The Undefeated (1969 film)
The Undefeated is a 1969 American Western and Civil War era film directed by Andrew V. McLaglen and John Wayne and starring John Wayne and Rock Hudson; the film portrays events surrounding the French Imperial intervention in Mexico during the 1860s period of the neighboring American Civil War with the Archduke Maximillian of Austria set up as Emperor in Mexico in 1863 by French Emperor Napoleon III and is loosely based on Confederate States Army General Joseph Orville Shelby's factual escape to Mexico after the War Between the States. And his attempt to join with Maximilian's Imperial Mexican forces supported by French Imperial regiments sent by Emperor Napoleon III from Europe. In the closing days of the American Civil War, Union Army Colonel John Henry Thomas and company organize one final attack on a small unit of Confederate soldiers, only to be informed after bloodily defeating them that the war had ended three days ago at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. Saddened and weary, Thomas leads his men out west towards home with the intention of rounding up and selling wild horses in the Arizona and New Mexico Territories to compensate them for their loyalty and war service.
Meanwhile, a band of Confederate States Army soldiers led by Colonel James Langdon feel the war has left them with no home, they prepare to emigrate south to Mexico and serve as reinforcements to Emperor Maximilian, leader of the French intervention invasion of Mexico against the republican government of President Benito Juarez. Langdon torches his plantation home before he departs rather than seeing it fall into the hands of Northern carpetbaggers. At the same time and the surviving members of his command meet up with Thomas' adopted Indian son, Blue Boy, other members of his tribe from Oklahoma Territories. Together they round up a herd of 3,000 horses and take them across the Rio Grande River of the North for sale to Maximilian's representatives in Durango, Mexico. Halfway there, Blue Boy discovers tracks indicating that Mexican Comanchero bandits are planning an ambush on the group of Confederate travelers. Blue Boy and Thomas go to warn the emigrating Confederates and Thomas and Langdon meet.
Despite their differences, the Americans - Northerners and Cherokee Indians - repel the group of Mexican banditos attacking the Confederate camp, with Thomas' former Union Army troopers saving the day. Col. Langdon thanks the Northerners by inviting them to celebrate at a "Fourth of July" party - "Southern style". However, the former soldiers soon relive the war, they split and go their separate ways. Meanwhile, Langdon's daughter Charlotte and Blue Boy have fallen in love; when Langdon's Southern company reach their destination in Durango, they find Emperor Maximilian's forces were chased out days earlier, replaced by ragged Mexican Republican forces of President Benito Juarez, under General Rojas, who imprison them. Viewing the new foreigners as potential enemies, the Juarezista general holds the Southerners hostage, offering to release them in exchange for Thomas' horses. After Langdon is sent to Thomas' camp with Rojas' demands, the reluctant American cowboys agree to pay the ransom to free their brethren.
On the way to Durango and his men are confronted by French cavalry. A battle erupts with the Americans coming out victorious. Thomas and his men pay the ransom for their former enemies; the company of reunited Americans rides out of Durango to return to America. Trying to decide what song to listen to as they ride, the group passes over "Dixie" and "Battle Hymn of the Republic" before settling on "Yankee Doodle". Merlin Olsen plays the blacksmith Little George. Both Gabriel and Olsen were pro-football all-stars for Los Angeles Rams. Olsen continued his acting and sports announcing after his gridiron days were over in the 1980s TV series Little House on the Prairie; the original script was by Stanley Hough and Casey Robinson, neither of whom are credited in the final film. Producer Robert Jacks bought it in December 1967, announcing James Lee Barrett would do the final script. In May 1968 Jacks announced. Andrew McLaglen signed to direct as the first of a two-picture deal with Fox. In August 1968 John Wayne agreed to star.
The following month, Rock Hudson signed to co-star. The stunt co-ordinator was Hal Needham a film director. According to Rock Hudson's partner Marc Christian, John Wayne started out picking on Hudson during filming but the two men became friends. Filming took place in Sierra de Órganos National Park in the town of Mexico; the film earned $4.5 million in rentals in North America. According to Fox records the film required $12,425,000 in rentals to break and by 11 December 1970 had made $8,775,000 so made a loss to the studio. List of American films of 1969 John Wayne filmography O'Flaherty, Daniel C. General Jo Shelby: Undefeated Rebel, University of North Carolina Press, 1954; the Undefeated on IMDb The Undefeated at the TCM Movie Database The Undefeated at AllMovie
A drill instructor is a non-commissioned officer in the armed forces or police forces with specific duties that vary by country. For example, in the United States armed forces, they are assigned the duty of training new recruits entering the military. Drill instructors within the U. S. armed forces have different titles in each branch of service. In the United States Air Force, they MTIs; the United States Navy uses Marine Corps drill instructors at their Officer Candidate School, but only Chief Petty Officers and Petty Officers called "Recruit Division Commanders", or RDCs at their recruit training. Within the United States Army, drill instructors are given the title of "Drill Sergeant"; the United States Coast Guard gives the title of "Company Commander" to their drill instructors. The United States Marine Corps is the only branch of the U. S. armed forces where drill instructors are titled as "drill instructors", although the Marines were the first to call them Drill Sergeants but in 1971 changed to instructors.
Drill instructors are referred to as "sir" or "ma'am" by recruits within the USAF, USMC, USCG. Within the USN, recruits must refer to their RDCs by their proper ranks. Recruits in the United States Army must refer to their drill sergeants as such: "drill sergeant"; the instruction and indoctrination given by the drill instructors of the various U. S. military branches includes instruction in customs and practices of military life, physical fitness, instruction in the proper execution of military drill, instilling discipline and willingness to obey all lawful orders given by superiors, oftentimes, basic armed and unarmed combat training. In the Australian Army, the staff responsible for training recruits are known as Recruit Instructors, they teach recruits discipline, marksmanship, service knowledge and drill. Each recruit platoon is commanded by Recruit Instructors consisting of a Lieutenant, a Sergeant and up to four instructors of the Corporal or Bombardier rank. A Recruit Instructor can be identified by a 1st Recruit Training Battalion colour patch on his or her slouch hat and a small Recruit Instructor badge worn on the right breast pocket, if the position has been held long enough.
Members from all Corps in the Army are eligible to become Recruit Instructors, including females. Experience as a Recruit Instructor is a prerequisite to senior non-commissioned appointments in the military. In the Royal Australian Navy, there are Instructors at HMAS Cerberus, where the Recruit School course is held, HMAS Creswell, where the NEOC is held, as well as at ADFA; each division is made up of one of the following: Divisional Officer Divisional Chief Petty Officer Divisional Petty Officer Divisional Junior Sailor Divisional Able Seaman In the Australian Federal Police, Drill Instructors are trained and accredited by the Recognition and Ceremonial team. Each accredited Drill Instructor wears an AFP pin with the wording "DI" positioned 5mm above their name plate or citations. Drill Instructors are issued with a black coloured Hellweg brand leather basket weave Sam Browne belt and strap; the AFP is the only police agency to formally train and accredit police drill instructors in Australia, with a number of New South Wales Police Force members attached to the NSW Police College holding that qualification.
The Australian Federal Police College at Barton has a non-commissioned officer of sergeant rank holding the position of College Sergeant. The College Sergeant carries a black pace stick as a badge of office at ceremonial functions and a swagger stick during normal duties; the New South Wales Police Force has a Drill Sergeant and a Drill Constable attached to the NSW Police College at Goulburn. Drill staff are responsible for training recruits in drill; these personnel wear a blue cord to signify being a protocol officer. The Senior Protocol Officer which carries the rank of Senior Sergeant is responsible for the coordination of the final week of drill, known as Attestation Week and holds the position of Parade Sergeant at all Attestation Parades; the Senior Protocol officer is responsible for dress and discipline and is the guardian of NSWPF history, customs and symbols at the NSW Police College. The Senior Protocol Officer carries a black pace stick with silver fittings and wears a black coloured Hellweg Brand Sam Browne belt with strap as a badge of office.
The Western Australian Police Force has a Drill Sergeant of the rank of sergeant who trains recruits in drill and other matters. He is the recruit training manager responsible for overseeing the recruits training, ceremonial graduations, police funerals and other events, he meets with academy executive and is responsible for removing recruits who fail parts of the course. The sergeant carries. In the British Army, the appointment of Drill Sergeant is limited to the five Foot Guards regiments, the Honourable Artillery Company, Infantry Training Centre Catterick, London District, the All-Arms Drill Wing. Drill Sergeants hold the rank of Warrant Officer Class 2. However, any senior NCO conducting drill can be colloquially referred to as a "drill sergeant". There are two Drill Sergeants per battalion and they have specific responsibilities for all duties, public or battalio
Epic films are a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, spectacle. The usage of the term has shifted over time, sometimes designating a film genre and at other times synonymous with big-budget filmmaking. Like epics in the classical literary sense it is focused on a heroic character. An epic's ambitious nature helps to set it apart from other types of film such as the period piece or adventure film. Epic historical films would take a historical or a mythical event and add an extravagant setting and lavish costumes, accompanied by an expansive musical score with an ensemble cast, which would make them among the most expensive of films to produce; the most common subjects of epic films are royalty, important figures from various periods in world history. The term "epic" came from the poetic genre exemplified by such works as the Iliad, Epic of Gilgamesh, or the Odyssey. In classical literature, epics are considered works focused on deeds or journeys of heroes upon which the fate of a large number of people depend.
Films described as "epic" take a historical character, or a mythic heroic figure. Common subjects of epics are royalty, great military leaders, or leading personalities from various periods in world history. However, there are some films described as "epic" solely on the basis of their enormous scope and the sweeping panorama of their settings such as How the West Was Won or East of Eden that do not have the typical substance of classical epics but are directed in an epic style; when described as "epic" because of content, an epic movie is set during a time of war or other societal crisis, while covering a longer span of time sometimes throughout entire generations coming and passing away, in terms of both the events depicted and the running time of the film. Such films have a historical setting, although fantasy or science fiction settings have become common in recent decades; the central conflict of the film is seen as having far-reaching effects changing the course of history. The main characters' actions are central to the resolution of the societal conflict.
In its classification of films by genre, the American Film Institute limits the genre to historical films such as Ben-Hur. However, film scholars such as Constantine Santas are willing to extend the label to science-fiction films such as 2001: A Space Odyssey and Star Wars. Lynn Ramey suggests that "Surely one of the hardest film genres to define is that of the "epic" film, encompassing such examples as Ben-Hur, Gone with the Wind....and more 300 and the Star Wars films...none of these comes from literary epics per se, there is little that links them with one another. Among those who espouse film genre studies, epic is one of the most despised and ignored genres" Finally, although the American Movie Channel formally defines epic films as historical films, they nonetheless state the epic film may be combined with the genre of science-fiction and cite Star Wars as an example. Stylistically, films classed as epic employ spectacular settings and specially designed costumes accompanied by a sweeping musical score, an ensemble cast of bankable stars.
Epics are among the most expensive of films to produce. They use on-location filming, authentic period costumes, action scenes on a massive scale. Biographical films may be less lavish versions of this genre. Many writers may refer to any film, "long" as an epic, making the definition epic a matter of dispute, raise questions as to whether it is a "genre" at all; as Roger Ebert put it, in his "Great Movies" article on Lawrence of Arabia: The word epic in recent years has become synonymous with big budget B picture. What you realize watching Lawrence of Arabia is that the word epic refers not to the cost or the elaborate production, but to the size of the ideas and vision. Werner Herzog's Aguirre: The Wrath of God didn't cost as much as the catering in Pearl Harbor, but it is an epic, Pearl Harbor is not; the comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail had the joking tagline "Makes Ben-Hur look like an epic." The epic is among the oldest of film genres, with one early notable example being Giovanni Pastrone's Cabiria, a three-hour silent film, about the Punic Wars, that laid the groundwork for the subsequent silent epics of D. W. Griffith.
The genre reached a peak of popularity in the early 1960s, when Hollywood collaborated with foreign film studios to use exotic locations in Spain and elsewhere for the production of epic films such as El Cid or Lawrence of Arabia. This boom period of international co-productions is considered to have ended with Cleopatra, The Fall of the Roman Empire, Doctor Zhivago. Films in this genre continued to appear, with one notable example including War and Peace, released in the former Soviet Union during 1967-1968 and, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk, said to be the most expensive film made. In the 1980s Reds revived the epic genre after getting 12 Academy Award nominations. Epic films continue to be produced, although since the development of CGI they use computer effects instead of an actual cast of thousands. Since the 1950s, such films have been shot with a wide aspect ratio for a more immersive and panoramic theatrical experience. Epic films were recognized in a montage at the 2006 Academy Awards.
The enduring popularity of the epic is accredited to their ability to appeal to a wide audience. Many of the highest-grossing films of all-time have been epics; the 1997 film Titanic, cited as helping to revive the genre, grossed $658 million domestic
Tony Curtis was an American film actor whose career spanned six decades but who achieved the height of his popularity in the 1950s and early 1960s. He acted in more than 100 films in roles covering a wide range of genres, from light comedy to serious drama. In his years, Curtis made numerous television appearances. Although his early film roles took advantage of his good looks, by the latter half of the 1950s he had demonstrated range and depth in numerous dramatic and comedy roles. In his earliest parts he acted in a string of mediocre films, including swashbucklers, light comedies, sports films and a musical. However, by the time he starred in Houdini with his wife Janet Leigh, "his first clear success," notes critic David Thomson, his acting had progressed immensely, he achieved his first serious recognition as a dramatic actor in Sweet Smell of Success with co-star Burt Lancaster. The following year he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor in The Defiant Ones alongside Sidney Poitier.
Curtis gave what could arguably be called his best performance: three interrelated roles in the comedy Some Like It Hot. Thomson called it an "outrageous film," and an American Film Institute survey voted it the funniest American film made; the film co-starred Jack Lemmon and Marilyn Monroe, was directed by Billy Wilder. That was followed by Blake Edwards’s Operation Petticoat with Cary Grant, they were both frantic comedies, displayed his impeccable comic timing. He collaborated with Edwards on films. In 1960, Curtis played a supporting role in Spartacus, his stardom and film career declined after 1960. His most significant dramatic part came in 1968 when he starred in the true-life drama The Boston Strangler, which some consider his last major film role; the part reinforced his reputation as a serious actor with his chilling portrayal of serial killer Albert DeSalvo. He starred alongside Roger Moore in the ITC TV series The Persuaders!, with Curtis playing American millionaire Danny Wilde. The series ran twenty-four episodes.
Curtis is the father of actresses Jamie Lee Curtis and Kelly Curtis by his first wife, actress Janet Leigh. Tony Curtis was born Bernard Schwartz on June 3, 1925, at the Flower-Fifth Avenue Hospital on 105th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to Helen and Emanuel Schwartz. Biographies have propagated a misconception that he was born in the Bronx due to the family's moves when he was young, but Tony pointedly corrected this in a TV interview, his parents were Jewish emigrants from Czechoslovakia and Hungary: his father was born in Ópályi, near Mátészalka, his mother was a native of Nagymihály. S. from Válykó. He did not learn English until he was six, delaying his schooling, his father was a tailor and the family lived in the back of the shop—his parents in one corner and Curtis and his brothers Julius and Robert in another. His mother once made an appearance as a participant on the television show You Bet Your Life, hosted by Groucho Marx. Curtis said, "When I was a child, Mom beat me up and was aggressive and antagonistic."
His mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia. His brother Robert was institutionalized with the same mental illness; when Curtis was eight, he and his brother Julius were placed in an orphanage for a month because their parents could not afford to feed them. Four years Julius was struck and killed by a truck. Curtis joined a neighborhood gang whose main crimes were playing hooky from school and minor pilfering at the local dime store; when Curtis was 11, a friendly neighbor saved him from what he felt would have led to a life of delinquency by sending him to a Boy Scout camp, where he was able to work off his energy and settle down. He attended Seward Park High School. At 16, he had his first small acting part in a school stage play. Curtis enlisted in the United States Navy after the attack on war was declared. Inspired by Cary Grant's role in Destination Tokyo and Tyrone Power's in Crash Dive, he joined the Pacific submarine force. Curtis served aboard the USS Proteus, until the end of the Second World War.
On September 2, 1945, Curtis witnessed the Japanese surrender in Tokyo Bay from his ship's signal bridge about a mile away. Following his discharge from the Navy, Curtis attended City College of New York on the G. I. Bill, he studied acting at The New School in Greenwich Village under the influential German stage director Erwin Piscator. His contemporaries included Elaine Stritch, Harry Belafonte, Walter Matthau, Beatrice Arthur, Rod Steiger. While still at college, Curtis was discovered by Joyce Selznick, the notable talent agent, casting director, niece of film producer David O. Selznick. In 1948, Curtis arrived in Hollywood at age 23. In his autobiography, Curtis described how by chance he met Jack Warner on the plane to California, how he dated Marilyn Monroe before either was famous. Under contract at Universal Pictures, he changed his name from Bernard Schwartz to Tony Curtis and met unknown actors Rock Hudson, James Best, Julie Adams and Piper Laurie; the first name was from the novel Anthony Adverse and "Curtis" was from Kurtz, a surname in his mother's family.
Although Universal Pictures taught him fencing and riding, in keeping with the cinematic themes of the era, Curtis admitted he was at first interested only in girls and money. Neither was he hopeful of his chances of becoming a major star. Curtis's biggest fear was having to return home to the Bronx as a failure: I wa
James Maitland Stewart was an American actor and military officer, among the most honored and popular stars in film history. With a career spanning 62 years, Stewart was a major Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer contract player, known for his distinctive drawl and down-to-earth persona, which helped him portray American middle-class men struggling in crisis. Many of the films in which he starred have become enduring classics. Stewart was nominated for five Academy Awards, winning one for The Philadelphia Story, received an Academy Lifetime Achievement award in 1985. In 1999, Stewart was named the third-greatest male screen legend of the Golden Age of Hollywood by the American Film Institute, behind Humphrey Bogart and Cary Grant; the American Film Institute has named five of Stewart's films to its list of the 100 best American films made. He had a noted military career and was a World War II and Vietnam War veteran and pilot, who rose to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force Reserve, becoming the highest-ranking actor in military history.
In 1985, Stewart was promoted to Major General, reserve list by President Ronald Reagan, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. James Maitland Stewart was born on May 20, 1908, in Indiana, the son of Elizabeth Ruth and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. Stewart was raised as a Presbyterian, he was descended from veterans of the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the American Civil War. The eldest of three children, young Jimmy was expected to one day inherit his father's store and continue a business, in the family for three generations, his mother was an excellent pianist. When his father once accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, Stewart learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture offstage during his acting career; as the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life. Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928, he was active in a variety of activities. He played on the football and track teams, was art editor of the KARUX yearbook, a member of the choir club, glee club, John Marshall Literary Society.
During his first summer break, Stewart returned to his hometown to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following two summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician, he made his first appearance as Buquet in the play The Wolves. A shy child, Stewart spent much of his after-school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing, chemistry—all with a dream of going into aviation, it was a dream enhanced by the legendary 1927 flight of Charles Lindbergh, whose progress 19-year-old Stewart stricken with scarlet fever, was avidly following from home, foreshadowing his starring movie role as Lindbergh 30 years later. However, he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the United States Naval Academy he attend Princeton University. Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the class of 1932, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he became attracted to the school's drama and music clubs, including the Princeton Triangle Club.
His acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod. The company had been organized in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust and Charles Leatherbee as directors. Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players' productions in Cape Cod during the summer of 1932, after he graduated; the troupe had included Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan. Stewart and Fonda became close friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick; when Stewart came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway tryout of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Fonda, who had by finalized his divorce from Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, Stewart debuted on Broadway in the brief run of Carry Nation and a few weeks – again with McCormick and Dalrymple – as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had two lines.
The New Yorker commented, "Mr. James Stewart's chauffeur... comes on for three minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause." The play was a moderate success. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. "From 1932 through 1934", Stewart recalled, "I'd only worked three months. Every play I got into folded." By 1934, he was given more substantial stage roles, including the modest hit Page Miss Glory and his first dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard's Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However and Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling. In the fall of 1934, Fonda's success in The Farmer Takes. Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw Stewart on the opening night of Divided by Three, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance, including Irving
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
In the Heat of the Night (film)
In the Heat of the Night is a 1967 American mystery drama film directed by Norman Jewison. It is based on John Ball's 1965 novel of the same name and tells the story of Virgil Tibbs, a black police detective from Philadelphia, who becomes involved in a murder investigation in a small town in Mississippi, it stars Sidney Poitier and Rod Steiger, was produced by Walter Mirisch. The screenplay was by Stirling Silliphant; the film won five Academy Awards, including the 1967 awards for Best Picture and Rod Steiger for Best Actor. The film was followed by two sequels, They Call Me Mister Tibbs! in 1970, The Organization in 1971. In 1988, it became the basis of a television series adaptation of the same name. Although the film was set in the fictional Mississippi town of Sparta, most of the movie was filmed in Sparta, where many of the film's landmarks can still be seen; the quote "They call me Mister Tibbs!" was listed as number 16 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes, a list of top film quotes.
In 2002, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant". In 1966, a wealthy industrialist named Phillip Colbert has moved from Chicago to Sparta, Mississippi to build a factory. One night, police officer Sam Wood discovers. Chief Gillespie leads the investigation. A doctor estimates. Wood finds arrests him. Gillespie accuses Tibbs of the murder but is embarrassed to learn he is a top homicide detective from Philadelphia. Gillespie phones Tibbs' chief, who confirms this and recommends that Tibbs should assist the investigation; this idea appeals to neither Gillespie or Tibbs. Gillespie arrests another suspect; the victim's widow is impressed by Tibbs. She threatens to halt construction of the factory; the two policemen begin to respect each other. Tibbs suspects plantation owner Endicott, a racist who publicly opposes the new factory; when Tibbs attempts to interrogate Endicott, Endicott slaps him in the face and Tibbs slaps him back.
Endicott sends a gang of hooligans after Tibbs. Gillespie rescues him from the fight and tells him to leave town for his safety, but Tibbs is convinced he can solve the case, he examines Colbert's body and suggests the murder happened earlier than thought. He examines Colbert's car and deduces that Colbert was murdered elsewhere and the culprit moved the body. Tibbs asks Wood to retrace his car patrol route on the night of the murder, Gillespie joins them; when Tibbs notices that Wood has changed his route, Gillespie starts suspecting Wood, though Tibbs hints there is another reason. Gillespie discovers that Wood made a sizable deposit into his bank account the day after the murder while Purdy, a local, files charges against Wood for getting his 16-year-old sister Delores pregnant. Gillespie arrests Wood, despite Tibbs' protests, Delores is interrogated. Purdy is offended that a black man was present at the interrogation, he gathers a mob to get revenge. Tibbs clears Wood, he admits that he knew why Wood had changed his route: Delores is an exhibitionist and Wood has been spying on her.
Tibbs visits a backstreet abortionist, who reveals that someone paid for Delores to have an abortion. When Delores arrives, Tibbs is confronted by the murderer, Ralph. Purdy's mob holds him at gunpoint. Ralph shoots Purdy dead. Ralph is arrested and confesses to Colbert's murder: he robbed Colbert to fund Delores's abortion but accidentally killed him; the final scene shows Tibbs boarding a train bound for Philadelphia, as Gillespie respectfully bids him farewell. "In the Heat of the Night" sung by Ray Charles Song lyrics by Alan & Marilyn Bergman Jewison and Steiger worked together and got along well during the filming, but Jewison had problems with the Southern authorities, Poitier had reservations about coming south of the Mason–Dixon Line for filming. However, despite their reservations, Jewison decided to film part of the film in Dyersburg and Union City, anyway while the rest was filmed in Sparta and Freeburg, Illinois; the famous scene of Tibbs slapping Endicott is not present in the novel.
According to Poitier, the scene was not in the movie. In the textbook Civil Rights and Race Relations in the USA 1850-2009, Poitier states: "I said,'I'll tell you what, I'll make this movie for you if you give me your absolute guarantee when he slaps me I slap him right back and you guarantee that it will play in every version of this movie.' I try not to do things that are against nature." However, Poitier's version of the story is contradicted by Mark Harris in his book, Pictures at a Revolution. Harris states that copies of the original draft of the screenplay that he obtained contain the scene as filmed, backed up by Jewison and Silliphant; the film is important for being the first major Hollywood film in color, lit with proper consideration for a black person. Haskell Wexler recognized that standard strong lighting used in filming tended to produce too much glare on dark complexions and rendered the features indistinct. Accordingly, Wexler toned it down to feature Poitier with better photogra