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James II of England

James II and VII was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. He was the last Roman Catholic monarch of England and Ireland. However, it involved the principles of absolutism and divine right of kings and his deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England and Scotland from his elder brother Charles II with widespread support in all three countries based on the principle of divine right or birth. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not apply to it in general and when the English and Scottish Parliaments refused to pass his measures, James attempted to impose them by decree. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the second was the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for seditious libel. Anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland now made it seem only his removal as monarch could prevent a civil war.

Leading members of the English political class invited William of Orange to assume the English throne. In February 1689, a special Convention Parliament held that the king had "vacated" the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, establishing the principle that sovereignty derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms, but despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed that of England by finding that James had "forfeited" the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, James returned to France, where he spent the rest of his life in exile at Saint-Germain, protected by Louis XIV. James, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St James's Palace in London on 14 October 1633; that same year, he was baptised by William Laud, the Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury.

He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future King Charles II, the two sons of the Duke of Buckingham and Francis Villiers. At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral, he was designated Duke of York at birth, invested with the Order of the Garter in 1642, formally created Duke of York in January 1644. The King's disputes with the English Parliament grew into the English Civil War. James accompanied his father at the Battle of Edgehill, where he narrowly escaped capture by the Parliamentary army, he subsequently stayed in Oxford, the chief Royalist stronghold, where he was made a M. A. by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. When the city surrendered after the siege of Oxford in 1646, Parliamentary leaders ordered the Duke of York to be confined in St James's Palace. Disguised as a woman, he escaped from the Palace in 1648 with the help of Joseph Bampfield, crossed the North Sea to The Hague; when Charles I was executed by the rebels in 1649, monarchists proclaimed James's older brother king as Charles II of England.

Charles II was recognised as king by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, was crowned King of Scotland at Scone in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King in Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England and fled to France and exile. Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under Turenne against the Fronde, against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with Oliver Cromwell. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, an alliance was made. In consequence, James was forced to leave Turenne's army.

James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, James travelled to Bruges and joined the Spanish army under Louis, Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes. During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage and Richard Talbot, became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an a

Quéant Road Cemetery

Quéant Road Cemetery is a World War I cemetery located between the villages of Buissy and Quéant in the Nord-Pas de Calais region of France. Situated on the north side of the D14 road, about 3 kilometres from Buissy, it contains 2,377 burials and commemorations of Commonwealth soldiers who died in the era of 1917 and 1918; the first burials were of soldiers who died in the period from September to November 1918. Following the Armistice the cemetery was enlarged to accommodate over 2,200 burials moved from surrounding battlefields and cemeteries. Buissy was reached by the Third Army on 2 September 1918, after the storming of the Drocourt-Quéant line, was evacuated by the Germans on the following day. Quéant Road Cemetery was created by the 2nd and 57th Casualty Clearing Stations in October and November 1918, it consisted of 71 graves, but was enlarged after the Armistice when 2,200 graves were brought in from the battlefields of 1917-1918 between Arras and Bapaume, from the following smaller burial grounds in the area: Baralle Communal Cemetery British Extension, made in September 1918, contained the graves of 25 soldiers from the United Kingdom.

Baralle Communal Cemetery German Extension, from which two graves were brought. Cagnicourt Communal Cemetery, contained the grave of one soldier from the United Kingdom who fell in September 1918. Cagnicourt German Cemetery, East of the village, contained one British. Noreuil British Cemeteries No.1 and No.2. These were close together, about 400 metres North of Noreuil village, they were made in April–August 1917, they contained the graves of 50 soldiers from Australia and 16 from the United Kingdom. Some of these were re-buried in H. A. C. Cemetery, Ecoust-St. Mein. Noreuil German Cemetery No.1, next to Noreuil Australian Cemetery, contained 78 German graves and ten British. Pronville German Cemetery "near the Cave", on the Western outskirts of Pronville, contained 17 British graves. Pronville German Cemetery No.4, South of Pronville on the road to Beaumetz, contained 83 German and 83 British graves. 52 of the British graves were those of soldiers of the Black Watch. Pronville Churchyard, contained two British graves.

There are now 2,377 Commonwealth servicemen of the First World War buried or commemorated in Quéant Road Cemetery. 1,441 of the burials are unidentified, but there are special memorials to 56 casualties known or believed to be buried among them. Other special memorials commemorate 26 casualties buried in German cemeteries in the neighbourhood, whose graves could not be found on concentration. Commonwealth War Grave Commission Details for Queant Road Cemetery WW1 Cemeteries.com - the cemeteries and memorials of the Great War

Rhamnaceae

Rhamnaceae is a large family of flowering plants trees and some vines called the buckthorn family. Rhamnaceae is included in the order Rosales; the family contains about 55 genera and 950 species. The Rhamnaceae have a worldwide distribution, but are more common in the subtropical and tropical regions; the earliest fossil evidence of Rhamnaceae is from the Late Cretaceous. Fossil flowers have been collected from the Upper Cretaceous of Mexico and the Paleocene of Argentina. Leaves of family Rhamnaceae members are simple, i.e. the leaf blades are not divided into smaller leaflets. Leaves can be opposite. Stipules are present; these leaves are modified into spines in some spectacularly so. Colletia stands out by having two axillary buds instead of one, one developing into a thorn, the other one into a shoot; the flowers are radially symmetrical. There are 5 separate petals; the petals may be white, greenish, pink or blue, are small and inconspicuous in most genera, though in some the dense clusters of flowers are conspicuous.

The 5 or 4 stamens are opposite the petals. The ovary is superior, with 3 ovules; the fruits are berries, fleshy drupes, or nuts. Some are adapted to wind carriage. Chinese jujube is a major fruit in China; the American genus Ceanothus, which has several showy ornamental species, has nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Economic uses of the Rhamnaceae are chiefly as ornamental plants and as the source of many brilliant green and yellow dyes; the wood of Rhamnus was the most favoured species to make charcoal for use in gunpowder before the development of modern propellants. Modern molecular phylogenetics recommend the following clade-based classification of Rhamnaceae: Rhamnaceae of Mongolia in FloraGREIF