The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder James Wilson in September 1843. In 2015, its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015. At that time, Pearson sold their share in the Economist; the Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4% while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders. Aside from the Agnelli family, smaller shareholders in the company include Cadbury, Schroder and other family interests as well as a number of staff and former staff shareholders. A board of trustees formally appoints the editor. Although The Economist has a global emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster.
For the year to March 2016, the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m. The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, free immigration and cultural liberalism; the publication has described itself as "a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and David Hume". It targets educated, cultured readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers; the publication's CEO described this recent global change, first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century as a "new age of Mass Intelligence". The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, a system of import tariffs. A prospectus for the "newspaper" from 5 August 1843 enumerated thirteen areas of coverage that its editors wanted the publication to focus on: Original leading articles, in which free-trade principles will be most rigidly applied to all the important questions of the day.
Articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the elementary principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, exchange and taxes. Parliamentary reports, with particular focus on commerce and free trade. Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade. General news from the Court of St. James's, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Commercial topics such as changes in fiscal regulations, the state and prospects of the markets and exports, foreign news, the state of the manufacturing districts, notices of important new mechanical improvements, shipping news, the money market, the progress of railways and public companies. Agricultural topics, including the application of geology and chemistry. Colonial and foreign topics, including trade, produce and fiscal changes, other matters, including exposés on the evils of restriction and protection, the advantages of free intercourse and trade.
Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce and agriculture. Books, confined chiefly, but not so to commerce and agriculture, including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week. Correspondence and inquiries from the news magazine's readers. Wilson described it as taking part in "a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress", a phrase which still appears on its masthead as the publication's mission, it has long been respected as "one of the most competent and subtle Western periodicals on public affairs". The publication was a major source of financial and economic information for Karl Marx in the formulation of socialist theory. In January 2012, The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942. In August 2015, The Economist Group bought back 5 million of its shares from Pearson.
Pearson's remaining shares would be sold to Exor. The editors of The Economist have been: James Wilson 1843–1857 Richard Holt Hutton 1857–1861 Walter Bagehot, 1861–1877 Daniel Conner Lathbury, 1877–1881 Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave, 1877–1883 Edward Johnstone, 1883–1907 Francis Wrigley Hirst, 1907–1916 Hartley Withers, 1916–1921 Sir Walter Layton, 1922–1938 Geoffrey Crowther, 1938–1956 Donald Tyerman, 1956–1965 Sir Alastair Burnet, 1965–1974 Andrew Knight, 1974–1986 Rupert Pennant-Rea, 1986–1993 Bill Emmott, 1993–2006 John Micklethwait, 2006–2014 Zanny Minton Beddoes, 2015–present When the news magazine was founded, the term "economism" denoted what would today be termed "economic liberalism"; the Economist supports free trade and free immigration. The activist and journalist George Monbiot has described it as neo-liberal while accepti
Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Liquid Robotics is an American marine robotics corporation that designs and sells the Wave Glider, a wave and solar powered unmanned surface vehicle. The Wave Glider harvests energy from ocean waves for propulsion. With this energy source, Wave Gliders can spend many months at a time at sea and transmitting ocean data; the vehicles host sensor payloads such as: atmospheric and oceanographic sensors applicable to ocean and climate science, seismic sensors for earthquake and tsunami detection, video cameras and acoustic sensors for security and marine environment protection purposes. Headquartered in Sunnyvale, the company was founded in 2007. In December 2016, the company was acquired by The Boeing Company and is a wholly owned subsidiary, part of Boeing’s Defense and Security organization; the Wave Glider is composed of two parts: the ‘’float’’ the size and shape of a large surfboard, travels on the surface of the ocean. The Wave Glider leverages the difference in motion between the ocean surface and the calmer water below to create forward propulsion.
No fuel is required for operation. On September 7, 2017, Liquid Robotics announced the Next Generation Wave Glider with advancements to the platform’s operational range, performance for missions in high sea states and high latitudes. Changes include advancements for expanded sensor payloads and increased energy and storage capacity required for long duration maritime surveillance, environmental monitoring and observation missions. Solar panels recharge batteries which supply the power for the onboard sensor payloads, communications and enables a thruster propulsion system that provides additional navigational thrust for challenging ocean conditions; the vehicle can be programmed for autonomous operation. Communication is provided via satellite, BGAN, cellular or Wi-Fi links for piloting and data transmission; the Wave Glider software is built on open standards and composed of two parts: Regulus, the on-board operating environment built on Linux and Java and used for on-board command and control of all Wave Glider functions including sensors.
WGMS is a web-based console for mission management that supports mission planning and data management. Wave Gliders are used for defense, maritime surveillance, commercial and gas, science and research applications. Examples include: Commercial/Oil and Gas – atmospheric and environmental monitoring Defense - Anti-submarine warfare and Intelligence and Recognizance Maritime Surveillance – surface vessel detection for coastal and border security Scientific research – weather monitoring, climate change, deep-sea seismic detection, ocean acidification, environmental monitoring, bio-geophysical research and fish/ecosystems monitoringSince 2007, Wave Gliders have been deployed in many areas of the global ocean, from the Arctic to the Southern Ocean. They've been used to track great white sharks by Dr. Barbara Block of Hopkins Marine Station, patrol marine protected areas for the United Kingdom’s Foreign & Commonwealth Office to protect against illegal fishing and assessed the health of the Great Barrier Reef and ecosystems.
Additionally, they’ve collected and transmitted data through extreme storms and detected a live diesel submarine during the Unmanned Warrior exercise conducted in October of 2016. In 2013 Liquid Robotics was awarded the Guinness World Record for the "longest journey by an autonomous, unmanned surface vehicle on the planet"; the Wave Glider, named Benjamin Franklin, travelled farther than any other unmanned autonomous surface vehicle – over 7939 nautical miles on an autonomous journey of just over one-year. The Wave Glider’s route traveled across the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco, CA to Bundaberg, Queensland Australia arriving on 14 February 2013; the Digital Ocean is an initiative originated by Liquid Robotics to collaboratively establish the data collection and communications infrastructure needed to support the Internet of Things for the ocean. The vision for the Digital Ocean is a networked ocean connecting billions of sensors and unmanned systems, satellites above; the goal of the project is to address issues facing the ocean as noted in the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal #14 and to conserve and sustainably use the oceans and marine resources.
The Wave Glider was invented to record the singing of humpback whales and transmit the songs back to shore. In 2003, Joe Rizzi, Jupiter Research Foundation, set out with the goal to design a system that could hold its position at sea—even if it wasn’t anchored in place—and operate 24/7 without harming the environment or the whales. After a few years of experimenting, he enlisted the Hine family to help develop an unmoored, station-keeping data buoy. Roger Hine, a mechanical engineer and robotics expert from Stanford University, spent a year on the project experimenting with different designs and energy sources. In 2005, he invented the Wave Glider and in January 2007, Roger Hine and Joe Rizzi co-founded Liquid Robotics. In January 2009, endurance testing began when a Wave Glider completed a nine-day circumnavigation of Hawaii's Big Island; that year a pair of Wave Gliders travelled from Hawai’i to San Diego, an 82-day trip that covered more than 2,500 miles. Since Wave Gliders have travelled over 1.4 million nautical miles over the course of over 32,000 vehicle-days at sea.
In September 2014, Liquid Ro
Java virtual machine
A Java virtual machine is a virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java programs as well as programs written in other languages that are compiled to Java bytecode. The JVM is detailed by a specification that formally describes what is required of a JVM implementation. Having a specification ensures interoperability of Java programs across different implementations so that program authors using the Java Development Kit need not worry about idiosyncrasies of the underlying hardware platform; the JVM reference implementation is developed by the OpenJDK project as open source code and includes a JIT compiler called HotSpot. The commercially supported Java releases available from Oracle Corporation are based on the OpenJDK runtime. Eclipse OpenJ9 is another open source JVM for OpenJDK; the Java virtual machine is an abstract computer defined by a specification. The garbage-collection algorithm used and any internal optimization of the Java virtual machine instructions are not specified; the main reason for this omission is to not unnecessarily constrain implementers.
Any Java application can be run only inside some concrete implementation of the abstract specification of the Java virtual machine. Starting with Java Platform, Standard Edition 5.0, changes to the JVM specification have been developed under the Java Community Process as JSR 924. As of 2006, changes to specification to support changes proposed to the class file format are being done as a maintenance release of JSR 924; the specification for the JVM was published as the blue book, The preface states: We intend that this specification should sufficiently document the Java Virtual Machine to make possible compatible clean-room implementations. Oracle provides tests that verify the proper operation of implementations of the Java Virtual Machine. One of Oracle's JVMs is named the other, inherited from BEA Systems is JRockit. Clean-room Java implementations include Kaffe, IBM J9 and Skelmir's CEE-J. Oracle owns the Java trademark and may allow its use to certify implementation suites as compatible with Oracle's specification.
One of the organizational units of JVM byte code is a class. A class loader implementation must be able to recognize and load anything that conforms to the Java class file format. Any implementation is free to recognize other binary forms besides class files, but it must recognize class files; the class loader performs three basic activities in this strict order: Loading: finds and imports the binary data for a type Linking: performs verification and resolution Verification: ensures the correctness of the imported type Preparation: allocates memory for class variables and initializing the memory to default values Resolution: transforms symbolic references from the type into direct references. Initialization: invokes Java code that initializes class variables to their proper starting values. In general, there are two types of class loader: bootstrap class loader and user defined class loader; every Java virtual machine implementation must have a bootstrap class loader, capable of loading trusted classes.
The Java virtual machine specification doesn't specify. The JVM operates on primitive references; the JVM is fundamentally a 32-bit machine. Long and double types, which are 64-bits, are supported natively, but consume two units of storage in a frame's local variables or operand stack, since each unit is 32 bits. Boolean, byte and char types are all sign-extended and operated on as 32-bit integers, the same as int types; the smaller types only have a few type-specific instructions for loading and type conversion. Boolean is operated on with 0 representing false and 1 representing true; the JVM has a garbage-collected heap for storing arrays. Code and other class data are stored in the "method area"; the method area is logically part of the heap, but implementations may treat the method area separately from the heap, for example might not garbage collect it. Each JVM thread has its own call stack, which stores frames. A new frame is created each time a method is called, the frame is destroyed when that method exits.
Each frame provides an "operand stack" and an array of "local variables". The operand stack is used for operands to computations and for receiving the return value of a called method, while local variables serve the same purpose as registers and are used to pass method arguments. Thus, the JVM is both a register machine; the JVM has instructions for the following groups of tasks: The aim is binary compatibility. Each particular host operating system needs its own implementation of the runtime; these JVMs interpret the bytecode semantically the same way, but the actual implementation may be different. More complex than just emulating bytecode is compatibly and efficiently im
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation headquartered in Redwood Shores, California. The company specializes in developing and marketing database software and technology, cloud engineered systems, enterprise software products — its own brands of database management systems. In 2018, Oracle was the third-largest software maker by revenue, after Alphabet; the company develops and builds tools for database development and systems of middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software, customer relationship management software, supply chain management software. Larry Ellison co-founded Oracle Corporation in 1977 with Bob Miner and Ed Oates under the name Software Development Laboratories. Ellison took inspiration from the 1970 paper written by Edgar F. Codd on relational database management systems named "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks." He heard about the IBM System R database from an article in the IBM Research Journal provided by Oates.
Ellison wanted to make Oracle's product compatible with System R, but failed to do so as IBM kept the error codes for their DBMS a secret. SDL changed its name to Relational Software, Inc in 1979 again to Oracle Systems Corporation in 1982, to align itself more with its flagship product Oracle Database. At this stage Bob Miner served as the company's senior programmer. On March 12, 1986, the company had its initial public offering. In 1995, Oracle Systems Corporation changed its name to Oracle Corporation named Oracle, but sometimes referred to as Oracle Corporation, the name of the holding company. Part of Oracle Corporation's early success arose from using the C programming language to implement its products; this eased porting to different operating systems. 1979: offers the first commercial SQL RDBMS 1983: offers a VAX-mode database 1984: offers the first database with read-consistency 1986: offers a client-server DBMS 1987: introduces UNIX-based Oracle applications 1988: introduces PL/SQL.
1992: offers full applications implementation methodology 1995: offers the first 64-bit RDBMS 1996: moves towards an open standards-based, web-enabled architecture 1999: offers its first DBMS with XML support 2001: becomes the first to complete 3 terabyte TPC-H world record 2002: offers the first database to pass 15 industry standard security evaluations 2003: introduces what it calls "Enterprise Grid Computing" with Oracle10g 2005: releases its first free database, Oracle Database 10g Express Edition 2006: acquires Siebel Systems 2007: acquires Hyperion Solutions 2008: Smart scans in software improve query-response in HP Oracle Database Machine / Exadata storage 2010: acquires Sun Microsystems 2013: begins use of Oracle 12c, capable of providing cloud services with Oracle Database 2014: acquires Micros Systems 2016: acquires NetSuite Inc. Oracle ranked No. 82 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. According to Bloomberg, Oracle's CEO-to-employee pay ratio is 1,205:1.
The CEO's compensation in 2017 was $108,295,023. Meanwhile, the median employee compensation rate was $89,887. Oracle designs and sells both software and hardware products, as well as offering services that complement them. Many of the products have been added to Oracle's portfolio through acquisitions. Oracle's E-delivery service provides documentation. Oracle Database Release 10: In 2004, Oracle Corporation shipped release 10g as the latest version of Oracle Database. Release 11: Release 11g became the current Oracle Database version in 2007. Oracle Corporation released Oracle Database 11g Release 2 in September 2009; this version was available in four commercial editions—Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, Personal Edition—and in one free edition—the Express Edition. The licensing of these editions shows various restrictions and obligations that were called complex by licensing expert Freirich Florea; the Enterprise Edition, the most expensive of the Database Editions, has the fewest restrictions — but has complex licensing.
Oracle Corporation constrains the Standard Edition and Standard Edition One with more licensing restrictions, in accordance with their lower price. Release 12: Release 12c became available on July 1, 2013. Oracle Corporation has acquired and developed the following additional database technologies: Berkeley DB, which offers embedded database processing Oracle Rdb, a relational database system running on OpenVMS platforms. Oracle acquired Rdb in 1994 from Digital Equipment Corporation. Oracle has since made many enhancements to this product and development continues as of 2008. TimesTen, which features in-memory database operations Oracle Essbase, which continues the Hyperion Essbase tradition of multi-dimensional database management MySQL, a relational database management system licensed under the GNU General Public License developed by MySQL AB Oracle NoSQL Database, a scalable, distributed key-value NoSQL database Oracle Fusion Middleware is a family of middleware
Emacs or EMACS is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility. The manual for the most used variant, GNU Emacs, describes it as "the extensible, self-documenting, real-time display editor". Development of the first Emacs began in the mid-1970s, work on its direct descendant, GNU Emacs, continues as of 2019. Emacs has over 10,000 built-in commands and its user interface allows the user to combine these commands into macros to automate work. Implementations of Emacs feature a dialect of the Lisp programming language that provides a deep extension capability, allowing users and developers to write new commands and applications for the editor. Extensions have been written to manage email, outlines, RSS feeds, as well as clones of ELIZA, Conway's Life and Tetris; the original EMACS was written in 1976 by Carl Mikkelsen, David A. Moon and Guy L. Steele Jr. as a set of Editor MACroS for the TECO editor. It was inspired by the ideas of the TECO-macro editors TECMAC and TMACS.
The most popular, most ported, version of Emacs is GNU Emacs, created by Richard Stallman for the GNU Project. XEmacs is a variant that branched from GNU Emacs in 1991. GNU Emacs and XEmacs are for the most part compatible with each other. Emacs is, along with vi, one of the two main contenders in the traditional editor wars of Unix culture. Emacs is among the open source projects still under development. Emacs development began during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab, whose PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers used the Incompatible Timesharing System operating system that featured a default line editor known as Tape Editor and Corrector. Unlike most modern text editors, TECO used separate modes in which the user would either add text, edit existing text, or display the document. One could not place characters directly into a document by typing them into TECO, but would instead enter a character in the TECO command language telling it to switch to input mode, enter the required characters, during which time the edited text was not displayed on the screen, enter a character to switch the editor back to command mode.
This behavior is similar to that of the program ed. Richard Stallman visited the Stanford AI Lab in 1972 or 1974 and saw the lab's E editor, written by Fred Wright, he was impressed by the editor's intuitive WYSIWYG behavior, which has since become the default behavior of most modern text editors. He returned to MIT where Carl Mikkelsen, a hacker at the AI Lab, had added to TECO a combined display/editing mode called Control-R that allowed the screen display to be updated each time the user entered a keystroke. Stallman reimplemented this mode to run efficiently and added a macro feature to the TECO display-editing mode that allowed the user to redefine any keystroke to run a TECO program. E had another feature: random-access editing. TECO was a page-sequential editor, designed for editing paper tape on the PDP-1 and allowed editing on only one page at a time, in the order of the pages in the file. Instead of adopting E's approach of structuring the file for page-random access on disk, Stallman modified TECO to handle large buffers more efficiently and changed its file-management method to read and write the entire file as a single buffer.
All modern editors use this approach. The new version of TECO became popular at the AI Lab and soon accumulated a large collection of custom macros whose names ended in MAC or MACS, which stood for macro. Two years Guy Steele took on the project of unifying the diverse macros into a single set. Steele and Stallman's finished implementation included facilities for extending and documenting the new macro set; the resulting system was called EMACS, which stood for Editing MACroS or, alternatively, E with MACroS. Stallman picked the name Emacs "because <E> was not in use as an abbreviation on ITS at the time." An apocryphal hacker koan alleges that the program was named after Emack & Bolio's, a popular Cambridge ice cream store. The first operational EMACS system existed in late 1976. Stallman saw a problem in too much customization and de facto forking and set certain conditions for usage, he wrote: "EMACS was distributed on a basis of communal sharing, which means all improvements must be given back to me to be incorporated and distributed."The original Emacs, like TECO, ran only on the PDP-10 running ITS.
Its behavior was sufficiently different from that of TECO that it could be considered a text editor in its own right, it became the standard editing program on ITS. Mike McMahon ported Emacs from ITS to the TOPS-20 operating systems. Other contributors to early versions of Emacs include Kent Pitman, Earl Killian, Eugene Ciccarelli. By 1979, Emacs was the main editor used in its Laboratory for Computer Science. In the following years, programmers wrote a variety of Emacs-like editors for other computer systems; these included EINE and ZWEI, which were written for the Lisp machine by Mike McMahon and Daniel Weinreb, Sine, written by Owen Theodore Anderson. Weinreb's EINE was the first Emacs written in Lisp. In 1978, Bernard Greenberg wrote Multics Emacs entirely in Multics Lisp at Honeywell's Cambridge Information Systems Lab. Multics Emacs was maintained by Richard Soley, who went on to develop the NILE Emacs-like editor for the NIL Project, by Barry Margolin. Many versions of Emacs, including GNU Emacs, would adopt Lisp as an extension language.
James Gosling, who would invent Ne
Robert "Rob" C. Pike is author, he is best known for his work on the Go programming language and at Bell Labs, where he was a member of the Unix team and was involved in the creation of the Plan 9 from Bell Labs and Inferno operating systems, as well as the Limbo programming language. He co-developed the Blit graphical terminal for Unix. Pike is the sole inventor named in AT&T's US patent 4,555,775 or "backing store patent", part of the X graphic system protocol and one of the first software patents. Over the years Pike has written many text editors. Pike, with Brian Kernighan, is the co-author of The Practice of Programming and The Unix Programming Environment. With Ken Thompson he is the co-creator of UTF-8. Pike developed lesser systems such as the vismon program for displaying faces of email authors. Pike appeared once on Late Night with David Letterman, as a technical assistant to the comedy duo Penn & Teller. Pike works for Google, where he is involved in the creation of the programming languages Go and Sawzall.
Pike is married to illustrator Renée French. The plumber – the interprocess communications mechanism used in Plan 9 and Inferno Mark V. Shaney – an artificial Usenet poster designed by Pike The Good, the Bad, the Ugly: The Unix Legacy – Slides of his presentation at the commemoration of 1000000000 seconds of the Unix clock. Systems Software Research is Irrelevant slides Pike's personal homepage Pike's Google homepage Questions and Answers with Rob Pike by Robin "Roblimo" Miller Concurrency/message passing Newsqueak on YouTube Structural Regular Expressions by Rob Pike slides The history of UTF-8 as told by Rob Pike Pike's appearance with Penn & Teller on Letterman on YouTube