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James Meredith

James Howard Meredith is a Civil Rights Movement figure, political adviser and Air Force veteran. In 1962, he became the first African-American student admitted to the segregated University of Mississippi, after the intervention of the federal government, an event, a flashpoint in the Civil Rights Movement. Inspired by President John F. Kennedy's inaugural address, Meredith decided to exercise his constitutional rights and apply to the University of Mississippi, his goal was to put pressure on the Kennedy administration to enforce civil rights for African Americans. In 1966 Meredith planned a solo 220-mile March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, he did not want major civil rights organizations involved. The second day, he suffered numerous wounds. Leaders of major organizations vowed to complete the march in his name after he was taken to the hospital. While Meredith was recovering, more people from across the country became involved as marchers, he rejoined the march and when Meredith and other leaders entered Jackson on June 26, they were leading an estimated 15,000 marchers, in what was the largest civil rights march in Mississippi.

During the course of it, more than 4,000 African Americans had registered to vote, the march was a catalyst to continued community organizing and additional registration. In 2002 and again in 2012, the University of Mississippi led year-long series of events to celebrate the 40th and 50th anniversaries of Meredith's integration of the institution, he was among numerous speakers invited to the campus. The Lyceum-The Circle Historic District at the center of the campus has been designated as a National Historic Landmark for these events. Meredith was born in 1933 in Kosciusko, the son of Roxie and Moses Meredith, he is of African-American, British Canadian and Choctaw heritage. His family nickname was "J-Boy". European traders intermarried with some Choctaw during the colonial period. In the 1830s, thousands of Choctaw chose to stay in Mississippi and become United States citizens when most of the tribe left their traditional homeland for Indian Territory during the federally imposed removal; those in the state had unions with European Americans and African Americans, adding to the multi-racial population in the developing territory.

Meredith completed the 11th grade at Attala County Training School and he completed the 12th grade at Gibbs High School in St. Petersburg, Florida, he graduated from high school in 1951. Meredith enlisted in the United States Air Force, he served from 1951 to 1960. Afterward Meredith attended Jackson State University for two years. In 1961, inspired the day before by President John F. Kennedy, Meredith started to apply to the University of Mississippi, intending to insist on his civil rights to attend the state-funded university, it still admitted only white students under the state's culture of racial segregation, although the US Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional, as they are supported by all the taxpayers. Meredith wrote in his application that he wanted admission for his country, race and himself, he said, Nobody handpicked me... I believed, believe now, that I have a Divine Responsibility... I am familiar with the probable difficulties involved in such a move as I am undertaking and I am prepared to pursue it all the way to a degree from the University of Mississippi.

He was twice denied admission. During this time, he was advised by Medgar Evers, head of the state chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. On May 31, 1961, with backing of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, filed suit in the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi, alleging that the university had rejected him only because of his race, as he had a successful record of military service and academic courses; the case went through many hearings, after which the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that Meredith had the right to be admitted to the state school. The state appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, which supported the ruling of the appeals court. On September 13, 1962, the District Court entered an injunction directing the members of the Board of Trustees and the officials of the University to register Meredith; the Democratic Governor of Mississippi, Ross Barnett, declared "no school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your governor".

The state legislature created a plan. They passed a law that denied admission to any person "who has a crime of moral turpitude against him" or, convicted of any felony offense or not pardoned; the same day it became law, Meredith was accused and convicted of "false voter registration," in absentia, in Jackson County. The conviction against Meredith was trumped up: Meredith both owned land in northern Mississippi and was registered to vote in Jackson, where he lived. "Later the clerk testified that Meredith was qualified to register and vote in Jackson." On September 20, the federal government gained an enjoinment against enforcement of this Act and of the two state court decrees that had barred Meredith's registration. That day Meredith was rebuffed again by Governor Barnett in his efforts to gain admission, though university officials were prepared to admit him. On September 28, the Court of Appeals, en banc and a

Birgit Breuel

Birgit Breuel is a German politician, representative of the German Christian Democratic Union. She is the former President of the Treuhand Agency, Commissioner General of the Expo 2000 in Hannover, worked in several honorary positions. Birgit Münchmeyer came from a Lower Saxony family of private bankers, she is the daughter of merchant bankers who owned the bank Münchmeyer & Co.. On 8 August 1959 she married the Hamburg merchant Ernst-Jürgen Breuel. Birgit Breuel studied political science at the Universities of Hamburg and Geneva. In 1966, she entered into the CDU. From 1978 to 1986 she was Minister of Economy and Transport in Lower Saxony to 1990 was the Lower Saxony Finance Minister. In 1990, Breuel was elected to the Executive Board of the Treuhand - a holding firm responsible for the sale of East German state assets. A year she became the successor of Detlev Karsten Rohwedder. While Rohwedder had been cautious about the sale of most state assets, favouring a worker-owned solution if possible, Breuel favoured quick privatization.

She departed in 1995 from this office. Breuel became Commissioner-General of the World Expo Expo 2000 in Hanover. Birgit Breuel: Ohne historisches Vorbild. Die Treuhandanstalt 1990 bis 1994 - eine kritische Würdigung. Berlin 2005 ISBN 3-936962-15-4 Deutsches Geschlechterbuch. Band 128 der Gesamtreihe, p. 69/70, C. A. Starke Verlag, Limburg 1962, ISSN 1438-7972. List of German Christian Democratic Union politicians Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands web site Fem biography

Buffalo Sabres

The Buffalo Sabres are a professional ice hockey team based in Buffalo, New York. They compete in the National Hockey League as a member of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference; the team was established in 1970, along with the Vancouver Canucks, when the league expanded to 14 teams. They have played at KeyBank Center since 1996. Prior to that, the Buffalo Sabres played at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium from the start of the franchise in 1970; the Sabres are owned by Terry Pegula. The Sabres have the longest active playoff drought in the NHL, at 8 seasons; the team has twice advanced to the Stanley Cup Finals, losing to the Philadelphia Flyers in 1975 and to the Dallas Stars in 1999. The best known line in team history is The French Connection, which consisted of Gilbert Perreault, Rick Martin and Rene Robert. All three players have had their sweater numbers retired and a statue erected in their honor at KeyBank Center in 2012; the Sabres, along with the Canucks, share the record for being the longest continuously running active NHL franchise to have never won the Stanley Cup.

The Sabres, along with the Vancouver Canucks, joined the NHL in the 1970–71 season. Their first owners were Seymour H. Knox III and Northrup Knox, scions of a family long prominent in Western New York and grandsons of the co-founders of the Woolworth's variety store chain. On the team's inaugural board of directors were Robert E. Rich, Jr. the owner of the Buffalo Bisons minor league baseball team. Buffalo had a history of professional hockey. Wanting a name other than "bison", the Knoxes commissioned a name-the-team contest. With names like "Mugwumps", "Buzzing Bees" and "Flying Zeppelins" being entered, the winning choice, "Sabres", was chosen because Seymour Knox felt a sabre, a weapon carried by a leader, could be effective on offense and defense; the Knoxes tried twice before to get an NHL team, first when the NHL expanded in 1967, again when they attempted to purchase the Oakland Seals with the intent of moving them to Buffalo. Their first attempt was thwarted when Pittsburgh Steelers owner Art Rooney persuaded his horse racing friends James and Bruce Norris to select Pittsburgh over Buffalo, while the second attempt was due to the NHL not wanting an expansion market to give up on a team so soon.

At the time of their creation, the Sabres exercised their option to create their own AHL farm team, the Cincinnati Swords. Former Toronto Maple Leafs general manager and head coach Punch Imlach was hired in the same capacity with the Sabres; the year the Sabres debuted was an important year for major league sports in Buffalo. In addition to the Sabres' debut, the Buffalo Bills joined the National Football League, the National Basketball Association's Buffalo Braves began to play, sharing Memorial Auditorium with the Sabres; the city of Buffalo went from having no teams in the established major professional sports leagues to three in one off-season, a situation that proved to be unsustainable. Between the Braves and the Sabres, the Sabres would prove to be by far the more successful of the two. Subsequent owners of the Braves, in a series of convoluted transactions tied to the ABA–NBA merger, moved the team out of Buffalo; when the Sabres debuted as an expansion team, they took the ice to Aram Khachaturian's Armenian war dance, "Sabre Dance".

The song has been associated with the team as an unofficial anthem since. It is played between periods and after goals; the consensus was that first pick in the 1970 NHL Amateur Draft would be junior phenomenon Gilbert Perreault. Either the Sabres or the Canucks would get the first pick, to be determined with the spin of a roulette wheel. Perreault was available to the Sabres and Canucks as this was the first year the Montreal Canadiens did not have a priority right to draft Quebec-born junior players; the Canucks were allocated numbers 1–10 on the wheel, while the Sabres had 11–20. When league president Clarence Campbell spun the wheel, he thought the pointer landed on one. While Campbell was congratulating the Vancouver delegation, Imlach asked Campbell to check again; as it turned out, the pointer was on 11 handing Perreault to the Sabres. Perreault scored 38 goals in his rookie season of 1970–71, at the time a record for most goals scored by a NHL rookie, he received the Calder Memorial Trophy as the NHL's rookie of the year.

Despite Perreault's play, the Sabres finished well out of playoff contention. In the team's second season, 1971–72, rookie Rick Martin, drafted fifth overall by Buffalo in 1971, Rene Robert, acquired in a late-season trade from the Pittsburgh Penguins, joined Perreault and would become one of the league's top forward lines in the 1970s. Martin broke Perreault's record at once with 44 rookie goals, they were nicknamed "The French Connection" after the movie of the same name and in homage to their French-Canadian roots. The Sabres made the playoffs for the first time in 1972–73, just the team's third year in the league, but lost in the quarterfinals in six games to the eventual Stanley Cup champion Montreal Canadiens. After a subpar year in 1974

Guo Zhengtang

Guo Zhengtang is a Chinese geologist. He is a Cenozoic geologist. Guo was born in Shuozhou, Shanxi Province in 1964, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in Geology from Peking University in 1983, earned Ph. D. of soil science from the Pierre and Marie Curie University, France in 1990. Guo's research focuses on the eolian sediments of the Chinese Loess Plateau and ancient climate change, he was the Director-general of the Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences during 2002-2006. He was a Vice-President of the INQUA Commission on Paleoclimates, he and his colleagues extended the loess records in China from ~8 Ma to ~22 Ma


In 1970, Hughes Aircraft Company Space and Communications Group offered the first standardized satellite: the HS 333 design. A spinning satellite, it was based on previous one-design satellites like Intelsat I. HAC built eight of these 300 watt, 12 channel single antenna satellites between 1970 and 1977; the early satellites were designed with cylindrical bodies to maximize the size of the satellite that could fit inside of the rocket's nose cone or fairing, round. The early design satellites relied on spinning at about 30 rpm for stability in orbit; the spinning satellite is a gyroscope. Several parallel decks, including the top and bottom, were used to mount the propulsion, attitude control, Telemetry & Command, power equipment; the upper deck or top of the satellite contained the T&C antenna. The outer surface of the cylindrical body was covered with solar cells to generate power for operating the satellite's electrical equipment. Batteries provide power during eclipse; the batteries are recharged by excess power from the solar array.

The HS 333 was 1.8 m in diameter and nominally 3.3 m high. The solar array and batteries provided sufficient power over the satellites 7 year design life to power the 190 W payload and 233 W spacecraft equipment; the payload contributed 54 kg of the HS 333's 146 kg dry mass. Eight HS-333 satellites were launched: Comparison of satellite buses

Switch Up

"Switch Up" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Big Sean. It was released on April 2013, as the second single from his second studio album Hall of Fame; the song, produced by No I. D. and Rob Kinelski, features a guest appearance from fellow rapper Common. The song had little success; the second single, "Switch Up", was announced along with its artwork by Big Sean on April 5, 2013 via Twitter, shortly after was premiered on his official website. The single features fellow rapper Common, while the production was handled by No I. D. & Rob Kinelski. The song was released for digital download the following day. Big Sean made a statement saying how the song is for'the fans of real rap and his believers'. In an interview he made, "When I put it out, I did it for the believers and the people that's been rocking with me, fans of just real rap." "Switch Up" came to controversy after fans were asking Big Sean on Twitter if the song was a diss to Kid Cudi. Kid Cudi left the GOOD Music label just four days before Big Sean released "Switch Up".

The lyrics rapped in the chorus "Who gon' leave you there when who gon' leave which ya?/ This is for the ones thats always ridin' with ya/ Ain't switch, I ain't switch up/ Naw, naw I aint switch up/ The same me, naw naw I ain't switch up/ The same team, naw naw I ain't switch up..." made fans think that Big Sean was angry towards Kid Cudi's departure from GOOD Music. Big Sean clarified the controversy with an interview with MTV News. Big Sean said in the interview that he was still friends with Kid Cudi as he stated "Motherfucker that's the dumbest shit somebody could say. That's my fam; when I lost my Jesus piece Cudi gave me his Jesus piece. That's my brother." Digital single Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics