Camberwell is a district of South London, within the London Borough of Southwark. It is located 2.7 miles southeast of Charing Cross. The name Camberwell was first applied to the Parish of St Giles, which included the village of Camberwell, the hamlets of Peckham, Dulwich and part of Herne Hill; until 1889, it was part of the county of Surrey. In 1900 the original parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. In 1965, most of the Borough of Camberwell was merged into the London Borough of Southwark. To the west, part of both West Dulwich and Herne Hill come under the London Borough of Lambeth. Nowadays the district known as Camberwell covers a much smaller area than the ancient parish, is distinguished from Peckham and Herne Hill. Camberwell appears in the Domesday Book as Cambrewelle; the name may derive from the Old English Cumberwell or Comberwell, meaning'Well of the Britons', referring to remaining Celtic inhabitants of an area dominated by Anglo-Saxons. An alternative theory suggests the name may mean'Cripple Well', that the settlement developed as a hamlet where people from the City of London were expelled when they had a contagious disease like leprosy, for treatment by the church and the clean, healing waters from the wells.
Springs and wells are known to have existed on the southern slope of Denmark Hill around Grove Park. It was a substantial settlement with a church when mentioned in the Domesday Book, was the parish church for a large area including Dulwich and Peckham, it was held by Haimo the Sheriff. Its Domesday assets were: 1 virgate, it rendered £14. Up to the mid-19th century, Camberwell was visited by Londoners for its rural tranquillity and the reputed healing properties of its mineral springs. Like much of inner South London, Camberwell was transformed by the arrival of the railways in the 1860s. Camberwell Green is now a small area of common land. Camberwell St Giles formed an ancient, civil, parish in the Brixton hundred of Surrey; the parish covered 4,570 acres in 1831 and was divided into the liberty of Peckham to the east and the hamlet of Dulwich to the southwest, as well as Camberwell proper. The parish tapered in the south to form a point in. In 1801, the population was 7,059 and by 1851 this had risen to 54,667.
In 1829, it was included in the Metropolitan Police District and in 1855 it was included in the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works, with Camberwell Vestry nominating one member to the board. In 1889 the board was replaced by the London County Council and Camberwell was removed from Surrey, to form part of the County of London. In 1900, the area of the Camberwell parish became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. In 1965, the metropolitan borough was abolished and its former area became the southern part of the London Borough of Southwark in Greater London; the western part of the area is situated in the adjacent London Borough of Lambeth. The area has been home to many factories, including R. White's Lemonade, which originated in Camberwell, as well as Dualit toasters. Neither of these companies is now based in the area. Wilson's School was founded in 1615 in Camberwell by Royal Charter by Edward Wilson, vicar of the Parish of Camberwell; the charter was granted by James I.
The school moved to its current site in Croydon in 1975. A school for girls, Mary Datchelor Girl's School, was established in Camberwell in 1877, it was built on two houses at 15 and 17 Grove Lane, the location of a former manor house. All except one of its 30 pupils came from the parish of St Andrew Undershaft in the City of London; the funding for the school came from a bequest from Mary Datchelor. Proceeds of a property in Threadneedle Street used as a coffee-house were used to pay for apprenticeships for the poor boys of the parish, but as demographics in the City changed, it was decided to set up a school. By the 1970s, the school was receiving funding from the Clothworkers’ Company and the Inner London Education Authority funded teaching posts; the school came under pressure from ILEA to become comprehensive. Faced with this choice or becoming private, the school's governors instead decided to close in 1981; the school buildings were used as offices for the charity Save the Children but have now been converted to flats.
Camberwell Collegiate School was an independent school located on the eastern side of Camberwell Grove, directly opposite the Grove Chapel. The Collegiate College had some success for a while, led to the closure for some decades of the Denmark Hill Grammar School; however it had difficulty competing with other nearby schools including Dulwich College, was closed in 1867. The land was sold for building. Camberwell today is a mixture of well preserved Georgian and 20th-century housing, including a number of tower blocks. Camberwell Grove, Grove Lane and Addington Square have some of London's most elegant and well-preserved Georgian houses; the Salvation Army's William Booth Memorial Training College, designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, was completed in 1932: it towers over South London from Denmark Hill. It has a similar monumental impressiveness to Gilbert Scott's other local buildings, Battersea Power Station and the Tate Modern, although its simplicity is the result of repeated budget cuts during its construction: much more detail, including carved Gothic stonework surroundin
Wilson's School is a boys Grammar school with academy status in Wallington in the London Borough of Sutton. The school educates 1,100 pupils, with entry by academic selection based on performance in an entrance examination. 180 boys are expected to be admitted per year. GCSE and A-Level results place the school within the top 10 schools in the country, it was founded as Wilson's Grammar School in Camberwell in 1615, making it one of the country's oldest state schools. Wilson's moved to its present location on part of the site of the former Croydon Airport in 1975; the school became voluntary aided in 1997 and an Academy in June 2011. In 2015 the school celebrated its 400th anniversary with a visit from Prince Edward. GCSE and A level results place Wilson's School among the highest performing schools in the United Kingdom. In Nov 2018 The Times School Guide declared Wilson's the "State Secondary School of the Year". In 2017, The Times listed Wilson's School as the highest performing 11-18 state school in the country for A-Level, as well as being the number 1 all boys' school - the best set of results in the school's history.
The school's last Ofsted report rated the school as Grade 1 in all 38 of the target areas. The report begins: "Wilson's is an outstanding school that deserves its high reputation; this is how the school sees itself, a view shared by the vast majority of the large number of parents who responded to the inspection questionnaire. One parent summed up the school well by noting of their son,'Wilson's has helped him realise his potential and given him a lifelong love for learning.'" The school was founded by Edward Wilson in 1615 and was located in Camberwell, now part of Greater London but at that time a small village of cottages, homesteads and larger buildings grouped around a village green. Wilson was born around 1550 in Cartmel, which had its own grammar school, from where he passed on to Cambridge University. No record remains of him taking a degree, although it is known that he went into the Church, being appointed Deacon at Ely in Norfolk in 1576, he subsequently became Vicar of the Parish of Camberwell, presented to him by the Queen in person.
This would indicate that he favoured the settlement of the Church of England which Elizabeth I was resolved to make. His nephew Peter Danson became a governor of the new school at its founding. Danson was vicar of Carshalton in Surrey, only one mile from the present site of the school. A further member of the Wilson family, a namesake of Edward Wilson, is named in the Charter of the School as the Master. After his wife died, having had no children, he decided to set up a school using his available resources to create a legacy- saying in the royal charter that for all time there would be a school in Camberwell named after him. At the time, the establishment of a grammar school in England required the assent of the crown; this was obtained. The original Charter bearing this assent has since been lost, although in 1929 the governors of the school obtained a certified extract from the Patent Rolls; this requirement for the agreement of the Crown explains the legend "Founded in 1615 by Royal Charter" that appears in various places beneath the school name.
The Charter was granted by King James I. The charter names the school as "The Free Grammar School of Edward Wilson, clerk, in Camberwell, otherwise Camerwell, in the County of Surrey." In 1845 the school was forced to close as a result of a financial scandal. This was the result of Governor James Goulston. Following an Order in Council of Queen Victoria in 1880, which superseded the previous Royal Charter, the school was rebuilt on a different site in Camberwell, opening in 1883, it again catered to the need for schooling of boys in Camberwell, which by this time had grown from its rustic origins. Its working population consisted of men working in the professions, journalists and labourers. A grammar school provided an asset to the neighbourhood, with the prospect for boys to go on to University education. For five and a half years during the Second World War, Wilson's was evacuated to a Camp School at Itchingfield near Horsham and for the only period in its history became a boarding school; the whole compound stood around a broad elliptical area, set in large part to grass and the remainder, an asphalt quadrangle.
Radiating from this central area, in spoke-like fashion, was a series of large cedarwood huts. These were ablution blocks and classrooms. Two larger buildings stood adjacent to the asphalted space, one the dining hall and the other the assembly hall which functioned as the gym and church; the whole establishment catered for four hundred plus boys forming six houses, all named after past headmasters of the school, Macdowell, Kelly and Jephson. The Head Master of Christ's Hospital was kind enough to allow Wilson's the use of the school's cricket pitches, swimming bath and other facilities, including the Great Hall for Speech Day. In 1958, an elementary school in Camberwell known as the Greencoat School was closed after a 250-year history and part of its assets passed to Wilson's Grammar School; the funds were used to provide a new science facility, the Greencoat Building, constructed opposite the main school site in Wilson Road. Two carved figures of a boy and a girl which are believed to have stood over the boys' and girls' entrances to the school were installed first in the Greencoat Building, in the Greencoat Courtyard in the new school at Wallington.
The Mathematical Tripos is the mathematics course, taught in the Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. It is the oldest Tripos examined at the University. In its classical nineteenth-century form, the tripos was a distinctive written examination of undergraduate students of the University of Cambridge. Prior to 1824, the Mathematical Tripos was formally known as the "Senate House Examination". From about 1780 to 1909, the "Old Tripos" was distinguished by a number of features, including the publication of an order of merit of successful candidates, the difficulty of the mathematical problems set for solution. By way of example, in 1854, the Tripos consisted of 16 papers spread over 8 days, totaling 44.5 hours. The total number of questions was 211; the actual marks for the exams were never published, but there is reference to an exam in the 1860s where, out of a total possible mark of 17,000, the senior wrangler achieved 7634, the second wrangler 4123, the lowest wrangler around 1500 and the lowest scoring candidate obtaining honours 237.
The 300-odd candidates below that level were known as poll men. The questions for the 1841 examination may be found within the Cambridge University Magazine. According to the study Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics by Andrew Warwick during this period the style of teaching and study required for the successful preparation of students had a wide influence: on the development of'mixed mathematics' on mathematical education as vocational training for fields such as astronomy in the reception of new physical theories in electromagnetism as expounded by James Clerk MaxwellSince Cambridge students did a lot of rote learning called "bookwork", it was noted by Augustus De Morgan and repeated by Andrew Warwick that authors of Cambridge textbooks skipped known material. In consequence, "non-Cambridge readers... found the arguments impossible to follow." The early history is of the gradual replacement during the middle of the eighteenth century of a traditional method of oral examination by written papers, with a simultaneous switch in emphasis from Latin disputation to mathematical questions.
That is, all degree candidates were expected to show at least competence in mathematics. A long process of development of coaching—tuition outside the official University and college courses—went hand-in-hand with a gradual increase in the difficulty of the most testing questions asked; the standard examination pattern of bookwork plus rider was introduced. The list of wranglers became in time the subject of a great deal of public attention. According to Alexander Macfarlane To obtain high honours in the Mathematical Tripos, a student must put himself in special training under a mathematician, technically called a coach, not one of the regular college instructors, nor one of the University professors, but makes a private business of training men to pass that particular examination. Skill consists in the rate at which one can solve and more write out the solution of problems, it is excellent training of a kind, but there is not time for studying fundamental principles, still less for making any philosophical investigations.
Mathematical insight is something higher than skill in solving problems. William Hopkins was the first coach distinguished by his students' performances; when he retired in 1849, one of his students, Edward Routh became the dominant coach. Another coach, William Henry Besant published a textbook, Elementary Hydrostatics, containing mathematical exercises and solutions such as would benefit students preparing for Tripos. After Routh retired in 1888, Robert Rumsey Webb coached many of the top wranglers. Warwick notes that college teaching improved toward the end of the 19th century: The expansion of intercollegiate and university lectures at all levels through the 1880s and 1890s meant that, by 1900, it had become unnecessary for coaches either to lecture students or to provide them with manuscripts covering the mathematical methods they were required to master; the prime job to the coach now was to ensure that students were attending an appropriate range of courses and that they understood what they were being taught.
… This curtailment of responsibility made it impossible for a private tutor to dominate undergraduate training the way that Hopkins and Webb had done. A fellow of Trinity College, Robert Alfred Herman was associated with several of the top wranglers as their coach; when A. R. Forsyth wrote his retrospective in 1935, he recalled Webb, Percival Frost and Besant as the best coaches. Other coaches that produced top wranglers include E. W. Hobson, John Hilton Grace, H. F. Baker, Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich, A. E. H. Love. Apart from intellectual preparation, the challenge of Tripos was its duration: "The examinations themselves were intended as tests of endurance, taking place on consecutive mornings and afternoons for four and five days together." Brisk walking was taken up by many candidates to build up their stamina. As the nineteenth century progressed walking turned to athletics and other competitive sports including rowing and swimming; the coaches set the example: Routh had a two-hour constitutional walk daily, while "Besant was a mountaineer, Webb a wal
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium. This includes: electromagnetic radiation, such as radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma radiation particle radiation, such as alpha radiation, beta radiation, neutron radiation acoustic radiation, such as ultrasound and seismic waves gravitational radiation, radiation that takes the form of gravitational waves, or ripples in the curvature of spacetime. Radiation is categorized as either ionizing or non-ionizing depending on the energy of the radiated particles. Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV, enough to ionize atoms and molecules, break chemical bonds; this is an important distinction due to the large difference in harmfulness to living organisms. A common source of ionizing radiation is radioactive materials that emit α, β, or γ radiation, consisting of helium nuclei, electrons or positrons, photons, respectively.
Other sources include X-rays from medical radiography examinations and muons, positrons and other particles that constitute the secondary cosmic rays that are produced after primary cosmic rays interact with Earth's atmosphere. Gamma rays, X-rays and the higher energy range of ultraviolet light constitute the ionizing part of the electromagnetic spectrum; the word "ionize" refers to the breaking of one or more electrons away from an atom, an action that requires the high energies that these electromagnetic waves supply. Further down the spectrum, the non-ionizing lower energies of the lower ultraviolet spectrum cannot ionize atoms, but can disrupt the inter-atomic bonds which form molecules, thereby breaking down molecules rather than atoms; the waves of longer wavelength than UV in visible light and microwave frequencies cannot break bonds but can cause vibrations in the bonds which are sensed as heat. Radio wavelengths and below are not regarded as harmful to biological systems; these are not sharp delineations of the energies.
The word radiation arises from the phenomenon of waves radiating from a source. This aspect leads to a system of measurements and physical units that are applicable to all types of radiation; because such radiation expands as it passes through space, as its energy is conserved, the intensity of all types of radiation from a point source follows an inverse-square law in relation to the distance from its source. Like any ideal law, the inverse-square law approximates a measured radiation intensity to the extent that the source approximates a geometric point. Radiation with sufficiently high energy can ionize atoms. Ionization occurs when an electron is stripped from an electron shell of the atom, which leaves the atom with a net positive charge; because living cells and, more the DNA in those cells can be damaged by this ionization, exposure to ionizing radiation is considered to increase the risk of cancer. Thus "ionizing radiation" is somewhat artificially separated from particle radiation and electromagnetic radiation due to its great potential for biological damage.
While an individual cell is made of trillions of atoms, only a small fraction of those will be ionized at low to moderate radiation powers. The probability of ionizing radiation causing cancer is dependent upon the absorbed dose of the radiation, is a function of the damaging tendency of the type of radiation and the sensitivity of the irradiated organism or tissue. If the source of the ionizing radiation is a radioactive material or a nuclear process such as fission or fusion, there is particle radiation to consider. Particle radiation is subatomic particle accelerated to relativistic speeds by nuclear reactions; because of their momenta they are quite capable of knocking out electrons and ionizing materials, but since most have an electrical charge, they don't have the penetrating power of ionizing radiation. The exception is neutron particles. There are several different kinds of these particles, but the majority are alpha particles, beta particles and protons. Speaking and particles with energies above about 10 electron volts are ionizing.
Particle radiation from radioactive material or cosmic rays invariably carries enough energy to be ionizing. Most ionizing radiation originates from radioactive materials and space, as such is present in the environment, since most rocks and soil have small concentrations of radioactive materials. Since this radiation is invisible and not directly detectable by human senses, instruments such as Geiger counters are required to detect its presence. In some cases, it may lead to secondary emission of visible light upon its interaction with matter, as in the case of Cherenkov radiation and radio-luminescence. Ionizing radiation has many practical uses in medicine and construction, but presents a health hazard if used improperly. Exposure to radiation causes damage to living tissue.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a high-density and high-temperature state, offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and Hubble's law. If the observed conditions are extrapolated backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the prediction is that just before a period of high density there was a singularity, associated with the Big Bang. Physicists are undecided whether this means the universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the universe at that time. Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, thus considered the age of the universe. After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, simple atoms.
Giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced through gravity forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Astronomers observe the gravitational effects of dark matter surrounding galaxies. Though most of the mass in the universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter but it is unclear what it is made out of. Since Georges Lemaître first noted in 1927 that an expanding universe could be traced back in time to an originating single point, scientists have built on his idea of cosmic expansion; the scientific community was once divided between supporters of two different theories, the Big Bang and the Steady State theory, but a wide range of empirical evidence has favored the Big Bang, now universally accepted. In 1929, from analysis of galactic redshifts, Edwin Hubble concluded that galaxies are drifting apart. In 1964, the cosmic microwave background radiation was discovered, crucial evidence in favor of the Big Bang model, since that theory predicted the existence of background radiation throughout the universe before it was discovered.
More measurements of the redshifts of supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe is accelerating, an observation attributed to dark energy's existence. The known physical laws of nature can be used to calculate the characteristics of the universe in detail back in time to an initial state of extreme density and temperature. In 1922, Russian mathematician Alexander Friedmann proposed on theoretical grounds that the universe is expanding, rederived independently and observationally confirmed soon afterwards by Belgian astronomer and Catholic priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 Lemaître proposed what became known as the "Big Bang theory" of the creation of the universe calling it the "hypothesis of the primeval atom".: in his paper Annales de la Société Scientifique de Bruxelles under the title "Un Univers homogène de masse constante et de rayon croissant rendant compte de la vitesse radiale des nébuleuses extragalactiques", he presented his new idea that the universe is expanding and provided the first observational estimation of what is known as the Hubble constant.
What will be known as the "Big Bang theory" of the origin of the universe, he called his "hypothesis of the primeval atom" or the "Cosmic Egg". American astronomer Edwin Hubble observed that the distances to faraway galaxies were correlated with their redshifts; this was interpreted to mean that all distant galaxies and clusters are receding away from our vantage point with an apparent velocity proportional to their distance: that is, the farther they are, the faster they move away from us, regardless of direction. Assuming the Copernican principle, the only remaining interpretation is that all observable regions of the universe are receding from all others. Since we know that the distance between galaxies increases today, it must mean that in the past galaxies were closer together; the continuous expansion of the universe implies that the universe was denser and hotter in the past. Large particle accelerators can replicate the conditions that prevailed after the early moments of the universe, resulting in confirmation and refinement of the details of the Big Bang model.
However, these accelerators can only probe so far into high energy regimes. The state of the universe in the earliest instants of the Big Bang expansion is still poorly understood and an area of open investigation and speculation; the first subatomic particles to be formed included protons and electrons. Though simple atomic nuclei formed within the first three minutes after the Big Bang, thousands of years passed before the first electrically neutral atoms formed; the majority of atoms produced by the Big Bang were hydrogen, along with helium and traces of lithium. Giant clouds of these primordial elements coalesced through gravity to form stars and galaxies, the heavier elements were synthesized either within stars or during supernovae; the Big Bang theory offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of observed phenomena
Ormskirk is a market town in West Lancashire, England, 13 miles north of Liverpool, 11 miles northwest of St Helens, 9 miles southeast of Southport and 18 miles southwest of Preston. Ormskirk is known for its gingerbread. Ormskirk lies on sloping ground on the side of a ridge, whose highest point is 81 metres above sea-level, at the centre of the West Lancashire Plain, has been described as a "planned borough", laid out in the 13th century. Ormskirk is an unparished area, surrounded by the parishes of Bickerstaffe, Scarisbrick, Burscough and Lathom South; the town is located in the district of West Lancashire and is the site of the headquarters of West Lancashire Borough Council. Since Ormskirk does not have a parish council, a voluntary association, Ormskirk Community Partnership, was created in 2009, with the support of the West Lancashire Borough Council, to act as a voice for Ormskirk. Ormskirk is home to Edge Hill University; the name is Old Norse in origin and is derived from Ormres kirkja, from a personal name and the Old Norse word kirkja for church.
Ormr may have been a Viking who settled here, became a Christian and founded the church but there are no other records or archaeological evidence to support this and Ormr's identity is unknown. There is no reference to Ormskirk in the Domesday Book of 1086, but it has been suggested that it may have been part of Lathom at that time. In about 1189, the lord of Lathom granted the church of Ormskirk to Burscough Priory, which does suggest that Ormskirk had been subordinate to Lathom before that date. An open market is held twice weekly, on Thursdays and Saturdays, in the pedestrianised centre of Ormskirk; the location was the junction of the main roads to Preston and Wigan, was marked by a market cross going back to medieval times. During the 18th and 19th centuries the Cross, as the junction was known, was the location of a large lamp mounted on an obelisk with a circular drinking fountain for both people and animals around the base; this was moved to the junction of St Helens Road and Moor Street to make room for the erection of the clock tower in 1876.
The fountain was moved again to opposite the Drill Hall down Southport Road in the 1890s when space was needed to site the Disraeli statue. The market was established by a royal charter, granted by Edward I in 1286 to the monks of Burscough Priory. Thursday has been market day in Ormskirk since at least 1292; the King granted a borough charter to Ormskirk at about the same time, but this seems to have become extinct by the end of the 15th century. The Ormskirk Poor Law Union was established in 1837, covering 21 parishes and townships from Tarleton to Simonswood, from Birkdale to Skelmersdale. Ormskirk Union Workhouse was built in 1853 on Wigan Road and became Ormskirk and District General Hospital. With its weekly markets, the town became a focal point for local farmers and their agricultural workers, cow-keepers etc. to trade their goods and obtain necessities from the markets and from the retail establishments which were established along with public houses and inns. An engineering industry, based on making and mending agricultural machinery developed.
The town became known for its gingerbread over the years when local women would bake the gingerbread in their own homes and take it to the staging inns to sell to passengers. When the railway arrived in the mid 19th century, the local gingerbread sellers found a new market, they were allowed to sell their product to passengers travelling through the railway station. One particular customer Edward, Prince of Wales Edward VII, enjoyed the local gingerbread so much he sent orders to the town; the baking of gingerbread became part of the retail history of the town, with several local bakers claiming to have the original gingerbread recipe. A well known local woman, Sally Woods, was a recognisable figure on the market selling her gingerbread; the parish church of St Peter and St Paul is believed to be on the site of the original kirk, on a sandstone outcrop, is the oldest building in the town. Its exact age is unknown; the parish church has many connections with the Earls of the Stanley family. Many family members are buried in the church's Derby Chapel, including Thomas Stanley, the first Earl, who caused Richard III to lose his crown by changing sides at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485, the Royalist James Stanley, the seventh Earl, beheaded at Bolton in 1651 after the Civil War.
His body is buried in his head in a separate casket. This is one of only three parish churches in England to have a tower and a separate spire, is unique in that it has both at the same end of the building.. Legend has it that Orme had two sisters, one who wanted a tower, one who wanted a spire, Orme built both to please both. The'steeple' in fact dates from the early 15th century, but the original blew down in 1731 and was rebuilt between 1790 and 1832; the large west tower was added to the church around 1548 to house the bells of nearby Burscough Priory following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. One of these bells can still be seen in the church; the A59 is the main road, with Preston to Liverpool to the south. The A570, from Southport, crosses the town from west to east and provides a link to the national motorway network at junction 3 of the M58, about three miles from the town centre, it continues to St Helens before reaching the M62 at Junction 7, Rainhill Stoops. The town's railway station, refurbished at a cost of £1
G. H. Hardy
Godfrey Harold Hardy was an English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis. In biology, he is known for the Hardy -- a basic principle of population genetics. In addition to his research, he is remembered for his 1940 essay on the aesthetics of mathematics, titled A Mathematician's Apology. Hardy was the mentor of the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan. G. H. Hardy is known by those outside the field of mathematics for his essay from 1940 on the aesthetics of mathematics, A Mathematician's Apology, considered one of the best insights into the mind of a working mathematician written for the layperson. Starting in 1914, Hardy was the mentor of the Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, a relationship that has become celebrated. Hardy immediately recognised Ramanujan's extraordinary albeit untutored brilliance, Hardy and Ramanujan became close collaborators. In an interview by Paul Erdős, when Hardy was asked what his greatest contribution to mathematics was, Hardy unhesitatingly replied that it was the discovery of Ramanujan.
He called their collaboration "the one romantic incident in my life." G. H. Hardy was born on 7 February 1877, in Cranleigh, England, into a teaching family, his father was Art Master at Cranleigh School. Both parents were mathematically inclined. Hardy's own natural affinity for mathematics was perceptible at an early age; when just two years old, he wrote numbers up to millions, when taken to church he amused himself by factorising the numbers of the hymns. After schooling at Cranleigh, Hardy was awarded a scholarship to Winchester College for his mathematical work. In 1896 he entered Cambridge. After only two years of preparation under his coach, Robert Alfred Herman, Hardy was fourth in the Mathematics Tripos examination. Years he sought to abolish the Tripos system, as he felt that it was becoming more an end in itself than a means to an end. While at university, Hardy joined an elite, intellectual secret society. Hardy cited as his most important influence his independent study of Cours d'analyse de l'École Polytechnique by the French mathematician Camille Jordan, through which he became acquainted with the more precise mathematics tradition in continental Europe.
In 1900 he passed part II of the Tripos and was duly elected to a college fellowship, a prestigious honor reserved for the top students and one that could last the rest of their lives. In 1903 he earned his M. A., the highest academic degree at English universities at that time. From 1906 onward he held the position of a lecturer where teaching six hours per week left him time for research. In 1919 he left Cambridge to take the Savilian Chair of Geometry at Oxford in the aftermath of the Bertrand Russell affair during World War I. Hardy spent the academic year 1928–1929 at Princeton in an academic exchange with Oswald Veblen, who spent the year at Oxford. Hardy gave the Josiah Willards Gibbs lecture for 1928. Hardy left Oxford and returned to Cambridge in 1931, where he was Sadleirian Professor until 1942, he was on the governing body of Abingdon School from 1922-1935. Hardy is credited with reforming British mathematics by bringing rigour into it, a characteristic of French and German mathematics.
British mathematicians had remained in the tradition of applied mathematics, in thrall to the reputation of Isaac Newton. Hardy was more in tune with the cours d'analyse methods dominant in France, aggressively promoted his conception of pure mathematics, in particular against the hydrodynamics, an important part of Cambridge mathematics. From 1911 he collaborated with John Edensor Littlewood, in extensive work in mathematical analysis and analytic number theory; this led to quantitative progress on Waring's problem, as part of the Hardy–Littlewood circle method, as it became known. In prime number theory, they proved some notable conditional results; this was a major factor in the development of number theory as a system of conjectures. Hardy's collaboration with Littlewood is among the most successful and famous collaborations in mathematical history. In a 1947 lecture, the Danish mathematician Harald Bohr reported a colleague as saying, "Nowadays, there are only three great English mathematicians: Hardy and Hardy–Littlewood."Hardy is known for formulating the Hardy–Weinberg principle, a basic principle of population genetics, independently from Wilhelm Weinberg in 1908.
He played cricket with the geneticist Reginald Punnett who introduced the problem to him, Hardy thus became the somewhat unwitting founder of a branch of applied mathematics. Hardy's collected. Hardy preferred his work to be considered pure mathematics because of his detestation of war and the military uses to which mathematics had been applied, he made several statements similar to that in his Apology: I have never done anything "useful". No discovery of mine has made, or is to make, directly or indirectly, for good or ill, the least difference to the amenity of the world. However, aside from formulating the Hardy–Weinberg principle in population genetics, his famous work on integer partitions with his collaborator Ramanujan, known as the Hardy–Ramanujan asymptotic formula, has been applied in physics to find quantum partition functions of atomic nuclei and to derive thermod