Abolitionism in the United States
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States. In the Americas and western Europe, abolitionism was a movement to end the Atlantic slave trade and set slaves free. In the 17th century, enlightenment thinkers condemned slavery on humanistic grounds and English Quakers and some Evangelical denominations condemned slavery as un-Christian. At that time, most slaves were Africans, but thousands of Native Americans were enslaved. In the 18th century, as many as six million Africans were transported to the Americas as slaves, at least a third of them on British ships to North America; the colony of Georgia abolished slavery within its territory, thereafter, abolition was part of the message of the First Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s in the Thirteen Colonies. Rationalist thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment criticized slavery for violating natural rights. A member of the British Parliament, James Edward Oglethorpe, was among the first to articulate the Enlightenment case against slavery.
Founder of the Province of Georgia, Oglethorpe banned slavery on humanistic grounds. He argued against it in Parliament and encouraged his friends Granville Sharp and Hannah More to vigorously pursue the cause. Soon after his death in 1785, Sharp and More joined with William Wilberforce and others in forming the Clapham Sect. Although anti-slavery sentiments were widespread by the late 18th century, many colonies and emerging nations continued to use and defend the traditions of slavery. During and following the American Revolution, Northern states, beginning with Pennsylvania in 1780, passed legislation during the next two decades abolishing slavery, sometimes by gradual emancipation. Massachusetts ratified a constitution. In other states, such as Virginia, similar declarations of rights were interpreted by the courts as not applicable to Africans. During the ensuing decades, the abolitionist movement grew in Northern states, Congress regulated the expansion of slavery as new states were admitted to the Union.
Britain banned the importation of African slaves in its colonies in 1807 and banned slavery in the British Empire in 1833. The United States criminalized the international slave trade in 1808 and made slavery unconstitutional in 1865 as a result of the American Civil War. Historian James M. McPherson defines an abolitionist "as one who before the Civil War had agitated for the immediate and total abolition of slavery in the United States", he does not include antislavery activists such as Abraham Lincoln, U. S. President during the Civil War, or the Republican Party, which called for the gradual ending of slavery. Abolitionism in the United States was an expression of moralism, operating in tandem with other social reform efforts, such as the temperance movement; the first Americans who made a public protest against slavery were the Mennonites of Germantown, Pennsylvania. Soon after, in April 1688, Quakers in the same town wrote a two-page condemnation of the practice and sent it to the governing bodies of their Quaker church, the Society of Friends.
The Quaker establishment never took action. The 1688 Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery was an unusually early and forceful argument against slavery and initiated the spirit that led to the end of slavery in the Society of Friends and in the state of Pennsylvania; the Quaker Quarterly Meeting of Chester, made its first protest in 1711. Within a few decades the entire slave trade was under attack, being opposed by such leaders as William Burling, Benjamin Lay, Ralph Sandiford, William Southby, John Woolman. Slavery was banned in the Province of Georgia soon after its founding in 1733; the colony's founder, James Edward Oglethorpe, fended off repeated attempts by South Carolina merchants and land speculators to introduce slavery to the colony. In 1739, he wrote to the Georgia Trustees urging them to hold firm: "If we allow slaves we act against the principles by which we associated together, to relieve the distresses. Whereas, now we should occasion the misery of thousands in Africa, by setting men upon using arts to buy and bring into perpetual slavery the poor people who now live there free."
The struggle between Georgia and South Carolina led to the first debates in Parliament over the issue of slavery, occurring between 1740 and 1742. The Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage was the first American abolition society, formed 14 April 1775, in Philadelphia by Quakers; the society suspended operations during the American Revolutionary War and was reorganized in 1784, with Benjamin Franklin as its first president. Rhode Island Quakers, associated with Moses Brown, were among the first in America to free slaves. Benjamin Rush was another leader. John Woolman gave up most of his business in 1756 to devote himself to campaigning against slavery along with other Quakers. One of the first articles advocating the emancipation of slaves and the abolition of slavery was written by Thomas Paine. Titled "African Slavery in America", it appeared on 8 March 1775 in the Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser. Beginning with Vermont in 1777, most states north of the Ohio River and the Mason–Dixon line abolished slavery.
These states enacted the first abolition laws in the entire New World. Slavery in Massachusetts was abolished by the judiciary; the State Constitution adopted in 1780 declared all men to have rights, making slavery unenforceable. Emancipation in many free states was gradual. Enslaved people
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria
Port Royal, South Carolina
Port Royal is a town on Port Royal Island in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. Because of annexation of surrounding areas, the population of Port Royal rose from 3,950 in 2000 to 10,678 in 2010, a 170% increase; as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau, Port Royal is included within the Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Port Royal is home to Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, Naval Hospital Beaufort. Port Royal takes its name from the adjacent Port Royal Sound, explored and named by Frenchman Jean Ribault in 1562. Ribault founded the short-lived settlement of Charlesfort on Parris Island; the area became the site of a Spanish and still Scottish colony during the 17th century. Port Royal was the site of the Naval Battle of Port Royal during the Civil War. During the war, it was the one of the sites of the Port Royal Experiment, which included most of the Sea Islands in Union hands. In 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation was first read at Christmas under the Proclamation tree in Port Royal.
Due to the benefits of a large and sheltered natural harbor, Port Royal was able to develop port facilities to support the growing phosphate mining activities after the Civil War. The Port Royal Railroad was completed from Port Royal to a junction with the main Charleston and Savannah Railway in Yemassee, thus establishing a land route for trade and commerce. Development of a community around the isolated port site at the end of the Beaufort River and Battery Creek led to the platting of streets and town lots by development interests. A land rush ensued, Port Royal was incorporated in 1874, 300 years after initial settlement efforts; the Sea Islands Hurricane of 1893 destroyed much of the phosphate industry and stunted development, but the port continued to operate throughout the 20th century. The opening of Parris Island as a Marine Corps recruiting station brought some vitality back to the community, though rapid residential growth did not occur until the decades of the 20th century; the port's vitality however began to decline as the State of South Carolina began to focus on dredging Charleston's harbor and expanding port facilities further up the coast.
In an effort to save costs, the State Ports Authority closed the port facility in Port Royal in 2004. Efforts to redevelop have been hampered by the Great Recession; the Camp Saxton Site, Fort Frederick Heritage Preserve, Hasell Point Site, Little Barnwell Island, F. W. Scheper Store, Union Church of Port Royal are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Old Village is the historic center of Port Royal. Streets running north-south are named after the capitals of nations whose immigrants have settled in the Port Royal area. Paris Avenue is the primary commercial street in the Old Village. North of the Old Village is a low-density residential area known as Mossy Creek, which crosses over into incorporated areas of the city of Beaufort to the north. A large portion of Port Royal's population lives in the Preserve at Port Royal Apartments, in between the Old Village and Mossy Creek. Port Royal's municipal boundaries were defined by Beaufort to the north, the Beaufort River to the east, Parris Island to the south, Battery Creek to the west.
Since the start of the 21st century however, Port Royal began to aggressively annex lands west and south of its core area, prompting controversy. Port Royal annexed Parris Island Marine Corps Base on October 11, 2000 doubling the municipal population overnight due to on-base housing. Port Royal annexed properties in the Shell Point and Burton areas of Beaufort County. Challenges were filed, the 2000 annexation of undeveloped Rose Island was to be heard by the South Carolina Supreme Court in 2005. Town representatives said the city annexed Rose Island because it was within the "line of sight" of the Doggett Tract, a group of islands off Shell Point under the town's jurisdiction. In 2006, Port Royal annexed two tracts of land south of the Broad River based on the so-called line-of-sight rule; the hurricane scene from the 1994 film Forrest Gump was filmed in the town's dock area. Paris Avenue periodically hosts Street Music events throughout the year. Port Royal hosts an annual soft shell crab festival in late April and a community oyster roast in late October.
Beaufort Charities hosts their annual Oyster Roast in Live Oaks Park in March. Port Royal has expanded in recent times by annexation of parcels of land on the west side of Battery Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.0 square miles, of which 19.0 square miles is land and 3.1 square miles, or 13.92%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,950 people, 1,660 households, 1,010 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,017.3 people per square mile. There were 1,792 housing units at an average density of 461.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 64.18% White, 29.16% African American, 0.46% Native American, 1.70% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 1.92% from other races, 2.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.28% of the population. There were 1,660 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.6% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families.
31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.86. In the town
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs. The term is taken from Latin minister. In the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodox, Nordic Lutheran, Eastern Orthodox churches, the concept of a priesthood is emphasized. In other Christian denominations, such as the Baptist, Congregationalist, Methodist and Reformed churches, the term "minister" refers to members of the ordained clergy who leads a congregation or participates in a role in a parachurch ministry. With respect to ecclesiastical address, many ministers are styled as "The Reverend"; the Church of England defines the ministry of priests as follows: Priests are called to be servants and shepherds among the people to whom they are sent. With their Bishop and fellow ministers, they are to proclaim the word of the Lord and to watch for the signs of God's new creation, they are to be messengers and stewards of the Lord. Formed by the word, they are to call their hearers to repentance and to declare in Christ's name the absolution and forgiveness of their sins.
With all God's people, they are to tell the story of God's love. They are to baptize new disciples in the name of the Father, of the Son, of the Holy Spirit, to walk with them in the way of Christ, nurturing them in the faith, they are to unfold the Scriptures, to preach the word in season and out of season, to declare the mighty acts of God. They are to preside at the Lord's table and lead his people in worship, offering with them a spiritual sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, they are to bless the people in God's name. They are to resist evil, support the weak, defend the poor, intercede for all in need, they prepare the dying for their death. Guided by the Spirit, they are to discern and foster the gifts of all God's people, that the whole Church may be built up in unity and faith. Ministers may perform some or all of the following duties: assist in co-ordinating volunteers and church community groups assist in any general administrative service conduct marriage ceremonies and memorial services, participate in the ordination of other clergy, confirming young people as members of a local church encourage local church endeavors engage in welfare and community services activities of communities establish new local churches keep records as required by civil or church law plan and conduct services of public worship preach pray and encourage others to be theocentric preside over sacraments of the church.
Such as: the Lord's Supper known as the Lord's Table, or Holy Communion, the Baptism of adults or children provide leadership to the congregation, parish or church community, this may be done as part of a team with lay people in roles such as elders refer people to community support services, psychologists or doctors research and study religion and theology supervise prayer and discussion groups and seminars, provide religious instruction teach on spiritual and theological subjects train leaders for church and youth leadership work on developing relationships and networks within the religious community provide pastoral care in various contexts provide personal support to people in crises, such as illness and family breakdown visit the sick and elderly to counsel and comfort them and their families administer Last Rites when designated to do so the first style of ministering is the player coach style. In this style, the pastor is a "participant in all the processes that the church uses to reach people and see them transformed the second style of ministering is the delegating style, in which the minister develops members of the church to point that they can be trusted the third style of ministering is the directing style where the minister gives specific instructions and supervises the congregation the last and fourth style of ministering is the combination style, which a minister allows directional ministering from a pastoral staff member mention prayer of salvation to those interested in becoming a believer Depending on the denomination the requirements for ministry vary.
All denominations require. In regards to training, denominations vary in their requirements, from those that emphasize natural gifts to those that require advanced tertiary education qualifications, for example, from a seminary, theological college or university. One of the clearest references is found in 1 Timothy 3:1-16, which outlines the requirements of a bishop: This is a true saying, if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. A bishop must be blameless, the husband of one wife, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach.
American Anti-Slavery Society
The American Anti-Slavery Society was an abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan. Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave, was a key leader of this society who spoke at its meetings. William Wells Brown was a freed slave who spoke at meetings. By 1838, the society had 1,350 local charters with around 250,000 members. Noted members included Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Theodore Dwight Weld, Lewis Tappan, James G. Birney, Lydia Maria Child, Maria Weston Chapman, Abby Kelley Foster, Stephen Symonds Foster, Henry Highland Garnet, Samuel Cornish, James Forten, Charles Lenox Remond, Sarah Parker Remond, Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone, Robert Purvis, Augustine Clarke, Wendell Phillips, George T. Downing, John Greenleaf Whittier, among others. Headquartered in New York City, from 1840 to 1870 the society published a weekly newspaper, the National Anti-Slavery Standard. By the 1820s, the controversy surrounding the Missouri Compromise had quieted down but was revived by a series of events near the end of the decade.
Serious debates over abolition took place in the Virginia legislature in 1829 and 1831. In the North discussion began about the possibility of freeing the slaves and resettling them back in Africa. Agitation increased with the publication of David Walker's Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World in 1829, Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831, Andrew Jackson's handling of the nullification crisis that same year. According to Louis Ruchame, "The Turner rebellion was only one of about 200 slave uprisings between 1776 and 1860, but it was one of the bloodiest, thus struck fear in the hearts of many white southerners. Nat Turner and more than 70 enslaved and free blacks spontaneously launched a rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831, they moved from farm to farm, indiscriminately killing whites along the way and picking up additional slaves. By the time the militia put down the insurrection, more than 80 slaves had joined the rebellion, 60 whites lay dead. While the uprising led some southerners to consider abolition, the reaction in all southern states was to tighten the laws governing slave behavior."That same year, South Carolina's opposition to the federal tariff led the legislature to declare that the law was null and void in the state, the state's leaders spoke of using the militia to prevent federal customs agents from collecting the tax.
President Andrew Jackson swept aside the states' rights arguments and threatened to use the army to enforce federal laws. In the face of Jackson's determination, the state backed down, but the episode raised fears throughout the South that it was only a matter of time before Congress would begin to tamper with slavery. Southern anxiety increased in 1833 with the founding of the American Anti-Slavery Society in Philadelphia; the society was sometimes met with violence. According to the Britannica Encyclopedia, "The society's antislavery activities met with violent public opposition, with mobs invading meetings, attacking speakers, burning presses." In the mid-1830s, slavery had become so economically involved in the U. S. that getting rid of it would cause a major blow to the economy in the South. A convention of abolitionists was called to meet in December 1833 at the Adelphi Building in Philadelphia; the convention had 62 delegates. The new American Anti-Slavery Society charged William Lloyd Garrison with writing the organization's new declaration.
The document condemns the institution of slavery and accuses slave owners of the sin of being a "man-stealer". It calls for the immediate abolition of slavery without terms, is critical of the efforts of the American Colonization Society. At the same time, it declares the group to be pacifist, the signers agree, if necessary, to die as martyrs. In July 1834 the aims of the society appear to have been misrepresented in the prelude to the Farren Riots in New York, which led to attacks on the homes and properties of abolitionists. After the riots were quelled the society issued a public disclaimer denying it intended to promote intermarriage between the races, dissolve the Union, break the law or ask Congress to impose abolition on states; the black clergyman Theodore S. Wright was a significant founding member and served on the executive committee until 1840. A Presbyterian minister, Wright together with well-known spokesmen such as Tappan and Garrison agitated for temperance, black suffrage and land reform.
According to Wright, I will say nothing about the inconvenience which I have experienced myself, which every man of color experiences, though made in the image of God. I will say nothing about the inconvenience of traveling. No matter how we may demean ourselves, we find embarrassments everywhere. But, this prejudice goes farther, it debars men from heaven. While sir, slavery cuts off the colored portion of the community from religious privileges men are made infidels. What, they demand, is your Christianity? How do you regard your brethren? How do you treat them at the Lord's table? Where is your consistency in talking about the heathen, traversing the ocean to circulate the Bible everywhere, while you frown upon them at the door? These things meet us and weigh down our spirits.... Many founding members used a practical approach to slavery, saying economically it did not make sense. Wright used the rhetoric of religion to elicit empathy toward African Americans, presented slavery as a moral sin directed at those who were persecuted.
Frederick Douglass had seen the frustration that Garrison felt towards those who disagreed with him, but wrote many letters to Garrison describ
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
Dickinson College is a private liberal arts college in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1773 as Carlisle Grammar School, Dickinson was chartered September 9, 1783, six days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, making it the first college to be founded after the formation of the United States. Dickinson was founded by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, named "John and Mary's College" in honor of John Dickinson, a signer of the Constitution, the Governor of Pennsylvania, his wife Mary Norris Dickinson, they donated much of their extensive personal libraries to the new college. In addition to offering either a bachelor of arts or bachelor of science degree in 22 disciplinary majors and 20 interdisciplinary majors, Dickinson offers an engineering option through its 3:2 program, which consists of three years at Dickinson and two years at an engineering school of Columbia University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or Case Western Reserve University.
Upon successful completion of both portions of the program, students receive the B. S. degree from Dickinson in their chosen field and the B. S. in engineering from the engineering school. The Dickinson School of Law is located adjacent to the college campus and was founded as its law department, it received an independent charter in 1890 and ended all affiliation with the college in 1917. In 2000 the Law School merged with the Pennsylvania State University; the Carlisle Grammar School was founded in 1773 as a frontier Latin school for young males in western Pennsylvania. Within years Carlisle's elite James Wilson and John Montgomery, were pushing for development of the school as a college. In 1782 Benjamin Rush, a leader during the American Revolution and the preeminent physician in the new nation, met in Philadelphia with Montgomery and William Bingham, a prominent businessman and politician; as their conversation about founding a frontier college in Carlisle took place on his porch, "Bingham's Porch" was long a rallying cry at Dickinson.
Dickinson College was chartered by the Pennsylvania legislature on September 9, 1783, six days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolution. Rush intended to name the college after the President of Pennsylvania John Dickinson and his wife Mary Norris Dickinson, proposing "John and Mary's College." The Dickinsons had given the new college an extensive library which they jointly owned, one of the largest libraries in the colonies. The name Dickinson College was chosen instead; when founded, its location west of the Susquehanna River made it the westernmost college in the United States. For the first meeting of the trustees, held in April 1784, Rush made his first journey to Carlisle; the trustees selected Dr. Charles Nisbet D. D. A Scottish minister and scholar, to serve as the College's first president, he arrived and began to serve on July 4, 1785, serving until his unexpected death in 1804. A combination of financial troubles and faculty dissension led to a college closing from 1816 to 1821.
In 1832, when the trustees were unable to resolve a faculty curriculum dispute, they ordered Dickinson's temporary closure a second time. The law school dates to 1833, it became a separate school 1890, although the law school and the college continued to share a president until 1912. The law school is now affiliated with the Pennsylvania State University. Among the 18th-century graduates of Dickinson were Robert Cooper Grier and Roger Brooke Taney, who became U. S. Supreme Court justices, served together on the court for 18 years. During the 19th century, two noted Dickinson College alumni had prominent roles in the years leading up to the Civil War, they were James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States, Roger Brooke Taney, the 5th Chief Justice of the United States. Dickinson is one of three liberal arts colleges to have graduated both a President and a Chief Justice. Taney led the Supreme Court in its ruling on the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, which held that Congress could not prohibit slavery in federal territories, overturning the Missouri Compromise.
Buchanan threw the full prestige of his administration behind congressional approval of the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas. During the Civil War, the campus and the town of Carlisle were twice occupied by Confederate forces in 1863; when George Metzger, class of 1798, died in 1879, he left his land and $25,000 to the town of Carlisle to found a college for women. In 1881, the Metzger Institute opened to serve young ladies; the college operated independently until 1913, when its building was leased to Dickinson College for the education of women. The building served as a women's dorm until 1963. Henry Clarke, an alumnus who developed the Klondike bar into a national brand for an ice cream bar, founded the Clarke Forum for Contemporary Issues at Dickinson College, in 1994 established the Clarke Center; the town of Carlisle was the location of the Carlisle Army Barracks, adapted in the late 1870s for use as the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. In 1879 Dickinson College and the nearby Carlisle Indian School began a collaboration, when Dr. James Andrew McCauley, President of the college, led the first worship service at the Indian School.
The collaboration between the institutions lasted four decades, from the opening day to the closing of the Indian School in 1918. Dickinson College professors served as chaplains and special faculty to the Native American students. Dickinson College students volunteered services, observed teaching methods, participated in events at the Indian School. Dickinson College accepted select Indian School students to attend its Preparatory School and gain c