Jacobite rising of 1715
The Jacobite rising of 1715, was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart to regain the thrones of England and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart. The Glorious Revolution of 1688–89 resulted in the Roman Catholic Stuart king, James II of England and VII of Scotland, James daughter and her husband, who was Jamess nephew, ascended to the British thrones as joint sovereigns William and Mary. In 1690 Presbyterianism was established as the religion of Scotland. The Act of Settlement 1701 settled the succession of the English throne on the Protestant House of Hanover, the Act of Union 1707 applied the Act of Settlement to Scotland. With the death of Queen Anne in 1714, the Elector of Hanover, George I, the accession of George I ushered in the Whig supremacy, with the Tories deprived of all political power. Bolingbroke became the Pretenders Secretary of State and accepted an earldom from him, the Pretender believed the Duke of Marlborough would join him when he landed in Scotland, writing to the Duke of Berwick on 23 August, I think it is now more than ever Now or Never.
Despite receiving no commission from James to start the rising, the Earl of Mar sailed from London to Scotland, on 6 September at Braemar Mar raised the standard of James the 8th and 3rd, accompanied by 600 supporters. Some of Mars tenants travelled to Edinburgh to prove their loyalty, in northern Scotland, the Jacobites were successful. They took Inverness, Gordon Castle and further south, Dundee, in Edinburgh Castle were arms for up to 10,000 men and £100,000 paid to Scotland when she entered the Union with England. Lord Drummond, with 80 Jacobites, tried under the cover of night to take the Castle, by October, Mars forces had taken control of all Scotland above the Firth of Forth, apart from Stirling Castle. However Mar was indecisive and the capture of Perth and the south by 2,000 men were probably decided by subordinates. Mars indecisiveness gave the Hanoverian forces under the command of the Duke of Argyll time to increase their strength, on 22 October Mar received his commission from James appointing him commander of the Jacobite army.
The Jacobite army outnumbered Argylls forces by three-to-one and Mar decided to march on Stirling Castle, on 13 November at Sheriffmuir, the two forces joined in battle. The fighting was indecisive but nearing the end of the battle the Jacobites numbered 4,000 men, compared to Argylls 1,000. Mars army began to close in on Argylls forces, who were poorly protected, on the same day as the Battle of Sherrifmuir, Inverness surrendered to Hanoverian forces, and a smaller Jacobite force led by Mackintosh of Borlum was defeated at Preston. Amongst the leaders of a Jacobite conspiracy for a rising in western England were three peers and six MPs, on the night of 2 October the government arrested the leaders and on the following day easily obtained Parliaments permission for these arrests. Included among those arrested was the head of the English Jacobites, the government sent reinforcements to Bristol and Plymouth to ensure they did not fall into Jacobite hands. A diversionary rising had been planned in Northumberland to accompany the main rising in the West, the rising in the West was forestalled by prompt Government action, but the rising in Northumberland went ahead on 6 October 1715
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV, known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of any monarch of a country in European history. In the age of absolutism in Europe, Louis XIVs France was a leader in the centralization of power. Louis began his rule of France in 1661, after the death of his chief minister. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs, under his rule, the Edict of Nantes, which granted rights to Huguenots, was abolished. The revocation effectively forced Huguenots to emigrate or convert in a wave of dragonnades, which managed to virtually destroy the French Protestant minority. During Louis reign, France was the leading European power, and it fought three wars, the Franco-Dutch War, the War of the League of Augsburg. There were two lesser conflicts, the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions, warfare defined Louis XIVs foreign policies, and his personality shaped his approach.
Impelled by a mix of commerce and pique, in peacetime he concentrated on preparing for the next war. He taught his diplomats their job was to create tactical and strategic advantages for the French military, Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné and bore the title of French heirs apparent. At the time of his birth, his parents had married for 23 years. His mother had experienced four stillbirths between 1619 and 1631, leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift and his birth a miracle of God. Sensing imminent death, Louis XIII decided to put his affairs in order in the spring of 1643, in defiance of custom, which would have made Queen Anne the sole Regent of France, the king decreed that a regency council would rule on his sons behalf. His lack of faith in Queen Annes political abilities was his primary rationale and he did, make the concession of appointing her head of the council.
Louis relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time and eyewitnesses claimed that the Queen would spend all her time with Louis. Both were greatly interested in food and theatre, and it is likely that Louis developed these interests through his close relationship with his mother. This long-lasting and loving relationship can be evidenced by excerpts in Louis journal entries, such as, but attachments formed by shared qualities of the spirit are far more difficult to break than those formed merely by blood
Charles Edward Stuart
This claim was based on his status as the eldest son of James Francis Edward Stuart, himself the son of James VII and II. Charles is perhaps best known as the instigator of the unsuccessful Jacobite uprising of 1745, the uprising ended in defeat at the Battle of Culloden, effectively terminating the Jacobite cause. Jacobites supported the Stuart claim because they hoped for religious toleration for Roman Catholics, Charless flight from Scotland after the uprising has rendered him a romantic figure of heroic failure in some representations. In 1759 he was involved in a French plan to invade Britain, Charles was born in the Palazzo Muti, Italy, on 31 December 1720, where his father had been given a residence by Pope Clement XI. He spent almost all his childhood in Rome and Bologna and he had a privileged childhood in Rome, where he was brought up Catholic in a loving but argumentative family. Regaining the thrones of England and Scotland for the Stuarts was a constant topic of conversation in the household, principally reflected in his fathers often morose and his grandfather, James II of England and VII of Scotland, ruled the country from 1685 to 1688.
He was deposed when Parliament invited the Dutch Protestant William III and his wife Princess Mary, King James eldest daughter, Many Protestants, including a number of prominent parliamentarians, had been worried that King James aimed to return England to the Catholic fold. Since the exile of James, the Jacobite Cause had striven to return the Stuarts to the thrones of England and Scotland, Charles Edward played a major part in the pursuit of this goal. In 1734, Charles Edward observed the French and Spanish siege of Gaeta, the invasion never materialised, as the invasion fleet was scattered by a storm. By the time the fleet regrouped, the British fleet realised the diversion that had deceived them, Charles Edward was determined to continue his quest for the restoration of the Stuarts. In December 1743, Charless father named him Prince Regent, giving him authority to act in his name, eighteen months later, he led a French-backed rebellion intended to place his father on the thrones of England and Scotland.
Charles had hoped for support from a French fleet, but it was damaged by storms. The Jacobite cause was supported by many Highland clans, both Catholic and Protestant. Charles hoped for a welcome from these clans to start an insurgency by Jacobites throughout Britain. He raised his fathers standard at Glenfinnan and gathered a large enough to enable him to march on Edinburgh. The city, under the control of the Lord Provost Archibald Stewart, while he was in Edinburgh a portrait of Charles was painted by the artist Allan Ramsay, which survives in the collection of the Earl of Wemyss at Gosford House. On 21 September 1745, he defeated the government army in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans. The government army was led by General Sir John Cope, by November, Charles was marching south at the head of approximately 6,000 men
Mary of Modena
Mary of Modena was Queen of England and Ireland as the second wife of James II and VII. A devout Roman Catholic, Mary married the widowed James, who was the younger brother and heir presumptive of Charles II. She was uninterested in politics and devoted to James and their children, two of whom survived to adulthood, the Jacobite claimant to the thrones, James Francis Edward, and Louisa Maria Teresa. Born a princess of the northwestern Italian Duchy of Modena, Mary is primarily remembered for the birth of James Francis Edward. It was widely rumoured that he was a changeling, brought into the chamber in a warming pan. She and her husband, William III of Orange, would reign jointly as William, exiled to France, the Queen over the water – as the Jacobites called Mary – lived with her husband and children in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, provided by Louis XIV of France. Mary was popular among Louis XIVs courtiers, however, was considered a bore, in widowhood, Mary spent much time with the nuns at the Convent of Chaillot, where she and her daughter Louisa Maria Teresa spent their summers.
In 1701, when James II died, young James Francis Edward became king at age 13 in the eyes of the Jacobites, as he was too young to assume the nominal reins of government, Mary represented him until he reached the age of 16. Fondly remembered by her French contemporaries, Mary died of breast cancer in 1718. Mary Beatrice dEste, the second but eldest surviving child of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena and her only younger brother, succeeded their father as Duke upon the latters death in 1662, the year Mary turned four. Mary and Francescos mother, was strict with them, Marys education was excellent, she spoke French and Italian fluently, had a good knowledge of Latin and, mastered English. Mary was described by contemporaries as tall and admirably shaped, and was sought as a bride for James, Lord Peterborough was groom of the stole to the Duke of York. A widower, James was the brother and heir of Charles II of England. Duchess Laura was not initially forthcoming with a reply to Peterboroughs proposal, whatever the reason for Lauras initial reluctance, she finally accepted the proposal on behalf of Mary, and they were married by proxy on 30 September 1673 NS.
Her reception in England was much cooler, which was entirely composed of Protestants, reacted poorly to the news of a Catholic marriage, fearing it was a Papist plot against the country. The English public, who were predominantly Protestant, branded the Duchess of York — as Mary was thereafter known as until her husbands accession — the Popes daughter. The Duke of York, an avowed Catholic, was twenty-five years older than his bride, scarred by smallpox and he had secretly converted to Catholicism around 1668. Mary first saw her husband on 23 November 1673 OS, on the day of their marriage ceremony
Louisa Maria Stuart
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart, known to Jacobites as The Princess Royal, was the last child of James II and VII, the deposed king of England and Ireland, and of his queen, Mary of Modena. In English, she was called Louisa Maria and Louise Marie in French, Louisa Maria was born in 1692, at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, during her parents exile. Of all her siblings and half-siblings, only her brother James Francis Edward and her half-sisters, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne. Mary died while Louisa Maria was still a child. But it is easier to keep a crown than to regain one and it might be true that a calumnious fable had done much to bring about the Revolution. But it by no means followed that the most complete refutation of that fable would bring about a Restoration, not a single lady crossed the sea in obedience to Jamess call. His Queen was safely delivered of a daughter, but this event produced no effect on the state of public feeling in England. The new-born princess was given the names Louisa and Maria in baptism, while Teresa was added and she was given the name Louisa in honour of King Louis XIV, who acted as her godfather.
Her godmother was King Louiss sister-in-law, Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine, Louisa was the only full sibling of Prince James Francis Edward, the Old Pretender, to survive infancy, and was four years younger than her brother. The two were brought up together in France, louisas tutor was an English Roman Catholic priest, Father Constable, who taught her Latin and religion. She had a governess, the Countess of Middleton, wife of the Jacobite peer Charles, James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth, another Jacobite peer living in France, praised the childs natural affability. By the summer of 1701, King James was seriously ill, however, in June the two returned home for the birthdays of their two children, and two months James suffered a stroke, dying just two weeks on 16 September. He was still able to talk when his children visited him for the last time, serve your creator in the days of your youth. Consider virtue as the greatest ornament of your sex, follow close the great pattern of it, your mother, who has been, no less than myself, over-clouded with calumny.
But time, the mother of truth, will, I hope, soon after Jamess death, Louis XIV proclaimed James Francis Edward as king of England and Ireland, and he was formally recognised as king by Spain, the Papal States and Modena. He and his sister Louisa Maria were transferred to Passy, into the care of Antoine Nompar de Caumont and his wife, with Lady Middleton continuing as Louisa Marias governess there. On 23 March 1708, after a delay caused by the measles, the force was driven off by a Royal Navy fleet led by Admiral Byng. Louisa Maria enjoyed dancing and the opera, and became popular at the French court, two possible matches for her were considered, with Louis XIVs grandson Charles, Duke of Berry, and with King Charles XII of Sweden
Prince of Wales
Charles, Prince of Wales is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II. Known alternatively in South West England as Duke of Cornwall and in Scotland as Duke of Rothesay, he is the heir apparent in British history. He is the oldest person to be next in line to the throne since Sophia of Hanover, Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. After earning a bachelor of degree from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons, Prince William to become Duke of Cambridge, and Prince Harry, in 1996, the couple divorced, following well-publicised extramarital affairs. Diana died in a car crash in Paris the following year, in 2005, Charles married Camilla Parker Bowles. Charles has sought to raise awareness of the dangers facing the natural environment. As an environmentalist, he has received awards and recognition from environmental groups around the world. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and he has been outspoken on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings.
Subsequently, Charles created Poundbury, a new town based on his theories. He has authored a number of books, including A Vision of Britain, A Personal View of Architecture in 1989 and he was baptised in the palaces Music Room by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher, on 15 December 1948. When Prince Charles was aged three his mothers accession as Queen Elizabeth II made him her heir apparent. As the monarchs eldest son, he took the titles Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles and Prince. Charles attended his mothers coronation at Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953, seated alongside his grandmother, as was customary for upper-class children at the time, a governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed and undertook his education between the ages of five and eight. Buckingham Palace announced in 1955 that Charles would attend school rather than have a private tutor, Charles attended two of his fathers former schools, Cheam Preparatory School in Berkshire, followed by Gordonstoun in the north-east of Scotland.
He reportedly despised the school, which he described as Colditz in kilts. Upon his return to Gordonstoun, Charles emulated his father in becoming Head Boy and he left in 1967, with six GCE O-levels and two A-levels in history and French, at grades B and C, respectively. Tradition was broken again when Charles proceeded straight from school into university
Henry Benedict Stuart
Unlike his father, James Francis Edward Stuart, and brother, Charles Edward Stuart, Henry made no effort to seize the throne. After Charless death in January 1788 the Papacy did not recognise Henry as the ruler of England and Ireland. At the time of his death he was one of the longest serving Cardinals in the Churchs history, in his youth, Henrys father made him Duke of York, and it was by this title that he was best known. His father was James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender and his mother was the Princess Maria Klementyna Sobieska, granddaughter of the Polish King and Lithuanian Grand-Duke, John III Sobieski. Henry went to France in 1745 to help his brother, Prince Charles Edward Stuart prepare the Jacobite rising of 1745, after its defeat, Henry Stuart returned to Italy. On 30 June 1747 Pope Benedict XIV conferred him with tonsure, on 27 August 1747 he was promoted to the four minor orders by the Pope. He received the subdiaconate on 18 August 1748 and diaconate on 25 August 1748 and he was ordained priest on 1 September 1748 and consecrated titular Archbishop of Corinth on 2 October 1758.
He was advanced to the order of Cardinal Priest in 1748, in 1752 he transferred to the titulus of Ss. He was made Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati on 13 July 1761, and eventually succeeded to the See of Ostia and he lived and worked in Frascati for many years, descending each afternoon in his carriage to Rome, where his position as vice-chancellor entitled him to the Palazzo della Cancelleria. His revenues from the many ecclesiastical preferments he enjoyed were enormous and his income from abbeys and other pluralities in Flanders, Spain and France amounted to 40,000 Pounds in British money at the time. He held sinecure benefices yielding revenues in Spanish America and he owned territory in Mexico, which contributed largely to his income. Henry was the last claimant to the British throne to touch for the Kings Evil, at the time of the French Revolution, he lost his French Royal benefices and sacrificed many other resources to assist Pope Pius VI. This, in addition to the seizure of his Frascati property by the French, the British Minister in Venice arranged for Henry to receive an annuity of £4,000 from King George III of Great Britain.
Although the British government represented this as an act of charity, Henry returned to Frascati in 1803. In September of that year he became the Dean of the College of Cardinals and hence Cardinal Bishop of Ostia and Velletri and he died there on 13 July 1807, aged 82. Historians have drawn upon contemporary perceptions to explore the suggestion that Henry was homosexual and these accounts include the writings of Hester Lynch Thrale, and the diplomat and writer Giuseppe Gorani. Gorani admitted to having gathered evidence insufficient to confirm his suspicions either way, the historian Andrew Lang alluded to Jamess comment that his younger son would never marry although many marriages had been planned for him. The writer Gaetano Moroni provides the lengthiest account of Henrys close attachment with his majordomo Monsignor Giovanni Lercari and this closeness led to serious tensions between the cardinal and his father who in 1752 eventually tried to have Lercari dismissed from service and sent from Rome
Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Anne became Queen of England and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a sovereign state known as Great Britain. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death, Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II, who had no legitimate children. Her father, was first in line to the throne and his suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charless instructions Anne was raised as an Anglican. Three years after he succeeded Charles, James was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, Annes Dutch Protestant brother-in-law and cousin William III became joint monarch with his wife, Annes elder sister Mary II. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Annes finances and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Marys accession and Mary had no children. After Marys death in 1694, William continued as sole monarch until he was succeeded by Anne upon his death in 1702, as queen, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs.
The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession and her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences. Anne was plagued by ill health throughout her life, from her thirties onwards, she grew increasingly lame and obese. Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without any surviving children and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. Anne was born at 11,39 p. m. on 6 February 1665 at St Jamess Palace, the child and second daughter of James, Duke of York. At her Anglican baptism in the Chapel Royal at St Jamess, her sister, was one of her godparents, along with the Duchess of Monmouth. The Duke and Duchess of York had eight children, but Anne, as a child, Anne suffered from an eye condition, which manifested as excessive watering known as defluxion. For medical treatment, she was sent to France, where she lived with her grandmother, Queen Henrietta Maria.
Following her grandmothers death in 1669, Anne lived with an aunt, Henrietta Anne, on the sudden death of her aunt in 1670, Anne returned to England. Her mother died the following year, as was traditional in the royal family and her sister were brought up separated from their father in their own establishment at Richmond, London. On the instructions of Charles II, they were raised as Protestants, placed in the care of Colonel Edward and Lady Frances Villiers, their education was focused on the teachings of the Anglican church. Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Annes preceptor, around 1671, Anne first made the acquaintance of Sarah Jennings, who became her close friend and one of her most influential advisors
James II of England
James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland, the second surviving son of Charles I, he ascended the throne upon the death of his brother, Charles II. Members of Britains Protestant political elite increasingly suspected him of being pro-French and pro-Catholic and he was replaced by his eldest, Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange. James made one attempt to recover his crowns from William. After the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamites at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690 and he lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV. James, the surviving son of King Charles I and his wife. Later that same year, he was baptised by William Laud and he was educated by private tutors, along with his brother, the future King Charles II, and the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers.
At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral, the position was honorary, but would become a substantive office after the Restoration. He was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, as the Kings disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War, James stayed in Oxford, a Royalist stronghold. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, in 1648, he escaped from the Palace, aided by Joseph Bampfield, and from there he went to The Hague in disguise. When Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed Jamess older brother as Charles II of England, Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and consequently fled to France, like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, and against their Spanish allies.
In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he ventures himself, in the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, in consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turennes army. James quarrelled with his brother over the choice of Spain over France. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace, doubtful of his brothers chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. Ultimately, he declined the position, by the year the situation in England had changed. After Richard Cromwells resignation as Lord Protector in 1659 and the subsequent collapse of the Commonwealth in 1660, although James was the heir presumptive, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children