James Nayler was an English Quaker leader. He was among the members of a group of early Quaker preachers and missionaries. At the peak of his career, he preached against the slave trade. In 1656, Nayler achieved national notoriety when he re-enacted Christ's "Palm Sunday" entry into Jerusalem by entering Bristol on a horse, he was charged with blasphemy. He was born in the town of Ardsley in Yorkshire. In 1642 he joined the Parliamentarian army, served as quartermaster under John Lambert until 1650. After experiencing what he described as the voice of God calling him from work in his fields, Nayler gave up his possessions and began seeking a spiritual direction, which he found in Quakerism after meeting the leader of the Quaker Friends movement, George Fox in 1652. Nayler became the most prominent of the travelling Quaker evangelists known as the "Valiant Sixty". Beginning in 1656, Fox expressed his concerns to Nayler that both Nayler's ministry, that of his associate Martha Simmonds were becoming over-enthusiastic and erratic.
Fox's concerns centered on Nayler's having allowed a group of his "followers" to effect that Nayler himself might in some sense be a great prophet or a "messiah figure". They were soon hardly on speaking terms. On 23 September 1656, Fox visited Nayler in his prison at Exeter; the two men soon parted their differences remaining sharp and unresolved. Prominent Quaker author, Rufus M. Jones provides a description of the strained encounter: Nayler tried to make a show of love and would have kissed Fox, but the latter would receive no sham kisses from one whose spirit was plainly wrong. "James," he said, "it will be harder for thee to get down thy rude company than it was for thee to set them up." In October 1656, Nayler and his friends, including Simmonds, staged a demonstration which proved disastrous: Nayler re-enacted the "Palm Sunday" arrival of Christ in Jerusalem. Following Nayler's Palm Sunday Re-enactment and some of his "followers" were apprehended and subsequently examined before Parliament.
The examination found that many of Nayler's followers referred to Nayler by such titles as, "Lord", "Prince of Peace", etc. believing that Nayler was in some manner representing the return of Jesus Christ. On 16 December 1656 he was convicted of blasphemy in a publicised trial before the Second Protectorate Parliament. Narrowly escaping execution, instead he was sentenced to be put in the pillory and on there to have a red hot iron bored through his tongue, to be branded with the letter B for Blasphemer on his forehead, other public humiliations. Subsequently, he was imprisoned for two years of hard labour; the Nayler case was part of a broader political attack against the Quakers. It was discussed under the Blasphemy Ordinance of 1648 with the hope of imposing an authoritative Presbyterian religious settlement upon the Commonwealth, but the prosecution did not rely on any statute. Many of the speeches in the debates about Nayler centred on Biblical tradition regarding heresy and urged MPs to quash vice and heresy.
After the verdict, Cromwell rejected representations on behalf of Nayler, but at the same time wanted to make sure the case did not provide a precedent for action against the people of god. To modern eyes, Nayler's Palm Sunday Re-enactment might not seem to be outrageous when compared with other "acts" of some of the other early Quaker "activists"; such Quaker "activists" would disrupt church services, or would sometimes go out disrobed in public, being "naked as a sign", as a supposed symbol of "spiritual innocence". At that time, Quakers were being pressed to denounce the doctrine of the Inner Light because of its implication of equality with Christ, Nayler's ambiguous symbolism was seen as playing with fire; the Society's subsequent move driven by Fox, toward a somewhat more organised structure, including giving Meetings the ability to disavow a member, seemed to have been motivated by a desire to avoid similar problems. George Fox was horrified by the Bristol event, recounting in his Journal that "James ran out into imaginations, a company with him.
Fox and the movement in general denounced Nayler publicly, though this did not stop anti-Quaker critics from using the incident to paint Quakers as heretics, or to equate them with Ranters. Nayler left prison in 1659 a physically ruined man, he soon went to pay a visit to George Fox, before whom he knelt and asked for forgiveness, repenting of his earlier actions. Afterwards he was formally forgiven by Fox. After having been accepted again by Fox, Nayler joined other Quaker critics of the Cromwellian regime, condemning the nation's rulers. In October 1660, while travelling to rejoin his family in Yorkshire, he was robbed and left near death in a field brought to the home of a Quaker doctor in Kings Ripton, Huntingdonshire. A day and two hours before he died on 21 October, aged 42, he made a moving statement which many Quakers since have come to v
The Kokila Sandeśa or "The Message of The Koel" is a Sanskrit love poem written by Uddanda Śāstrī in the 15th century AD. A short lyric poem of 162 verses, it describes how a nameless hero, abducted from his wife’s side by mysterious women, sends a message to her via a koel; the poem is modelled upon the Meghadūtaof Kālidāsa. It is one of. Uddaṇḍa Śāstrī was a 15th-century Tamil from a village whose learning and scholarship is so great that the parrots are reciting the Vedas as the koil flies past, he made his way west, seeking patronage, ended up in Kerala where he is said to have married a lady from Chendamangalam. The poet is supposed to have acquired the title Uddaṇḍa, which means'pre-eminent', from the Zamorin court of Calicut where he found patronage, it was this verse, the first words the poet spoke to the Zamorin, said to have earned him his name: उद्दण्डः परदण्डभैरव भवद्यात्रासु जैत्रश्रियो हेतुः केतुरतीत्य सूर्यसरणिं गच्छन् निवार्यस्त्वया । नो चेत् तत्पटसम्पुटोदरलसच्छार्दूलमुद्राद्रवत् सारङ्गं शाशिबिम्बमेष्यति तुलां त्वत्प्रेयसीनां मुखैः ॥ The sandeśa kāvya genre is one of the best defined in Indian literature.
There are about over 30 messenger poems in Sanskrit from Kerala alone plus many other Sanskrit and regional-language ones from other parts of the country. Each follows Kālidāsa's Megha Dūta to a lesser extent. Most involve two separated lovers, one of whom sends the other a message, thus are designed to evoke the śṛṅgāra rasa, they tend to adhere to a bipartite structure in which the first half charts the journey the messenger is to follow, while the second describes the messenger’s destination, the recipient and the message itself. Editions include: Anantanarayana Sastri, PS. 1939. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa Śāstrī. Second edition; the Mangalodayam Press, Trichur. This is based on a single manuscript. Out of print. Unni, NP. 1972. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa. College Book House, Trivandrum. AND Unni, NP. 1997. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa. Second edition. Keralasamskṛtam Publications, Trivandrum; this includes a resume in English and notes on the poem. Unni’s edition is a critical edition based on four manuscripts and two printed editions, including Sastri’s.
Muraleemadhavan, PC. 1999. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa Śāstrī. Printed in Malayalam script with a word-for-word Malayalam translation and notes; this edition is based on over ten manuscripts. Rajaraman, S and Kotamraju, V. 2012. The Message of the Koel: Uddaṇḍa Śāstri’s Kokila Sandeśa. Rasala, Bangalore. A bilingual edition of the poem with a contemporary English translation. Anantanarayana Sastri, PS. 1939. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa Śāstrī. Second edition; the Mangalodayam Press, Trichur. Unni, NP. 1972. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa. College Book House, Trivandrum. Unni, NP. 1997. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa. Second edition. Keralasamskṛtam Publications, Trivandrum. Muraleemadhavan, PC. 1999. Kokilasandeśa of Uddaṇḍa Śāstrī. Rajaraman, S and Kotamraju, V. 2012. The Message of the Koel: Uddaṇḍa Śāstri’s Kokila Sandeśa. Rasala, Bangalore. Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: The Clarendon press. Vidyasagara, J. Mallikāmāruta of Uddaṇḍa Śāstrī. 1878. Calcutta
Asam pedas is a Minangkabau and Malay sour and spicy fish stew dish. It is popular in Malaysia; the spicy and sour fish dish is known in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. It is part of the culinary heritage of both Minangkabau and Malay traditions, thus its exact origin is unclear; the Minang asam padeh can be found throughout Padang restaurants in Indonesia and Malaysia. It has become a typical cuisine of Malays from eastern shoes of Sumatra - Jambi, Riau Islands, as far north in Aceh and across the Straits of Malacca in Johore and Singapore; the spice mixture and the fish used might be different according to the area. The main ingredients in asam pedas are seafood or freshwater fish, they are cooked in asam fruit juice with spices. The cooking process involves soaking the pulp of the tamarind fruit until it is soft and squeezing out the juice for cooking the fish. Asam paste may be substituted for convenience. Vegetables such as terong or brinjals and tomatoes are added. Fish and seafood — such as mackerel, mackerel tuna, skipjack tuna, red snapper, pangasius, hemibagrus or cuttlefish — either the whole body or sometimes only the fish heads are added to make a spicy and tart fish stew.
It is important that the fish remain intact for serving so the fish is added last. In Indonesia, the most common fish used in asam pedas is tongkol. Kaeng som is the Thai version of asam pedas. In Bengal, India there is a similar dish. Pindang Fish stew List of fish dishes List of stews