Seven electorates were newly formed. Three electorates were recreated. North IslandBased on the calculation described above, the target size for North Island electorates resulted in 44 of them being required; the electorates of Birkenhead, East Coast Bays, Eastern Bay of Plenty, Eastern Hutt, Far North, Gisborne, Hastings, Hawkes Bay, Heretaunga, Horowhenua, Island Bay, Kaipara, King Country, Matakana, Miramar, Mt Albert, Onslow, Pahiatua, Papakura, Pencarrow, Raglan, Roskill, Tarawera, Te Atatu, Tongariro, Waikato, Waitotara, Wellington-Karori, Western Hutt were abolished in the North Island. Twenty existing electorates were kept. Seventeen electorates were newly formed. Eight electorates were recreated. Māori electoratesAll; the calculation described above resulted in five Māori electorates being required.
List seatsThe House of Representatives was to have 120 seats, of which 65 were filled through electorate MPs. This left 55 list seats to be filled. An outcome of the election was; the date of the 1996 election was 12 October. Of the 2,418,587 people registered to vote, 88.3% turned out to vote. The turnout was a slight improvement on the previous two elections, but still lower than what would have been expected during the 1980s; the number of seats being contested was 120, an increase of 21 from the previous election, but as 55 of the new seats were for list candidates, the number of electorates was reduced and many electorates had their boundaries amended or were abolished. While the number of general electorates decreased from 95 to 60, the number of Māori electorates increased from 4 to 5. In the election 842 candidates stood, there were 21 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 459 were electorate and list, 152 were electorate only, 231 were list only. 73 % of candidates were 27 % female.
The 1996 election saw a victory for the governing National Party, which won ar
Paul Henry (broadcaster)
Paul Henry Hopes, known professionally as Paul Henry, is a New Zealand radio and television broadcaster, the host of the late night show The Paul Henry Show on New Zealand's TV3 which ended December 2014 so that Henry could host a new cross platform three-hour breakfast show Monday to Friday on TV3, RadioLive and on line. Paul Henry launched on 7 April 2015 and had an audience larger than the two shows it replaced on radio and TV. For nine months in 2012, he co-hosted an Australian television show, which ceased production on 30 November 2012, due to low ratings. Paul Henry Hopes was born in Auckland, New Zealand, to Brian and Olive Hopes, on 4 August 1960, he attended Cockle Bay Primary in Auckland. His parents separated when he was 11, in 1971 he moved with his English-born mother to Bristol, United Kingdom, where he finished his education and won a drama school scholarship. Paul and his mother Olive lived in a council flat. Olive worked triple shifts in a plastic bag factory to make ends meet.
Henry says that when he was 25 he discovered that his grandmother was a "Gypsy". Henry has been a radio and television presenter in New Zealand, where he was born and has spent the majority of his career. Henry has been a backup host for current affairs show Close Up. After numerous controversies on morning talk show Breakfast which he hosted between 2004 and 2010, Henry was involved in a high-profile scandal in October 2010 involving his pronunciation and ridicule of the name of Indian politician Sheila Dikshit; the scandal culminated in Henry's resignation from TVNZ. Paul Henry started his broadcasting career working for the BBC, as a studio assistant and in the mail room, he worked as a projectionist in the natural history unit, according to the Sunday Star Times, "David Attenborough would come in and Henry would play the rushes". Henry returned to New Zealand. On radio, Henry worked as a breakfast host on 2ZD Radio Wairarapa from 1986 to 1990. Henry left 2ZD to set up his own radio station,'Today FM 89.3' in 1991, worked as the breakfast host along with local identity Rick Long, former 2ZD station manager John Shearer.
Notable employees of TODAY FM included Hilary Pankurst, current co-host of Seven Sharp, Georgina Beyer, who became the world's first transsexual mayor and MP. The radio station had a unique local format including morning talkback with Rick Long. Henry hosted the breakfast show with John Shearer; the breakfast show gave Henry free licence to shamelessly promote his radio station. His co-host Shearer was at the receiving end of Henry's jokes. Henry would famously say he doesn't want to hurt his feelings and every morning when Shearer signed off, Henry would warn listeners to "take care on the roads now John Shearer's on the roads". At one time the station flew a helicopter through the breakfast show with Shearer reporting from the air. Henry hosted six breakfast shows per week and worked late at night and right across the weekend at the station, with outside live broadcasts. In 1992, Henry sold the station to the owner of Port FM, which rebranded the station as HITZ 89FM. Today the station exists as 105.5 Wairarapa.
For a time there were three radio stations in Wairarapa, Today FM, Radio Wairarapa and Radio Pacific where Henry had hosted or co-hosted a breakfast show on each of the stations. Henry went on to be a foreign correspondent for weekend talkback host. Paul Henry presented Radio Pacific's Breakfast - "The Morning Grill" with Arch Tambakis Pam Corkery in the mid 1990s, he was the drive host on Radio Pacific later Radio Live when the station launched in 2005 and again in 2007. Moving into television, Henry co-hosted TVNZ's Breakfast between 2004 and 2010. In 2009, ratings for the show had improved to around 150,000 viewers from a base of around 100,000, he was the 2007-2008 host of the New Zealand version of This Is Your Life and was supposed to host the 2010 series, but did not, after numerous controversies involving the Breakfast programme. He was replaced by Paul Holmes. Henry won the People's Choice Award, Best Presenter at the 2010 Qantas NZ Film and Television Awards, his outrageous acceptance speech has attracted more than 300,000 views on YouTube.
On 10 October 2010, following Henry's controversial comments about the New Zealand Governor General, Sir Anand Satyanand, the Delhi chief minister, Sheila Dikshit, TVNZ announced that Henry had resigned. Paul Henry was forced to apologise. In an interview the following month, Henry claimed that TVNZ, in particular chief executive Rick Ellis, had "capitalised" on him by encouraging him to be controversial on-air, adding that he believed it was wrong for the New Zealand Government to apologise to India for his remarks. On 1 April 2011, it was announced Paul Henry was returning to radio broadcasting with TVNZ's rival Mediaworks. From July that year, Henry replaced Maggie Barry as the host of Radio Live's drivetime show, a position he had held four years previously, his tenure in the role would this time last just over half a year. Until this move, Henry was reported to be working across several high-profile projects on TV3, including a weekly Sunday evening show with the working title The Paul Henry Show changed to be a New Zealand edition of the British comedy show Would I Lie to you? which aired in 2012 alongside the production of Henry's Australian show.
In February 2012, Henry moved to Sydney, Australia to join Network Ten's morning show Breakfast as co-host. The show debuted on 23 February 2012 to low ratings; as in New Zealand, Henry's on
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Race (human categorization)
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories viewed as distinct by society. First used to refer to speakers of a common language and to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical traits. Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, an identity, assigned based on rules made by society. While based on physical similarities within groups, race is not an inherent physical or biological quality. Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits. Scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits. Though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptualizations of race are untenable, scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in differing ways, some of which have essentialist implications.
While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race is used in a naive or simplistic way, argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic. Although still used in general contexts, race has been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populations, ethnic groups, or communities, depending on context. Modern scholarship views racial categories as constructed, that is, race is not intrinsic to human beings but rather an identity created by dominant groups, to establish meaning in a social context; this involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as "white".
Such racial identities reflect the cultural attitudes of imperial powers dominant during the age of European colonial expansion. This view rejects the notion. Although commonalities in physical traits such as facial features, skin color, hair texture comprise part of the race concept, the latter is a social distinction rather than an inherently biological one. Other dimensions of racial groupings include shared history and language. For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americans in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people self-identify as members of a race for political reasons; when people define and talk about a particular conception of race, they create a social reality through which social categorization is achieved. In this sense, races are said to be social constructs; these constructs develop within various legal and sociopolitical contexts, may be the effect, rather than the cause, of major social situations.
While race is understood to be a social construct by many, most scholars agree that race has real material effects in the lives of people through institutionalized practices of preference and discrimination. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups. Racial discrimination coincides with racist mindsets, whereby the individuals and ideologies of one group come to perceive the members of an outgroup as both racially defined and morally inferior; as a result, racial groups possessing little power find themselves excluded or oppressed, while hegemonic individuals and institutions are charged with holding racist attitudes. Racism has led to many instances including slavery and genocide. In some countries, law enforcement uses race to profile suspects; this use of racial categories is criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond with patterns of social stratification, for social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identities, social institutions. Scholars continue to debate the degrees to which racial categories are biologically warranted and constructed. For example, in 2008, John Hartigan, Jr. argued for a view of race that focused on culture, but which does not ignore the potential relevance of biology or genetics. Accordingly, the racial paradigms employed in different disciplines vary in their emphasis on biological reduction as contrasted with societal construction. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life. A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, their effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups.
Groups of humans have always identified themselves as distinct from neighboring groups, but such differences have not always been understood to be natural and global. These features a
New Zealand House of Representatives
The New Zealand House of Representatives is a component of the New Zealand Parliament, along with the Sovereign. The House passes all laws, provides ministers to form a Cabinet, supervises the work of the Government, it is responsible for adopting the state's budgets and approving the state's accounts. The House of Representatives is a democratically elected body whose members are known as members of Parliament. There are 120 members, though this number can be higher if there is an overhang. MPs are elected every three years in a mixed system of district voting and party list voting. A government is formed from the coalition with the majority of MPs. If no majority is possible a minority government can be formed with a confidence and supply arrangement. If a government is unable to maintain the confidence of the House an early general election can be called; the House of Representatives was created by the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, an Act of the British Parliament, which established a bicameral legislature.
Parliament received full control over all New Zealand affairs in 1947 with the passage of the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act. The debating chamber of the House of Representatives is located inside Parliament House in Wellington, the capital city. Sittings of the House are open to the public, but the House may at any time vote to sit in private. Proceedings are broadcast through Parliament TV, AM Network and Parliament Today; the New Zealand House of Representatives takes the British House of Commons as its model. The New Zealand Parliament is based, on the Westminster system; as a democratic institution, the primary role of the House of Representatives is to provide representation for the people and to pass legislation on behalf of the people. As the responsible house, the House of Representatives plays an important role in responsible government; the Government of New Zealand, headed by the Cabinet, draws its membership from the House of Representatives. A government is formed when a party or coalition can show that it has the "confidence" of the House, meaning the support of a majority of members of parliament.
This can involve making agreements among several parties. Some may join a coalition government, while others may stay outside the government but agree to support it on confidence votes; the Prime Minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Representatives. In the event that the House of Representatives loses confidence in the Cabinet, therefore the government, it can dissolve the government if a vote of no-confidence is passed; the current government is a minority coalition government consisting of the Labour Party and New Zealand First, with confidence and supply from the Green Party. These parties collectively have 63 members in the House, thus Labour leader Jacinda Ardern commands the support of the House; the House of Representatives consists of 120 members, who bear the title "Member of Parliament". They were known as "Members of the House of Representatives" until the passing of the Parliamentary and Executive Titles Act 1907 when New Zealand became a Dominion, earlier as "Members of the General Assembly".
All members are democratically elected, enter the House following a general election. Once sworn in, members continue to serve until the next dissolution of Parliament and subsequent general election, which must take place at least every three years—although early general elections are possible at the discretion of the Prime Minister in the event that a minority government is unable to retain the confidence of the House. If a member dies or resigns, his or her seat falls vacant, it is possible for the House to expel a member, but this power is exercised only in cases of serious misconduct or criminal activity. Electorate vacancies arising between general elections are filled through by-elections. If a list member's seat becomes vacant, the next available person on their party's list fills the position. List members are free to stand in electorate by-elections and in the case of successful contest their own seat will be filled'in turn'. To be a member of Parliament a person must be a New Zealand citizen at the time of the election and not be disqualified from enrolling to vote.
Party list candidates are always nominated by political parties. The 52nd New Zealand Parliament is the current sitting of the House, meeting since 7 November 2017, it consists of five parliamentary parties represented by 120 members. Of these current members, 49 are women—the highest number since women were first allowed to stand for Parliament in 1919. Based on British tradition, the longest continuously serving member in the House holds the unofficial title "Father of the House"; the current Father of the House is Nick Smith, first elected in 1990. Smith inherited the title on 14 March 2018, following the departure of former Prime Minister Bill English, who had entered the House in 1990; the House started with 37 members in 1854, with numbers progressively increasing to 95 by 1882, before being reduced to 74 in 1891. Nu