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James Madison

James Madison Jr. was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. He is hailed as the "Father of the Constitution" for his pivotal role in drafting and promoting the Constitution of the United States and the United States Bill of Rights, he co-wrote The Federalist Papers, co-founded the Democratic-Republican Party, served as the fifth United States secretary of State from 1801 to 1809. Born into a prominent Virginia planter family, Madison served as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and the Continental Congress during and after the American Revolutionary War, he became dissatisfied with the weak national government established by the Articles of Confederation and helped organize the Constitutional Convention, which produced a new constitution to supplant the Articles of Confederation. Madison's Virginia Plan served as the basis for the Constitutional Convention's deliberations, he was one of the most influential individuals at the convention.

Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify the Constitution, he joined with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in writing The Federalist Papers, a series of pro-ratification essays, one of the most influential works of political science in American history. After the ratification of the Constitution, Madison emerged as an important leader in the United States House of Representatives and served as a close adviser to President George Washington, he was the main force behind the ratification of the United States Bill of Rights, which enshrines guarantees of personal freedoms and rights within the Constitution. During the early 1790s, Madison came to oppose the economic program and accompanying centralization of power favored by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party, which was, alongside Hamilton's Federalist Party, one of the nation's first major political parties. After Jefferson won the 1800 presidential election, Madison served as secretary of State from 1801 to 1809.

In that position, he supervised the Louisiana Purchase. Madison succeeded Jefferson with a victory in the 1808 presidential election. After diplomatic protests and a trade embargo failed to end British attacks against American shipping, he led the United States into the War of 1812; the war was an administrative morass and ended inconclusively, but many Americans saw it as a successful "second war of independence" against Britain. The war convinced Madison of the necessity of a stronger federal government, he presided over the creation of the Second Bank of the United States and the enactment of the protective Tariff of 1816, he retired from public office in 1817 and died in 1836. Madison is considered to be one of the most important Founding Fathers of the United States, historians have ranked him as an above-average president. James Madison Jr. was born on March 16, 1751, at Belle Grove Plantation near Port Conway, Virginia, to James Madison Sr. and Nelly Conway Madison. He grew up as the oldest of twelve children, with seven brothers and four sisters, though only six of his siblings would live to adulthood.

His father was a tobacco planter who grew up on a plantation called Mount Pleasant, which he had inherited upon reaching adulthood. With numerous slaves and a 5,000 acres plantation, Madison's father was the largest landowner and a leading citizen in the Piedmont. Madison's maternal grandfather was a prominent tobacco merchant. In the early 1760s, the Madison family moved into a newly built house. From age 11 to 16, Madison was sent to study under Donald Robertson, a Scottish instructor who served as a tutor for a number of prominent planter families in the South. Madison learned mathematics and modern and classical languages—he became proficient in Latin. At age 16, Madison returned to Montpelier, where he began a two-year course of study under the Reverend Thomas Martin in preparation for college. Unlike most college-bound Virginians of his day, Madison did not attend the College of William and Mary, where the lowland Williamsburg climate - thought to be more to harbor infectious disease - might have strained his delicate health.

Instead, in 1769, he enrolled at the College of New Jersey. His studies at Princeton included Latin, Greek and the works of the Enlightenment. Great emphasis was placed on both debate. During his time at Princeton, his closest friend was future Attorney General William Bradford. Along with another classmate, Madison undertook an intense program of study and completed Princeton's three-year bachelor of arts degree in just two years, graduating in 1771, he remained at Princeton to study Hebrew and political philosophy under President John Witherspoon before returning home to Montpelier in early 1772. His ideas on philosophy and morality were shaped by Witherspoon, who converted Madison to the philosophy and modes of thinking of the Age of Enlightenment. Biographer Terence Ball says that at Princeton: He was immersed in the liberalism of the Enlightenment, converted to eighteenth-century political radicalism. From on James Madison's theories would advance the rights of happiness of man, his most active efforts would serve devotedly the cause of civil and political liberty.

After returning to Montpelier, who had not yet decided on a specific career, served as a tutor to his younger siblings. In the early 177

1973–74 Toronto Maple Leafs season

The 1973–74 Toronto Maple Leafs season was the 57th season of the Toronto NHL franchise, 47th as the Maple Leafs. The Leafs placed fourth to make the playoffs, but were swept in the first round by the Boston Bruins; the Maple Leafs made several signings. At the entry draft, the Maple Leafs chose Lanny McDonald with the fourth-overall draft pick, he would play six and a half seasons with the Maple Leafs. Bernie Parent, who had left the team for the World Hockey Association in 1972, made it known that he wanted to return to the NHL; the Maple Leafs still had his NHL rights, they traded Parent to the Philadelphia Flyers for Doug Favell and a first-round draft pick, which the Maple Leafs used to choose Bob Neely. Neely would play four seasons for the Maple Leafs before being traded to the Colorado Rockies. In a first for Toronto, the club signed players from Europe. Toronto signed Swedish defenceman Borje Salming and forward Inge Hammarstrom. Salming had made the all-star team at the 1973 world championships.

Hammarstrom was one of the top scorers in Sweden. Both had played for Brynas of the Swedish League, the Leafs had to pay the Swedish Ice Hockey Federation for their release. Salming would play with the Leafs until 1989. Hammarstrom would play five seasons in Toronto before moving to the St. Louis Blues. ScoringGoaltending ScoringGoaltending The Maple Leafs have been involved in the following transactions during the 1973–74 season. Toronto's draft picks at the 1973 NHL Amateur Draft held at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel in Montreal, Quebec. 1973–74 NHL season "1973–74 Toronto Maple Leafs Games". Hockey-reference.com. Retrieved 2009-05-06

Second migration to Abyssinia

This is a sub-article to Muhammad before Medina and Muhammad in MedinaFollowing the migration and return of the most Sahabas from the first migration to Abyssinia, the Muslims continued to suffer Persecution by the Meccans. This time, in 6 BH one hundred Muslims made a second migration back to Ethiopia where they stayed protected. After the Muslims in Arabia had migrated to Medina in AH 7 and attained security, the Muslims in Ethiopia migrated back to Arabia and reunited with them in Medina after six years absence. Following the first migration to Abyssinia, the Meccan polytheists were on the alert for a second migration, however they were not able to stop the Muslims' escape; the second migration took place in 615 CE. The group of emigrants this time comprised eighty three eighteen to nineteen women; the Meccan polytheists did not appreciate that the Muslim had found a refuge, so they equipped ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and ‘Abdullah bin Abi Rabi‘a with valuable gifts and sent them to the court of Aksum.

They became successful in winning some of the courtiers over to their side and argued that the King should expel the Muslims back to Mecca and made over to them, on the grounds that they had apostated and preached a religion alien to both the Meccan religion and Christianity, the official Aksumite religion. The king of Aksum, Ashama ibn Abjar in the Muslim tradition, summoned the Muslims to the court and asked them to explain the teachings of their religion; the Muslim emigrants had decided to tell the whole truth. Ja'far ibn Abu Talib, the son of Abu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, the powerful Banu Hashim leader, stood up and addressed the king in the following words: O king! We were plunged in the depth of barbarism, he forbade us the worship of idols. We have believed in him, we have accepted his teachings and his injunctions to worship God, not to associate anything with Him, we have allowed what He has allowed, prohibited what He has prohibited. For this reason, our people have risen against us, have persecuted us in order to make us forsake the worship of God and return to the worship of idols and other abominations.

They have tortured and injured us, until finding no safety among them, we have come to your country, hope you will protect us from oppression. Ashama was asked for some of God's Revelations. Ja‘far recited the opening verses of Surah Maryam; the chapter is about the birth of John and Jesus, Mary having been fed with the food miraculously. The story moved to tears the bishops and king who exclaimed: "It seems as if these words and those which were revealed to Jesus are the rays of the light which have radiated from the same source." Turning to the crest-fallen envoys of Quraish, he said, "I am afraid, I cannot give you back these refugees. They are free to live and worship in my realm as they please.". The following day, the ‘Amr ibn al-‘As and ‘Abdullah bin Abi Rabi‘a went to the king and said that Muhammad and his followers blasphemed Jesus. Ja‘far again stood up and replied: "We speak about Jesus as we have been taught by our prophet, that is, he is the servant of Allâh, His Messenger, His spirit and his word breathed into Virgin Mary."

The king replied, "we believe. Blessed be you, blessed be your master." The king turned to the two frowning Meccan envoys and to his bishops who got angry, he said: "You may fret and fume as you like but Jesus is nothing more than what Ja‘far has said about him." The King assured the Muslims full protection and returned the gifts to the envoys of Quraish and sent them away. The Muslims lived in Abyssinia unmolested for a number of years. During this period were the Muslims in Arabia subjected to the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, the Year of Sorrow, Muhammad's visit to Ta'if, the Isra and Mi'raj and the Migration to Medina; the Muslims in Ethiopia would not return to Arabia and reunited with their fellow Muslims in Medina until in AH 7. The emigrants returned to Arabia in three groups; this first return was in the period of the boycott of the Hashimites, i.e. between September 616 and April 619. Thirty-three men and six women plus children "heard that the Meccans had accepted Islam and they set out for the homeland.

But when they got near Mecca they learned that the report was false, so that they entered the town under the protection of a citizen or by stealth."The second return was "after the Battle of Badr" but before Khaybar. Twenty-eight men and three women plus children returned to Medina; as there is no record of a large-group return, it is probable that each family travelled separately and at different times. The third return consisted of all the Muslims who were still living in Abyssinia: seventeen men, seven women and seven children; the Negus sent them to Medina "in two boats", pres