St Mary's Church, Nottingham
The Church of St Mary the Virgin is the oldest religious foundation in the City of Nottingham, the largest church after the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Nottingham and the largest mediaeval building in the city. The church is Grade I listed by the Department for Culture, Media & Sport as a building of outstanding architectural or historic interest, it is one of only five Grade. It is situated on High Pavement at the heart of the historic Lace Market district and is known as St Mary's in the Lace Market, it is a member of the Greater Churches Group, part of the parish of All Saints', St Mary's and St Peter's, Nottingham. The church is believed to go back deep into Saxon times; the main body of the present building dates from the end of the reign of Edward III to that of Henry VII. The nave was finished before 1475 and it is notable for its uniformity of gothic perpendicular style, it is that the south aisle wall was the first part of the building to be constructed in the early 1380s, with the remainder of the nave and transepts being from the early 15th century.
The tower was completed in the reign of Henry VIII. The church was owned by Lenton Priory from 1108 to 1538 and the monks took the living of the church as Rector, appointed a Vicar to perform the daily offices. In 1513, a school was founded in the church by Dame Agnes Mellers as The Free School of the Town of Nottingham; this is now Nottingham High School. In the Foundation Deed, Mellers provided that a Commemoration Service should be held in the church "on the Feast of The Translation of St Richard of Chichester". With the exception of the Goose Fair, it is the most ancient ceremonial event still perpetuated in the City of Nottingham,George Fox founder of the Religious Society of Friends known as the Quakers or Friends, was imprisoned in Nottingham in 1649 after interrupting the preacher at St Mary's. Nottingham Bluecoat School was founded in 1706, the first lessons were taught in the porch of the church. For several years from 1716, the church was used to house the town fire engine, it was kept at the west end, was still there until at least 1770.
St Mary's opened a workhouse in 1726 at the south end of Mansfield Road and ran it until 1834 when responsibility for workhouses was transferred from parishes to secular Boards of Guardians. The workhouse was demolished in 1895 to clear part of the site needed for the construction of the Nottingham Victoria railway station; the church was closed for 5 years from 1843 for a major restoration. It re-opened on 19 May 1848. St Mary's pioneered Sunday School education for those children unable to attend a day school. Pupils were taught reading and arithmetic, as well as religious knowledge; the first Sunday School was opened in 1751, 35 years before the acknowledged first Sunday School was founded in Gloucester by Robert Raikes. 1822 St. Paul's Church, George Street, built as a chapel of ease 1841 Holy Trinity Church, Trinity Square 1844 St. John the Baptist's Church, Nottingham 1856 St. Mark's Church, Nottingham 1856 St. Matthew's Church, Talbot Street 1863 St. Ann's Church, with St Andrew's created out of this parish, in 1871 1863 St. Luke's Church, Nottingham 1863 St Saviour's, Arkwright Street 1864 All Saints’, Raleigh Street, as a chapel of ease 1881 Emmanuel Church, Woodborough Road, in 1885 1888 St Catharine's, St Ann's Well Road out of the parishes of St Mary, St Mark, St Luke and St Paul 1903 St Bartholomew's Church, Blue Bell Hill Road 1762 West front rebuilt by William Hiorne of Warwick in the Classical style.
C1818-20 South aisle crossing vault replaced by William Stretton. 1843 Tower saved from collapse by Lewis Nockalls Cottingham. 1844–1848 Five year restoration of roofs and west front returned to gothic style by George Gilbert Scott at a cost of £9,000, 1848-1860s Internal restoration by George Gilbert Scott and William Bonython Moffatt. 1872 Chancel reroofed by George Gilbert Scott. 1890 The Chapter House was built by George Frederick Bodley. 1912 The Lady Chapel added by Temple Lushington Moore. 1935 Tower ringing room floor concreted and new bell frame 1940 The Simpson memorial choir vestry added. 1992–93 Exterior fabric restored and cleaned. 2008 New kitchens and toilet facilities. 2013 Removal of the wooden flooring platforms, installation of underfloor heating and new stone floor. The chantry door is considered to be the oldest surviving door in Nottingham, dating from the 1370s or 1380s, it contains an example of iron work from the medieval period in the locking mechanism. The chantry room has latterly been used as a bonehouse, a coal store, a chair store.
It now contains a toilet for wheelchair users. The survival of the door is to be due to the fact that it has not been used, is internal within the church, it was at St Mary's that the practice of laying on of hands by the Bishop during a Confirmation service was first observed ca. 1760 and documented by Thomas Newton, Bishop of Bristol. It was performed by Archbishop of York; the bronze doors were designed in 1904 by Henry Wilson in memory of his father-in-law, Rev. Francis Morse; the intention of the design of the doors is to illustrate the Life of Our Lord in its relation with the Holy Mother to whom the church is dedicated and by the general treatment to suggest the idea of pity. In the tympanum enclosed within a vesica the Holy Mother supports and cherishes the body of Christ, while in the spandrels, on either side
Associated Independent Recording
Associated Independent Recording is an independent recording company founded in London in 1965 by Beatles producer Sir George Martin and his partner John Burgess after their departure from Parlophone. The leading independent recording studio complex was founded in 1969. Since AIR has operated its own professional audio recording facilities, Air Studios. AIR's first facility opened on 6 October 1970, it was located on the fourth floor of 214 Oxford Street, containing four studios, a MIDI programming room. The facility included two small ones; the studios contained two Bösendorfer pianos, many soundproof booths, a 56-channel mixing console, custom-designed by Neve to AIR's specification. The company built another recording studio on the Caribbean island of Montserrat in the mid 1970s. In 1986, the facility was described as such: "Recently refurbished control room now featuring 60 channels by SSL with automation and TR and 12 integrated channels by Rupert Neve of Focusrite, two 32track Mitsubishi X850 digital machines and 24track Studer A800.
Digital mixing on two Mitsubishi X86. Comprehensive ancillary equipment list."Jimmy Buffett recorded Volcano at the Montserrat studio in May 1979, naming the album and its title song for the dormant Soufrière Hills volcano on the island. Elton John recorded three albums at the Montserrat studio in the 1980s. Dire Straits recorded their successful Brothers in Arms album between 1984 and 1985. Other artists such as Ultravox, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark, Paul McCartney, Marvin Gaye, the Police, the Rolling Stones, Black Sabbath, Midge Ure, Little River Band, Duran Duran, Sheena Easton and Luther Vandross have recorded albums there; the first album cut in the newly opened studios was Real to Reel by the Climax Blues Band in 1979. In 1989, Hurricane Hugo devastated the island and the Montserrat facility was damaged and was forced to close. According to George Martin, The buildings are still standing but their roofs are failing, leading to extensive damage to the floors of the accommodation area and inner part of the studio complex making them unsafe to walk on.
The facility is now a modern ruin, is closed to the public. The buildings are located at 16°44′28″N 62°12′53″W. In 1991, with the lease on the Oxford Street premises coming to an end, AIR Studios took over Lyndhurst Road Congregational Church, a Grade II listed building designed in 1880 by Victorian architect Alfred Waterhouse and located in the Hampstead suburb of northern London; the space was revamped as a recording facility and opened for business in December 1992. AIR Lyndhurst is now a key London facility for classical and popular recordings, as well as film scores, television post-production, dialogue, sound effects and music for video games. AIR Studios website philsbook.com / AIR Studios Video tour and producer interviews shot at Air Studios
Theme Park World
Theme Park World known as Theme Park 2, in North America as Sim Theme Park, is a 1999 construction and management simulation game developed by Bullfrog Productions and released by Electronic Arts. The direct sequel to Theme Park, the player constructs and manages an amusement park with the aim of making profit and keeping visitors happy. Developed for Windows, it was ported to PlayStation and PlayStation 2, as well for Macintosh computers; the Mac version was published by Feral Interactive. The game was developed because personnel at Bullfrog wanted to bring the original Theme Park up-to-date. Theme Park World features four themes of amusement park, the ability to ride attractions, an online service that enabled players to share parks. Reception was positive, with reviewers complimenting the sound and visuals, although some were critical of the interface; the game was followed by Theme Park Inc in 2001. Theme Park World tasks players with managing a series of amusement parks. To do this, the player must choose how to spend their funds, finding ways to expand the number and scope of their parks while remaining profitable.
Money can be used to purchase things such as new rides or attractions, hire staff to maintain the park. As in its predecessor Theme Park, the staff available for recruitment include mechanics, cleaners and guards, but Theme Park World introduces a new role: scientists; the staff repair rides, clean litter, entertain visitors, ensure the park's security and research new rides and attractions. Staff can be trained to make them more efficient, require frequent rest in staff rooms. Rides can be upgraded to increase their reliability and speed, as well as provide additional components for track-based rides, such as jumps and tunnels for race tracks, loops for roller coasters. Toilets and features such as bins and security cameras can be purchased. Various elements can be controlled by the player, such as the name of the park, the price of admission, the layout of the roller-coaster tracks, the quality of goods in the shops; the player can build cafés, novelty stores and parlours for foodstuff such as chips, ice creams, burgers.
In the PlayStation version, certain rides and sideshows are playable as minigames such as races and 9 puzzles. The player can purchase additional land for the park. A key focus is maintaining visitor satisfaction: the player is provided with feedback on visitors' merriment in the forms of a happiness meter, thought bubbles; the bubbles convey feelings such as confusion, pleasure and hygiene, which are indicators of the park's success. There is an adviser; the player can earn golden tickets or keys for completing tasks such as getting a certain number of people in the park, reaching a certain happiness level, making a certain profit in a year. Golden tickets can be used to buy special rides that cannot otherwise be researched by park scientists, as well as unlock golden keys needed to open additional parks; the requirements for earning golden tickets are similar in each park, but get harder as the game progresses. There are four themes of park: Lost Kingdom Wonder Land, Halloween World, Space Zone, with Space Zone being the hardest.
In the PlayStation version, there are two parks for each theme. Each world has setting-appropriate rides and sideshows. Only the Lost Kingdom and Halloween World are available at the start; the player can ride rides, tour the park in the first-person view. In the PlayStation version, four golden tickets are required to use the latter feature. There is an Instant Action mode, in which the player starts with a pre-built park in the Lost Kingdom, some staff, double the usual amount of money, it features automatic research and cheaper staff and expansion, but certain rides, sideshows and features are not available. The Theme Park World Online website contained news and updates to the game, featured a page that contained published parks. Invitations to parks could be issued, players could vote for their favourites. Competitions were hosted, with prizes awarded for the best parks. Players could visit others' published parks. Platinum Tickets, which were used to download rides from the website, were awarded when others visited the player's parks.
Postcards could be sent by email, the service offered a chat feature. The chat service had a function to report abusive players, who would have their connection terminated. Players could be blackmarked. An account was required to use Theme Park World Online. Theme Park World was announced in April 1999. Many Bullfrog personnel had wanted to produce an updated version of Theme Park. Producer Jeff Gamon said that and that players wanted to ride rides they created and Bullfrog built on the original game's success using the latest technology. Gamon said that Theme Park World would be less objective-based and more open-ended than the previous Theme games. Early in development, there were 12 artists, who were led by Darran Thomas before he left Bullfrog with Jeremy Longley and Glenn Corpes to found Lost Toys; the game used a 3D engine to eliminate the need for a 3D accelerator card, an advanced behavioural artificial intelligence system that gave visitors diffe
The Lord of the Rings: Aragorn's Quest
The Lord of the Rings: Aragorn's Quest is a 2010 action-adventure video game developed by Headstrong Games for Wii, TT Fusion for Nintendo DS, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable. It was published on all platforms by WB Games; the game is an adaptation of Peter Jackson's Lord of the Rings film trilogy. Set fifteen years after the War of the Ring, the game features Samwise Gamgee telling his children of the adventures of Aragorn during the conflict. Aragorn's Quest was the first Lord of the Rings game released by WB Games, who had acquired the rights to make games based on the New Line Cinema film series from Electronic Arts in 2009; the game was aimed at younger players, offering a simplified and less violent version of the plots of the three films. It received mixed reviews. On the Wii and PlayStation 3, Aragorn's Quest is an action-adventure game played from a third-person perspective; the game is divided up into two different gameplay sections. The main game sees the player control Aragorn, as Samwise Gamgee tells his children stories of Aragorn's adventures during the War of the Ring fifteen years previously.
The other gameplay section is located in the Shire in the game's present, with the player controlling Sam's son, Frodo, as he helps his fellow Hobbits prepare a party for the arrival of Aragorn. Gameplay in both areas is the same, the game is structured in such a way that as Frodo learns skills in the Shire, these skills become available to Aragorn in the main game. If a second player is present, they control Frodo's sister Elanor in the Shire, Gandalf in the main game. However, the players cannot switch characters - player one must always be Aragorn and Frodo, player two must be Gandalf and Elanor. During combat, the player has five basic sword attack moves. In the game, Aragorn can use charged up versions of each of the five main attacks; the player can use a secondary weapon to thrust attack. The player can access chain attacks and special abilities such as "Battle Cry" and "Rally"; the player can gain access to a bow, which can be upgraded in various ways. For example, "black arrow tips" can target multiple enemies at once, while "eagle feathers" can slow down time when the player enters first-person mode whilst aiming the bow.
Another combat method is fighting on horseback, during which the player can use his sword as normal, can dash with his spear at the ready. The Wii version of the game is controlled via the Wii Remote and Nunchuk, becoming one of the few Wii games, including Nintendo's The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess and the then-unreleased The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword, to implement sword-and-shield combat; the PlayStation 3 version can be controlled via either the PlayStation Move. At most times during the game, the player is accompanied by AI controlled allies; the player can acquire upgrades for these AI companions, such as increasing their attack and defense, finding weapon and armour upgrades or unlocking new combat abilities. In the Wii and PlayStation 3 versions, a second player can drop in and play as Gandalf at any time during the game. Gandalf controls to Aragorn, his main weapon is his staff, which functions as his long range weapon. He has the ability to heal Aragorn or grant certain boosts to him by casting spells that mimic the effects of power-up herbs found in Middle-Earth that Aragorn can pick.
The Nintendo DS, PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable version of the game is different from the Wii and PS3 version in several ways. For example, it does not feature a two-player option. Absent are the Shire levels. However, it includes an arena mode not featured in the Wii and PS3 versions, levels set in Caradhras, at the Gates of Moria, in Dunharrow, areas not found in the Wii/PS3 versions; this version is played from an isometric three-quarter top-down view, features stat-management and experience points to spend on special abilities. The Wii/PS3 version does not feature any kind of experience points; the game is presented against the background of the history of the One Ring. At the dawn of the Second Age, after the defeat of the Dark Lord, the elves of Eregion forged the nineteen Rings of Power to help themselves, the dwarves and men rule Middle-earth. However, the elves were unaware that Sauron, Morgoth's closest ally, had survived his master's defeat, in the guise of Annatar had been the one who taught the Elven-smiths, led by Celebrimbor, how to forge the Rings, whilst, in secret, he forged his own One Ring in the fires of Mount Doom, a Ring far more powerful than any of the others.
However, in order for the One Ring to be powerful enough to control the other Rings, Sauron had to transfer most of his power into it. As soon as he put it on, the elves became aware of his ruse and hiding their Three Rings, which Celebrimbor had forged without Sauron's aid. Sauron waged war on the elves, killing Celebrimbor, thus began the Dark Years, when Sauron took possession of the remaining sixteen Rings, giving seven to the dwarves and nine to men in an effort to corrupt them. The dwarves proved
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3
Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 is a real-time strategy video game developed by EA Los Angeles and published by Electronic Arts. It was released on October 28, 2008 in the United States for Microsoft Windows and October 30, 2008 in Europe. An Xbox 360 version was released on November 11. On January 21, 2009 EA announced Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 – Ultimate Edition, the PlayStation 3 version which contains additional material was released on March 23, 2009 along with the OS X version by TransGaming; the game is a continuation of the Red Alert games within the Conquer series. Command & Conquer: Red Alert 3 – Uprising, a stand-alone expansion pack, was released for Microsoft Windows in March 2009, it was offered via digital distribution. Like the previous entries in the Red Alert series, the game is set in an alternate reality from World War II, in which the Western Allies fight the Soviet Union. In Red Alert 3 the Soviet leadership, facing defeat, goes back in time to kill Albert Einstein and prevent his assistance to the allies, paving the way for Soviet domination in the present.
However, as an unintended consequence, a third world power, the Empire of the Rising Sun, is created and all three sides go to war. The three factions are playable, with the gameplay involving constructing a base, gathering resources and training armies to defeat other players; each faction has a co-operative campaign, playable with either an artificial intelligence partner or with another player online. The game intersperses strategy missions with full motion video footage featuring an ensemble cast starring J. K. Simmons, Tim Curry and George Takei as the leaders of the three factions; the game received positive reviews, with reviewers citing the co-operative and multiplayer components as strengths, along with the enhanced role of naval combat compared to other real-time strategy games. Cited weaknesses included aspects such as unit pathfinding and an unstable netcode. Red Alert 3 retains the core real-time strategy mechanics of the Conquer series. Warring factions harvest resources using vulnerable collectors and use those resources to construct military bases and forces on-site.
Structures form a wide tech tree with a variety of units and elusive superweapons. Weapon types are specialized to the point where a rifleman can withstand direct hits from an anti-tank cannon. Red Alert 3's major refinements are the addition of the Empire of the Rising Sun to the factions of the sub-series, a co-operative campaign, expanded naval warfare; the single-player campaign is co-operative. Each mission is played alongside an ally; these can be played with another player. Offline it is one of several computer-controlled characters. Teams share income and start with the same forces. Computerized characters can be given simple commands, such as an order to take a specific position or to strike a specific target; the campaign has nine missions for each side. Each side's plotlines are mutually exclusive. Naval warfare is emphasized as another front. Executive producer Chris Corry has stated that many units are amphibious, trading effectiveness for increased flexibility. Buildings and entire bases can be constructed on water, save for such things as ground or naval unit production facilities, players who "ignore the ocean forfeiting a significant part of their potential economy to their opponents."
Further stressing this is the fact that, despite some campaign maps being land based, all multiplayer maps have significant bodies of water in them. The use of naval units and various unit abilities helped players counterattack their opponent's units specific to that unit's strongpoint; every unit in the game has a secondary ability. Their usage varies: some are toggled on or off, others are targeted, still others are triggered the instant one presses the button; the Imperial King Oni can bull-rush enemy units as a secondary ability, a Soviet Hammer Tank can toggle between a tank gun and a laser beam that can leech HP from enemies, an Allied Athena Cannon can engage its energy shields with a button press but with a cooldown period before they can be used again. All abilities are bound to the same key; the game features experience points that are used to upgrade unit types and to buy "commander abilities," which call in air strikes, recon sweeps, magnetic satellite beams, etc. Commander abilities do have significant cooldown periods.
Ore fields. These originated in the first Red Alert as a functionally identical equivalent to Tiberium, what were ostensibly strip mines had ore growing out of the ground. Gameplay mechanics have not changed a great deal since fields have been replaced with stationary ore mines. Strategic ore refinery placement and covert refining are impacted to an extent; the first Red Alert revolved around a different World War II between the Allies and the Soviet Union, with some high-tech esoterica, such as weaponized tesla coils linked to Tesla's abortive death rays and limited time travel linked to the rumored Philadelphia Experiment. Red Alert 2 featured a Soviet invasion of North America with tanks, gargantuan airships, psychically dominated anti-ship giant squids. Executive producer Chris Corry stated in a pre-release interview that Red Alert 3 will further differentiate the playable factions from each other and " u
Abbey Road Studios
Abbey Road Studios is a recording studio at 3 Abbey Road, St John's Wood, City of Westminster, England. It was established in November 1931 by the Gramophone Company, a predecessor of British music company EMI, which owned it until Universal Music took control of part of EMI in 2013. Abbey Road Studios is most notable as being the 1960s' venue for innovative recording techniques adopted by the Beatles, Pink Floyd, the Hollies, as well as others. One of its earliest world-famous-artist clients was Paul Robeson, who recorded there in December 1931 and went on to record many of his best-known songs there. Towards the end of 2009, the studio came under threat of sale to property developers. However, the British Government protected the site, granting it English Heritage Grade II listed status in 2010, thereby preserving the building from any major alterations. A nine-bedroom Georgian townhouse built in 1831 on the footpath leading to Kilburn Abbey, the building was converted to flats where the most well-known resident was Maundy Gregory.
In 1929, the Gramophone Company converted it into studios. The property benefited from a large garden behind the townhouse, which permitted a much larger building to be constructed to the rear. Pathé filmed the opening of the studios in November 1931 when Edward Elgar conducted the London Symphony Orchestra in recording sessions of his music. In 1934, the inventor of stereo sound, Alan Blumlein, recorded Mozart's Jupiter Symphony, conducted by Thomas Beecham at the studios; the neighbouring house is owned by the studio and used to house musicians. During the mid-20th century, the studio was extensively used by leading British conductor Sir Malcolm Sargent, whose house was just around the corner from the studio building; the Gramophone Company merged with Columbia Graphophone Company to form Electric and Musical Industries in 1931, the studios became known as EMI Recording Studios. In 1936 cellist Pablo Casals became the first to record Johann Sebastian Bach's Cello Suites No. 1 & 2 at the command of EMI head Fred Gaisberg.
The recordings went on to spur a revolution among Bach cellists alike. In 1958, Studio Two at Abbey Road became a centre for rock and roll music when Cliff Richard and the Drifters recorded "Move It" there, pop music material. Abbey Road Studios is associated with the Beatles, who recorded all of their albums and hits there between 1962 and 1970 using the four-track REDD mixing console designed by Peter K. Burkowitz; the Beatles named their 1969 album Abbey Road, after the street. The studio was renamed Abbey Road Studios in 1970. Iain Macmillan took the album's cover photograph outside the studios, with the result that the nearby zebra crossing has become a place of pilgrimage for Beatles fans, it has been a tradition for visitors to pay homage to the band by writing on the wall in front of the building though it is painted over every three months. December 2010, the zebra crossing at Abbey Road was given a Grade II listed status. Pink Floyd recorded most of their late 1960s to mid-1970s albums here, returning only in 1988 for mixing and overdubbing subsequent albums.
Notable producers and sound engineers who have worked at Abbey Road include George Martin, Geoff Emerick, Norman "Hurricane" Smith, Ken Scott, Mike Stone, Alan Parsons, Peter Vince, Malcolm Addey, Peter Brown, Richard Langham, Phil McDonald, John Kurlander, Richard Lush and Ken Townsend, who invented the groundbreaking studio effect known as automatic double tracking. The chief mastering engineer at Abbey Road was Chris "Vinyl" Blair, who started his career as a tape deck operator. In 1979, EMI commissioned the British jazz fusion band Morrissey-Mullen to record Britain's first digitally recorded single record at Abbey Road Studios. From 18 July to 11 September 1983, the public had a rare opportunity to see inside the legendary Studio Two where the Beatles made most of their records. While a new mixing console was being installed in the control room, the studio was used to host a video presentation called The Beatles at Abbey Road; the soundtrack to the video had a number of recordings that were not made commercially available until the release of The Beatles Anthology project over a decade later.
The Red Hot Chili Peppers used a photograph of the band walking across the zebra crossing naked on the front of The Abbey Road E. P., released in 1988. In September 2005, American hip-hop artist Kanye West, backed by a 17-piece female string orchestra, performed songs derived from his first two studio albums at Abbey Road Studios. Recordings of these live renditions formed his live album, Late Orchestration, released in April 2006; the cover art for the album makes use of the famous zebra crossing with West's trademark'Dropout Bear' seen walking across it. In June 2011, South Korean boy band Shinee performed at the studio as part of its Japanese debut showcase in partnership with EMI and the group's local record label SM Entertainment, becoming the first-ever Asian artist to perform in the studio. In November 2011, Australian recording artist Kylie Minogue recorded some of her most famous songs with a full orchestra at Abbey Road Studios; the album called The Abbey Road Sessions was released October 2012.
In September 2012, with the takeover of EMI, the studio became the property of Universal Music. It was not one of the entities. In February 2017, a rare BTR-3 tape recorder used at Abbey Road, was found by members of