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James George Frazer

Sir James George Frazer was a Scottish social anthropologist and folklorist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion. His most famous work, The Golden Bough and details the similarities among magical and religious beliefs around the globe. Frazer posited that human belief progressed through three stages: primitive magic, replaced by religion, in turn replaced by science, he was born on 1 January 1854 in Glasgow, the son of Daniel F. Frazer, a chemist, his wife, Katherine Brown. Frazer attended school at Larchfield Academy in Helensburgh, he studied at the University of Glasgow and Trinity College, where he graduated with honours in classics and remained a Classics Fellow all his life. From Trinity, he went on to study law at the Middle Temple, but never practised. Four times elected to Trinity's Title Alpha Fellowship, he was associated with the college for most of his life, except for a year, 1907–1908, spent at the University of Liverpool, he was knighted in 1914, a public lectureship in social anthropology at the universities of Cambridge, Oxford and Liverpool was established in his honour in 1921.

He was, if not blind severely visually impaired from 1930 on. He and his wife, died in Cambridge, within a few hours of each other, he died on 7 May 1941. They are buried at the Ascension Parish Burial Ground in Cambridge, his sister Isabella Katherine Frazer married the mathematician John Steggall. Frazer is interpreted as an atheist in light of his criticism of Christianity and Roman Catholicism in The Golden Bough. However, his writings and unpublished materials suggest an ambivalent relationship with Neoplatonism and Hermeticism. In 1896 Frazer married Elizabeth Grove, a writer whose family was from Alsace, she would adapt Frazer's Golden Bough as a book of children's stories, The Leaves from the Golden Bough. The study of myth and religion became his areas of expertise. Except for visits to Italy and Greece, Frazer was not travelled, his prime sources of data were ancient histories and questionnaires mailed to missionaries and imperial officials all over the globe. Frazer's interest in social anthropology was aroused by reading E. B.

Tylor's Primitive Culture and encouraged by his friend, the biblical scholar William Robertson Smith, comparing elements of the Old Testament with early Hebrew folklore. Frazer was the first scholar to describe in detail the relations between rituals, his vision of the annual sacrifice of the Year-King has not been borne out by field studies. Yet The Golden Bough, his study of ancient cults and myths, including their parallels in early Christianity, continued for many decades to be studied by modern mythographers for its detailed information; the first edition, in two volumes, was published in 1890. The third edition was finished in 1915 and ran to twelve volumes, with a supplemental thirteenth volume added in 1936, he published a single-volume abridged version compiled by his wife Lady Frazer, in 1922, with some controversial material on Christianity excluded from the text. The work's influence extended well beyond the conventional bounds of academia, inspiring the new work of psychologists and psychiatrists.

Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, cited Totemism and Exogamy in his own Totem and Taboo: Resemblances Between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics. The symbolic cycle of life and rebirth which Frazer divined behind myths of many peoples captivated a generation of artists and poets; the most notable product of this fascination is T. S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land. Frazer's pioneering work has been criticised by late-20th-century scholars. For instance, in the 1980s the social anthropologist Edmund Leach wrote a series of critical articles, one of, featured as the lead in Anthropology Today, vol. 1. He criticised The Golden Bough for the breadth of comparisons drawn from separated cultures, but based his comments on the abridged edition, which omits the supportive archaeological details. In a positive review of a book narrowly focused on the cultus in the Hittite city of Nerik, J. D. Hawkins remarked approvingly in 1973, "The whole work is methodical and sticks to the quoted documentary evidence in a way that would have been unfamiliar to the late Sir James Frazer."

More The Golden Bough has been criticized for what are perceived as imperialist, anti-Catholic and racist elements, including Frazer's assumptions that European peasants, Aboriginal Australians and Africans represented fossilized, earlier stages of cultural evolution. Another important work by Frazer is his six-volume commentary on the Greek traveller Pausanias' description of Greece in the mid-2nd century AD. Since his time, archaeological excavations have added enormously to the knowledge of ancient Greece, but scholars still find much of value in his detailed historical and topographical discussions of different sites, his eyewitness accounts of Greece at the end of the 19th century. Among the most influential elements of the third edition of The Golden Bough is Frazer's theory of cultural evolution and the place Frazer assigns religion and magic in that theory. Frazer's theory of cultural evolution was not absolute and could reverse, but sought to broadly describe three spheres through which cultures were thought to pass over time.

Frazer believed that, over time, culture passed through three stages, moving from magic, to religion, to science. Frazer's classifi

Food rheology

Food rheology is the study of the rheological properties of food, that is, the consistency and flow of food under specified conditions. The consistency, degree of fluidity, other mechanical properties are important in understanding how long food can be stored, how stable it will remain, in determining food texture; the acceptability of food products to the consumer is determined by food texture, such as how spreadable and creamy a food product is. Food rheology is important in quality control during food processing. Food rheology terms have been noted since ancient times. In ancient Egypt, bakers judged the consistency of dough by rolling it in their hands. There is a large body of literature on food rheology because the study of food rheology entails unique factors beyond an understanding of the basic rheological dynamics of the flow and deformation of matter. Food can be classified according to its rheological state, such as a solid, liquid, emulsion with associated rheological behaviors, its rheological properties can be measured.

These properties will affect the design of food processing plants, as well as shelf life and other important factors, including sensory properties that appeal to consumers. Because foods are structurally complex a mixture of fluid and solids with varying properties within a single mass, the study of food rheology is more complicated than study in fields such as the rheology of polymers. However, food rheology is something we experience every day with our perception of food texture and basic concepts of food rheology well apply to polymers physics, oil flow etc. For this reason, examples of food rheology are didactically useful to explain the dynamics of other materials we are less familiar with. Ketchup is used an example of Bingham fluid and its flow behavior can be compared to that of a polymer melt. Psychorheology is the sensory judgement of rheological properties, it is a term used in the food industry to the mouth. It is not straightforward to predict how a food will "feel" based purely on the true rheological properties.

The most important factor in food rheology is consumer perception of the product. This perception is affected by how the food looks on the plate as well as how it feels in the mouth, or "mouthfeel". Mouthfeel is influenced by how food moves or flows once it is in a person's mouth and determines how desirable the food is seen to be. Brummer, Rüdiger. Rheology essentials of cosmetic and food emulsions > Excusion in the World of Food Rheology. Brummer. Retrieved 2009-09-19. Heldman, Dennis R. Encyclopedia of agricultural and biological engineering. CRC. Retrieved 2009-09-18. Kutz, Myer. Handbook of Farm and Food Machinery. William Andrew Publishing. ISBN 0-8155-1538-3. Retrieved 2009-09-19

List of the Kinks band members

The Kinks are an English rock band from Muswell Hill, London. Formed in January 1964, the group included lead vocalist and rhythm guitarist Ray Davies, lead guitarist and second vocalist Dave Davies and backing vocalist Pete Quaife, drummer Mick Avory. In April 1969, Quaife left the band after opposing recent stylistic changes, with John Dalton – who had substituted for the bassist in 1966 after he broke his foot – taking his place; the following May, the Kinks expanded to a five-piece lineup with the addition of John Gosling as their first full-time keyboardist. This lineup remained stable until 1976. After a couple of years of frequent lineup changes, the band stabilized with the additions of bassist Jim Rodford and keyboardist Ian Gibbons. After two more studio albums, Mick Avory left the Kinks in July 1984 following numerous conflicts with Dave Davies, which had culminated in his exclusion from the recording of "Good Day", he was replaced by Bob Henrit. Gibbons left in 1989, with Mark Haley taking his place beginning with the tour in support of UK Jive.

Haley remained a touring member, with the 1993 album Phobia recorded as a four-piece. After a European tour, Haley resigned from the Kinks in July 1993, with Gibbons returning to take his place for US dates two weeks later; the group released a final live album, To the Bone, before disbanding after a final tour ending in June 1996 and appearing for the last time together at Dave Davies’ 50th birthday party in February 1997. In 2018, the Davies brothers announced. Mike Cotton - trumpet John Beecham - trombone, tuba Alan Holmes - saxophone, clarinet Laurie Brown - trumpet Nick Newall - saxophone, keyboards, congas The Kinks official website