Slash's Snakepit was an American rock supergroup from Los Angeles, formed by Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash in 1993. Though described as a solo or side project, Slash stated that Snakepit was a band with equal contributions by all members; the first lineup of the band consisted of Slash, two of his Guns N' Roses bandmates— drummer Matt Sorum and guitarist Gilby Clarke— as well as Alice in Chains bassist Mike Inez and former Jellyfish live guitarist Eric Dover on lead vocals. Their debut album, It's Five O'Clock Somewhere, was released in 1995. For the supporting tour, Slash enlisted James LoMenzo and Brian Tichy, of Pride and Glory, in place of Inez and Sorum who had other commitments, they played shows in the US, Europe and Australia before Geffen Records pulled their financial support for the tour, with Slash returning to Guns N' Roses and Slash's Snakepit disbanding. Following his departure from Guns N' Roses in 1996, Slash formed the cover band Slash's Blues Ball. After a tour in 1997, Slash approached Blues Ball bassist Johnny Griparic about forming a new lineup of Slash's Snakepit.
The new lineup consisted of Slash, singer Rod Jackson, guitarist Ryan Roxie and drummer Matt Laug. They recorded and released their second album entitled Ain't Life Grand in 2000, preceded by a tour supporting AC/DC and followed by their own headlining tour. For the tour, Keri Kelli joined the group in place of Ryan Roxie, who departed following the completion of the album. However, after the final show, Slash disbanded Slash's Snakepit due to a lack of commitment from his band members. Following the two and a half year world tour in support of the albums Use Your Illusion I and Use Your Illusion II, Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash returned to Los Angeles, he soon sold his home, the Walnut House, moved to Mulholland Drive. He built a small home studio, nicknamed The Snakepit, over his garage and began working on demos for songs he had written during the tour. Slash worked on the demos with drummer Matt Sorum, they were joined by guitarist Gilby Clarke and Alice in Chains bassist Mike Inez and recording most nights.
Slash played the demos for Guns N' Roses singer Axl Rose who rejected the material, though he would want to use them for the next Guns N' Roses album. They had recorded twelve songs by the same year that Guns N' Roses went on hiatus. Slash decided to record the Snakepit demos with Sorum and Inez adding former Jellyfish live guitarist Eric Dover as lead vocalist; the decision to record with Dover led to a disagreement between Slash and Sorum, due to Slash not seeking Sorum's approval before hiring Dover. Slash and Dover wrote the lyrics to all twelve songs with Slash using the songwriting to vent his frustrations at Guns N' Roses singer Rose. Clarke contributed the song "Monkey Chow" to the album while "Jizz da Pit" is an instrumental by Slash and Inez, they recorded the album at Conway Recording Studios and The Record Plant with Mike Clink and Slash co-producing and Steven Thompson and Michael Barbiero mixing, all of whom had worked with Guns N' Roses on their debut album Appetite for Destruction.
The album featured contributions by Duff McKagan, Dizzy Reed on keyboards, Teddy Andreadis on harmonica, Paulinho da Costa on percussion. Slash's brother, Ash Hudson, designed the album's cover; the resulting album, titled It's Five O'Clock Somewhere, was released in February 1995 through Geffen Records. The album's title was taken from a phrase Slash overheard at an airport. At the insistence of the record label, the album was released under the name Slash's Snakepit, instead of The Snakepit, despite Slash not wanting his name used. Upon release, the album charted at number 70 on the Billboard 200 and number 15 on the UK Albums Chart. It's Five O'Clock Somewhere went on to sell over a million copies and was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America. "Beggars & Hangers-On" was released as the first, only, single from the album. Critically, the album received positive reviews. Metal Hammer stated that "the sleazy, downtrodden blues hard rock breaks new ground." AllMusic reviewer Stephen Thomas Erlewine called Slash's contributions "quite amazing", though criticised the song-writing, stating "it's too bad that nobody in the band bothered to write any songs."
Devon Jackson of Entertainment Weekly described the album as "relaxed headbanging and Southern-tinged blues-rock" while Classic Rock reviewer Malcolm Dome stated "musically, it's a loose-limbed record that has a lot of heavy guitar-led punk-style pop-rock." Slash's Snakepit toured in support of the album, with bassist James LoMenzo and drummer Brian Tichy, of Pride and Glory, replacing Inez and Sorum, who had opted out of touring, with Sorum returning to Guns N' Roses. They toured the US, Europe and Australia with Slash stating that "for the first time in years, touring was easy, band mates were loads of fun and low on drama, every gig was about playing rock and roll." While booking another leg of the tour, Slash was informed by Geffen that Rose was ready to begin work on the new Guns N' Roses album and that he was to return to Los Angeles. Geffen pulled financial support for the band's tour with Slash's Snakepit disbanding soon after. Slash departed Guns N' Roses in 1996, due to musical differences between himself and singer Axl Rose.
Following his departure, Slash toured Japan for two weeks with Chic, worked on the soundtrack to the film Curdled. He began touring in a cover band that became Slash's Blues Ball. Aside from Slash, the band consisted of Teddy And
John "JD" DeServio, is the current bass guitarist in Black Label Society, joining after the departure of James Lomenzo in 2005. DeServio was a member of Pride & Glory, Wylde's southern rock trio for a short time in December 1994, was Black Label Society's original bass guitarist, playing on the tour supporting their debut album, Sonic Brew, he performed on Michael Romeo's solo album War of the Worlds, Pt. 1 in 2018. He endorses Schecter bass guitars and GHS strings. DeServio has his own band called Cycle of Pain whose debut album was released in April 2009 on Reform Records. DeServio has been a resident of New Jersey. Official website Interview with JD DeServio... 6/01/2009
Blues rock is a fusion genre combining elements of blues and rock. It is an electric ensemble-style music with instrumentation similar to electric blues and rock: electric guitar, electric bass, drums with Hammond organ. From its beginnings in the early- to mid-1960s, blues rock has gone through several stylistic shifts and along the way it inspired and influenced hard rock, Southern rock, early heavy metal. Blues rock continues to be an influence in the 2010s, with performances and recordings by popular artists. Blues rock started with rock musicians in the United Kingdom and the United States performing American blues songs, they recreated electric Chicago-style blues songs, such as those by Muddy Waters, Jimmy Reed, Howlin' Wolf, Albert King, at faster tempos and with a more aggressive sound common to rock. In the UK, the style was popularized by groups such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, the Animals, who managed to place blues songs into the pop charts. In the US, Lonnie Mack, the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, Canned Heat were among the earliest exponents and "attempted to play long, involved improvisations which were commonplace on jazz records".
John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers and Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac developed this more instrumental, but traditional-based style in the UK, while late 1960s and early 1970s groups, including Ten Years After, Savoy Brown, the Climax Blues Band and Foghat became more hard rock oriented. In the US, Johnny Winter, the Allman Brothers Band, ZZ Top represented a hard rock trend. Although around this time, the differences between blues rock and hard rock lessened, there was a return to more blues-influenced styles. In the 1980s, the Fabulous Thunderbirds and Stevie Ray Vaughan, recorded their best-known works and the 1990s saw guitarists Gary Moore, Jeff Healey, Kenny Wayne Shepherd become popular concert attractions. Groups such as the Jon Spencer Blues Explosion and the White Stripes, brought an edgier, more diverse style into the 2000s, as do contemporary artists such as the Black Keys. Blues rock can be characterized by bluesy improvisation, the twelve-bar blues, extended boogie jams focused on the electric guitar player, a heavier, riff-oriented sound and feel to the songs than might be found in traditional Chicago-style blues.
Blues rock bands "borrow the idea of an instrumental combo and loud amplification from rock & roll". It is often played at a fast tempo, again distinguishing it from the blues; the core blues rock sound is created by bass guitar and drum kit. Bands included a harmonica called "a harp." The electric guitar is amplified through a tube guitar amplifier or using an overdrive effect. Two guitars are commonplace in blues rock bands: one guitarist focused on rhythm guitar, playing riffs and chords as accompaniment. While 1950s-era blues bands would sometimes still use the upright bass, the blues rock bands of the 1960s used the electric bass, easier to amplify to loud volumes. Keyboard instruments, such as the piano and Hammond organ, are occasionally used; as with the electric guitar, the sound of the Hammond organ is amplified with a tube amplifier, which gives a growling, "overdriven" sound quality to the instrument. Vocals typically play a key role, although the vocals may be equal in importance or subordinate to the lead guitar playing.
As well, a number of blues rock pieces are instrumental-only. Blues rock pieces follow typical blues structures, such as twelve-bar blues, sixteen-bar blues, etc, they use the I-IV-V progression, though there are exceptions, some pieces having a "B" section, while others remain on the I. The Allman Brothers Band's version of "Stormy Monday", which uses chord substitutions based on Bobby "Blue" Bland's 1961 rendition, adds a solo section where "the rhythm shifts effortlessly into an uptempo 6/8-time jazz feel"; the key is major, but can be minor, such as in "Black Magic Woman". One notable difference is the frequent use of a straight eighth-note or rock rhythm instead of triplets found in blues. An example is Cream's "Crossroads". Although it was adapted from Robert Johnson's "Cross Road Blues", the bass "combines with drums to create and continually emphasize continuity in the regular metric drive". Cream uses some of the lyrics from "Traveling Riverside Blues" to create their own interpretation of the song.
Rock and blues have always been linked, with driving rhythms and electric guitar techniques such as distortion and power chords used by 1950s blues guitarists Memphis bluesmen such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson and Pat Hare. Characteristics that blues rock adopted from electric blues include its dense texture, basic blues band instrumentation, rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances. Precursors to blues rock included the Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Albert King, Freddie King, who began incorporating rock and roll elements into their blues music during the late 1950s to early 1960s. In 1963, American rockabilly soloist Lonnie Mack had an idiosyncratic, fast-paced electric blues guitar style that came to be identified with blues rock, his instrumentals from that period were recognizable as blues or R&B tunes, but he relied upon fast-picking techniques derived from traditional American country and bluegrass genres.
The best-known of these are the 1963 hit singles "Memphis" and "Wham!". However, blues rock was not named as such, or recognized as a distinct movement w
Clockwork refers to the inner workings of either mechanical machines called clocks or other mechanisms that work using a complex series of gears. A clockwork mechanism is powered by a clockwork motor consisting of a mainspring, a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon. Energy is stored in the mainspring manually by winding it up, turning a key attached to a ratchet which twists the mainspring tighter; the force of the mainspring turns the clockwork gears, until the stored energy is used up. The adjectives wind-up and spring-powered refer to mainspring-powered clockwork devices, which include clocks and watches, kitchen timers, music boxes, wind-up toys; the earliest known example of a clockwork mechanism is the Antikythera mechanism, a first-century BC geared analogue computer, somewhat astrolabe-like, for calculating astronomical positions and eclipses, recovered from a Greek shipwreck. There are many other accounts of clockwork devices in ancient Greece in its mythology, the mechanism itself is sophisticated enough to indicate a significant history of lesser devices leading up to its creation.
At some point, this level of sophistication in clockwork technology was lost or forgotten in Europe, only returned when brought from the Islamic world after the Crusades, along with other knowledge leading to the Renaissance. Clockwork recovered the equivalent of pre-Roman technological levels in the 14th century; as in Greek mythology, there are ambitious automation claims in the legends of other cultures. For example, in Jewish legend, Solomon used his wisdom to design a throne with mechanical animals which hailed him as king when he ascended it. It's said that when King Solomon stepped upon the throne, a mechanism was set in motion; as soon as he stepped upon the first step, a golden ox and a golden lion each stretched out one foot to support him and help him rise to the next step. On each side, the animals helped the King up. In ancient China, a curious account of automation is found in the Lie Zi text, written in the 3rd century BC. Within it there is a description of a much earlier encounter between King Mu of Zhou and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an'artificer'.
The latter proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical handiwork: The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked with rapid strides, moving its head up and down, so that anyone would have taken it for a live human being; the artificer touched its chin, it began singing in tune. He touched its hand, it began posturing, keeping perfect time... As the performance was drawing to an end, the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies in attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and would have had Yen Shih executed on the spot had not the latter, in mortal fear taken the robot to pieces to let him see what it was. And, indeed, it turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood and lacquer, variously coloured white, black and blue. Examining it the king found all the internal organs complete—liver, heart, spleen, kidneys and intestines; the king tried the effect of taking away the heart, found that the mouth could no longer speak.
The king was delighted. Other notable examples include Archytas's dove, mentioned by Aulus Gellius. Similar Chinese accounts of flying automata are written of the 5th century BC Mohist philosopher Mozi and his contemporary Lu Ban, who made artificial wooden birds that could fly, according to the Han Fei Zi and other texts. By the 11th century, clockwork was used for both timepieces and to track astronomical events, in Europe; the clocks did not keep time accurately by modern standards, but the astronomical devices were used to predict the positions of planets and other movement. The same timeline seems to apply in Europe, where mechanical escapements were used in clocks by that time. Up to the 15th century, clockwork was driven by water, weights, or other roundabout primitive means, but in 1430 a clock was presented to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, driven by a spring; this became a standard technology along with weight-driven movements. In the mid-16th century, Christiaan Huygens took an idea from Galileo Galilei and developed it into the first modern pendulum mechanism.
However, whereas the spring or the weight provided the motive power, the pendulum controlled the rate of release of that power via some escape mechanism at a regulated rate. The Smithsonian Institution has in its collection a clockwork monk, about 15 in high dating as early as 1560; the monk is driven by a key-wound spring and walks the path of a square, striking his chest with his right arm, while raising and lowering a small wooden cross and rosary in his left hand and nodding his head, rolling his eyes, mouthing silent obsequies. From time to time, he brings the cross to his kisses it, it is believed that the monk was manufactured by Juanelo Turriano, mechanician to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Power for the device is stored within it, via a winding device that applies mechanical stress to an energy-storage mechanism such as a mainspring, thus involving some form of escapement; the use
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro
Gilbert "Gilby" J. Clarke is an American musician, singer and record producer best known for a 3-year tenure as the rhythm guitarist of Guns N' Roses, replacing Izzy Stradlin in 1991 during the Use Your Illusion Tour. Following his departure from the group, Clarke went on to forge a solo career as well playing guitar with Slash's Snakepit, Kat Men, Nancy Sinatra, Kathy Valentine, MC5 and forming his own group Rock Star Supernova with members of Metallica and Mötley Crüe. Clarke's production work includes albums by L. A. Guns and Octane, The Bronx and Vains of Jenna. Gilby Clarke started his musical career during the first half of the Eighties, replacing Candy's original guitarist, Geoff Siegel, who played with the Nymphs. Gilby replaced the band's lead vocalist and penned several unreleased fan favorites including, "Dance America", he left them to form Kill for Thrills, a metal band which released the EP Commercial Suicide and the LP Dynamite from Nightmareland and before disbanding. Kill for Thrills was a supergroup of sorts with Jason Nesmith on Guitar, Todd Muscat of seminal L.
A. Punk band Decry, on Bass and later with Junkyard after Kill for Thrills. Muscat is the brother of Brent Muscat. All members have deep roots in the Los Angeles rock scene. Following rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin's decision to abruptly quit the band, during Use Your Illusion Tour in 1991, citing a combination of Axl Rose's personal behavior and his mismanagement of the band and difficulties being around Slash, McKagan due to his new-found sobriety and their continuing alcohol and substance addictions, Clarke was chosen as his replacement, playing out the rest of gigs of the tour which lasted until 1993, his first show with the band was December 5, 1991 in Worcester, MA, USA. During many shows throughout the tour, Rose introduced Clarke and had him play "Wild Horses", a Rolling Stones cover with Slash. On November 23, 1993, Guns N' Roses released a collection of punk and glam rock covers entitled "The Spaghetti Incident?" where many of the tracks were recorded with original Guns N' Roses guitarist Izzy Stradlin during the Use Your Illusion I and II sessions and were re-recorded by Clarke.
Gilby Clarke's contract was not renewed and he was gone from the band by 1995. Slash stated in his book that Rose fired Clarke without consulting anyone, claiming he was only a "hired hand". Clarke was not involved in the recording of'Sympathy for the Devil', stating "I knew that, the ending because nobody told me about it. I was in the band at that time, they did that song without me". Clarke mentioned that before the final show of the Use Your Illusion Tour, Rose came up to him and told him "Hey, enjoy your last show". Clarke sued the band over the use of his likeness in Guns N' Roses Pinball. Clarke's only other appearances on a Guns N' Roses release would be on the live and compilation albums Live Era'87–'93 and Greatest Hits. Clarke is featured on Guns N' Roses video releases Use Your Illusion I, Use Your Illusion II and Welcome to the Videos. Following the end of the Use Your Illusion Tour in 1993, Guns N' Roses guitarist Slash began recording demos of material that he had written during the tour, at his home studio with bandmate Matt Sorum.
Clarke and Alice in Chains bassist Mike Inez soon started to come around to jam with them. They recorded twelve demo songs. Eric Dover, live guitarist for Jellyfish auditioned to become the group's singer. Slash and Dover wrote the lyrics for all the tracks, except "Monkey Chow", contributed by Clarke and "Jizz da Pit", an instrumental written by both Slash and Inez; the album was released by Geffen Records in February 1995 charting at No. 70 on the Billboard 200. For the tour in support of the album, James LoMenzo and Brian Tichy, both members of Zakk Wylde's solo band, joined the band to replace Inez and Sorum who could not tour with the group due to other commitments. With Guns N' Roses regrouping to record a new album, Snakepit disbanded with Clarke resuming his solo career, releasing his second album The Hangover in 1997. In 1994, he released his debut solo album Pawnshop Guitars on Virgin Records which featured contributions from several of his close friends. Ryan Roxie on guitar, Will Effertz on Bass and Marc Danzeisen Drums and backing vocals including all the members of Guns N' Roses.
It went gold in Argentina. Since he has released another three solo albums, The Hangover, Rubber and 2002's Swag as well as the live album 99 Live, he formed the band Col. Parker with ex-Stray Cat Slim Jim Phantom and former touring additional GN'R keyboardist Teddy "Zig Zag" Andreadis, releasing the album Rock N Roll Music in 2001. In addition, he made a guest appearance on the L. A. Guns album Shrinking Violet, which he produced. Clarke produced The Bronx's self-titled album released in 2003 and Girlsplayboys debut album From Ritual to Romance in 2006, L. A. Guns' 2001 album Man in the Moon. In 2002 Clarke worked with Nancy Sinatra on her album California Girl and a year joined Heart on their national tour. In 2006, Mötley Crüe drummer, Tommy Lee, formed Supernova with Clarke on guitars and former Metallica bassist Jason Newsted; the band used. Lukas Rossi was chosen as their lead singer. Clarke embarked on a solo tour across Europe; the name Supernova however was taken.
Glam metal is a subgenre of heavy metal, which features pop-influenced hooks and guitar riffs, borrows from the fashion of 1970s glam rock. Glam metal is performed by music acts like Alice Cooper, Cheap Trick, Kiss, Mötley Crüe, Van Halen, it arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene, pioneered by bands such as Mötley Crüe, Quiet Riot, Twisted Sister, Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, Dokken. It is popularity has risen since the early 2010s with bands like Steel Panther and was popular throughout the mid-late 1980s, early 1990s bringing to prominence bands including Poison, Skid Row and Warrant. Glam metal is associated with flashy clothing and notable for an overall androgynous aesthetic. Poison, for example, have long shaggy or backcombed hair, metal studs and make-up during their live performances. Glam metal lost mainstream interest in the early 1990s as the perceived excesses of glam metal created a backlash against the genre. A factor in the decline of glam metal was the rise of grunge in the early 1990s, which had a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style.
Glam metal has returned since the late 1990s and mid 2000s with reunions of many popular acts from the genre, as well newer bands from the 2000s/2010s including the Darkness, Santa Cruz, Reckless Love and Steel Panther. Musically, glam metal combines a traditional heavy metal sound with elements of hard rock and punk rock, adding pop-influenced catchy hooks and guitar riffs. Like other heavy metal songs of the 1980s, they feature shred guitar solos, they include extensive use of harmonies in the characteristic power ballads – slow, emotional songs that build to a strong finale. These were among the most commercially successful singles in the genre and opened it up to a wider audience that would not have been attracted to traditional heavy metal. Lyrical themes deal with love and lust, with songs directed at a particular woman. Aesthetically glam metal draws on the glam rock or glitter rock of the 1970s with long backcombed hair, use of hair spray, use of make-up, gaudy clothing and accessories.
The visual aspects of glam metal appealed to music television producers MTV, whose establishment coincided with the rise of the genre. Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of drugs and late-night parties, which were covered in the tabloid press. Sociologist Deena Weinstein points to the large number of terms used to describe more commercial forms of heavy metal, which she groups together as lite metal; these include, beside glam metal: melodic metal, false metal, poodle bands, nerf metal, pop metal or metal pop, the last of, coined by critic Philip Bashe in 1983 to describe bands such as Van Halen and Def Leppard. AllMusic distinguishes pop metal, which refers to the whole pop-tinted hard rock and heavy metal scene of the 1980s, from hair metal, the characteristics of which are flashy clothing and heavy makeup. Use of the derogatory term hair metal started in the early 1990s, as grunge gained popularity at the expense of 1980s metal. In the "definitive metal family tree" of his documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey, anthropologist Sam Dunn differentiates pop metal, which includes bands like Def Leppard and Whitesnake, from glam metal bands that include Mötley Crüe and Poison.
Music journalist Stephen Davis claims the influences of the style can be traced back to acts like Kiss, Cheap Trick, the New York Dolls. Kiss and to a lesser extent Alice Cooper, were major influences on the genre. Finnish band Hanoi Rocks influenced themselves by the New York Dolls, have been credited with setting a blueprint for the look of hair metal. Van Halen has been seen as influential on the movement, emerging in 1978 from the Los Angeles music scene on Sunset Strip, with a sound based around the lead guitar skills of Eddie Van Halen, he popularized a playing technique of two‐handed hammer‐ons and pull‐offs called tapping, showcased on the song "Eruption" from the album Van Halen. This sound, lead singer David Lee Roth's stage antics, would be influential on glam metal, although Van Halen would never adopt a glam aesthetic. Def Leppard categorized with the New Wave of British heavy metal, released their second album High'n' Dry in 1981, mixing glam rock with heavy metal, helping to define the sound of hard rock for the decade.
In the early 1980s, bands from across the United States began to move towards what would become the glam metal sound. In 1981, Mötley Crüe released their first album Too Fast for Love, Dokken released their first album, Breaking the Chains, Kix released their first album, Kix. In 1982, Night Ranger released their initial album Dawn Patrol which reached the top 40 in the United States.1983 was the breakout year for glam metal: Quiet Riot's Metal Health was the first glam metal album, arguably the first heavy metal album, to reach number one in the Billboard charts. It helped open the doors for mainstream success by subsequent metal bands. Additionally, Night Ranger's second album in 1983 Midnight Madness was a breakthrough that included the top five single "Sister Christian". In 1983, a larger wave of glam metal albums began appearing.