Allan McLean (Australian politician)
Allan McLean was an Australian politician who served as the 19th Premier of Victoria, in office from 1899 to 1900. He was elected to federal parliament, where he served as a government minister under George Reid. McLean was born in Argyll and arrived in Australia as a child, his family settled in the Gippsland region of Victoria, he acquired a sheep station near Lake Wellington. McLean was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly in 1880 and was promoted to cabinet in 1890, serving under James Munro, William Shiels, George Turner, he was defeated at the following year's general election. McLean entered the new federal parliament as a member of the Protectionist Party, he was a leader of its conservative wing, in 1904 crossed the floor to become Minister for Trade and Customs in the Reid Government. He was the de facto deputy prime minister; the government was defeated in 1905, he lost his seat at the 1906 election. McLean was born in the highlands of Scotland and came to Australia as a child in 1842 with his family.
He said'were frozen out of Scotland' by'an exceptionally severe winter'. His father, Charles McLean, was a grazier near Tarraville, in the Gippsland region of Victoria. McLean was educated at the local state school, assisted his father on his stations, for a short period was on the staff of the Gippsland Times. About 1870, he acquired the lease of'The Lowlands', a sheep station, on the shores of Lake Wellington near Sale and in 1872, formed the firm of A. McLean and Company and Station Agents, at Maffra, he became a shire councillor at Maffra in 1873, as president of the shire was active in forming the Municipal Association of Victoria. McLean was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for Gippsland North in May 1880. A conservative, he was President of the Board of Land and Works and Minister of Agriculture in the James Munro ministry from 1890 to 1891, Chief Secretary from 1891 to 1892, retaining this position under William Shiels from 1892 to 1893, he became a minister without portfolio in the liberal government of George Turner in 1894, but resigned in April 1898.
On 5 December 1899, he moved and carried a vote of no-confidence, becoming Premier and Chief Secretary, but his government lasted less than a year. At the 1900 election the conservatives were defeated and Turner reclaimed the premiership. McLean was an opponent of Australian federation and was not a member of the conventions which shaped the Australian Constitution. However, reassured to some degree by Deakin's composite stand as an Australian Briton, McLean sent him to London in January 1900 as Victoria's representative in negotiations with the British government. In March 1901, however, he was elected a member of the first Australian House of Representatives for the seat of Gippsland, sat as a supporter of the Protectionist Party of Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin. McLean belonged to the conservative wing of the party and opposed Deakin's warm alliance with the Labour Party. In April 1904 Deakin resigned and the Labour leader, Chris Watson, formed a minority government. Watson resigned in August, the Free Trade leader George Reid formed another minority government, supported by the conservative Protectionists.
McLean came into the cabinet as Minister for Trade and Customs, his position was so strong that the government is referred to as the Reid-McLean ministry. This composite ministry was, not a success, it was being assailed by the Labour Party and the radical Protectionist section of Deakin's followers, such as H. B. Higgins and Isaac Isaacs, it lasted for less than 11 months, fell when Deakin withdrew his support. This episode caused great bitterness in the Protectionist ranks, at the 1906 election McLean was opposed in Gippsland by a radical Protectionist, George Wise, who narrowly defeated McLean with Labour support. McLean, who had suffered for many years with a rheumatic affliction and did not feel capable of doing justice to his constituents, retired before the next election, he died at his home at Albert Park in 1911. Sir George Reid said of him that "no public man in Victoria was more or more affectionately esteemed", he was twice married, once in 1866 to Margaret Bridget Shinnock of Maffra, subsequently, to Emily Macarthur, who survived him with five sons and two daughters by the first marriage.
His eldest son, William Joseph McLean was a noted pastoralist, senior partner in the firm of A. McLean and Co. stock and station agents of Maffra and Bairnsdale, the Melbourne firm of McLean, McKenzie and Co. Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1856–1900, Australian National University Press, Canberra, 1972 Raymond Wright, A People's Counsel. A History of the Parliament of Victoria, 1856–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992 Serle, Percival. "McLean, Allan". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 2008-11-16; the Argus and The Age, Melbourne, 14 July 1911. Allan McLean at Maffra Heritage John Rickard,'McLean, Allan', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10, MUP, 1986, pp 329–331
Sir Thomas Bent was an Australian politician and the 22nd Premier of Victoria. He was one of the most corrupt politicians in Victorian history. Bent was born in Penrith, New South Wales the eldest of four sons and two daughters of James Bent, a hotel-keeper, he came to Melbourne with his parents in 1849. He went to school in the Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy becoming a market-gardener in East Brighton. In 1861 he became a rate collector for the town council of Brighton a fast-growing suburb, he soon began buying and selling land in Brighton, became a property developer in new areas close by, such as Moorabbin. He developed the suburb of Bentleigh, named after himself, he was Mayor of Brighton nine times. In 1871 Bent was elected to the Victorian Legislative Assembly for the district of Brighton, defeating the veteran liberal George Higinbotham "to the amazement of every one", he had no particular party loyalties and first held office in the Service government in 1880. He was Commissioner for Works and Railways in Sir Bryan O'Loghlen's government in 1881–1883, used this position to extend the railway line from Caulfield to Cheltenham, thus enormously increasing the value of his own property developments.
His lifelong reputation for corruption dates from this period. The exposure of Bent's dealings led to the defeat of O'Loghlen's government at the 1883 elections. After this debacle Bent spent 18 years on the backbench, his fortunes suffered a reversal in 1888 when a bad investment in Ringwood caused the collapse of the Thomas Bent Land Co. but he soon recovered and became a leading player in the great Land Boom that reached its climax in 1890. For instance, in 1884 Bent purchased property in Exhibition Street for 1488 pounds and on the same day resold it for 2000 pounds. In 1892 he surprised his critics by being elected Speaker as part of a complex political deal. A newspaper asked: "Why is Speaker Bent the first commoner in the land? Because no-one commoner than Bent can be found." There was an element of snobbery in this. Bent was the first Victorian Premier with a strong Australian accent, was held in contempt by the Anglo-Scottish Melbourne establishment. In the severe crash that followed the boom Bent was bankrupted, with debts of 80,000 pounds.
He had transferred many of his assets to his wife's name and this saved him from bankruptcy. At the election which followed the fall of James Patterson's government, Bent was defeated at Brighton, his fate was sealed when The Age published letters Bent had written as Railways Minister in 1881, offering MPs railways lines in their electorates in exchange for their votes. Bent moved with his wife Elizabeth and their two daughters to Port Fairy, where he took up dairy farming, but he had not given up his political ambitions. In 1897 he unsuccessfully stood for Port Fairy in 1900 he moved back to Melbourne, at the November 1900 election he was re-elected for Brighton, he completed his comeback by becoming once again Minister for Railways in William Irvine's conservative government. He was soon up to his old tricks, buying land in Brighton and approving a tramline from St Kilda to Brighton that led right past his properties. Despite his reputation, Bent was chosen as the new Liberal leader in Victoria when Irvine quit to go into federal politics in 1904, thus became Premier at the age of 66.
By this time Bent had grown fat and his jovial manner, together with Victoria's gradual recovery from the 1890s depression, gained him renewed popularity. In addition to being premier, Bent had the portfolios of public railways. Much legislation was passed relating to improvements in public health, old age pensions, water conservation. At the June 1904 elections he won a comfortable majority, did so again in 1907, his government favoured more state intervention in the economy than had 19th century liberal governments, there was now agreement on the need for high tariffs to protect Victorian industry. His greatest boast was that he restored prosperity to Victoria. During 1908, Bent's government began to disintegrate as a result of conflict between country and city interests—a perennial problem for non-Labor governments in Victoria. A bloc of country members led by John Murray opposed Bent's Land Valuation Bill, to appease them Bent withdrew the bill and appointed several of Murray's supporters to the ministry.
But this antagonised Melbourne Liberals led by William Watt, in January 1909 the various dissidents united to defeat Bent in the Assembly. Bent resigned and Murray became Premier. Bent died on 17 September 1909 at his home in Brighton, he had been made a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1908. He was buried in Brighton Cemetery, he was married twice, to Miss Huntley. His estate was valued at 35,000 pounds, most of this went to his daughter from his second marriage. A statue of Bent was erected in 1913 on the Nepean Brighton. For many years "Tommy Bent's statue" was a well-known Melbourne landmark, which, at the time of the Victorian Football League grand final, would be decorated with a cap and scarf in the colours of the team that won the premiership. In the late 1960s the statue was defaced by a bucket of white paint—perhaps a local New Year's Eve prank; the widening of the highway in the 1970s led to the statue being moved to a less prominent location near Bay Street, where it still is.
Serle, Percival. "Bent, Thomas". Dictionary of Australian
James Whiteside McCay
Lieutenant General Sir James Whiteside McCay, who spelt his surname M’Cay, was an Australian general and politician. A graduate of the University of Melbourne, where he earned Master of Arts and Master of Laws degrees, McCay established a successful legal practice, McCay & Thwaites, he was a member of the Victorian Parliament for Castlemaine from 1895 to 1899, where he was a champion of women's suffrage and federation. He lost his seat in 1899 but became a member of the first Australian Federal Parliament in 1901, he was Minister for Defence from 1904 to 1905, during which he implemented long-lasting reforms, including the creation of the Military Board. As a soldier, McCay commanded the 2nd Infantry Brigade in the landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April 1915, during the Gallipoli Campaign of the Great War, he was wounded in the Second Battle of Krithia and invalided to Australia, but returned to command the 5th Division, which he led in the Battle of Fromelles in 1916, dubbed "the worst 24 hours in Australia's entire history."
His failures in difficult military operations made him a controversial figure who earned the disfavour of his superiors, while his efforts to succeed in the face of insurmountable obstacles earned him the odium of troops under his command, who blamed him for high casualties. In the latter part of the war he commanded the AIF Depots in the United Kingdom. After the war, McCay resumed his old job as Deputy Chairman of the State Bank of Victoria and served on a panel that deliberated on the future structure of the Army, he was chairman of the Fair Profits Commission, the War Service Homes Scheme of the Repatriation Commission, the Repatriation Commission's Disposals Board. He commanded the Special Constabulary Force during the 1923 Victorian Police strike. McCay was born on 21 December 1864 in Ballynure, County Antrim, the oldest of ten children to the Reverend Andrew Ross Boyd McCay, a Presbyterian minister, his wife Lily Ann Esther Waring; the family emigrated to Australia in 1865, settling in Victoria.
Boyd McCay continued his theological studies while he was a minister in Castlemaine, earning a Master of Arts from the University of Melbourne in 1882 and a Doctor of Divinity from the Presbyterian Theological Faculty Ireland in 1887. Esther could speak seven languages; the two separated in 1891. James attended Castlemaine State School. At the age of twelve he won a scholarship to Scotch College, Melbourne to the value of £35 per annum for six years, he was dux of the school in 1880. At Scotch College McCay first met John Monash, who would be dux the following year, would become a close friend. McCay entered Ormond College at the University of Melbourne in 1881, the year that the college first opened, commenced studying for his Bachelor of Arts degree. McCay left the university without completing his degree in 1883 and took a job as a teacher at Toorak Grammar School. In 1885, he bought Castlemaine Grammar School; the school was co-educational. Among its students who attended university with McCay's encouragement and support was Sussanah Jane Williams, who became principal of Janet Clarke Hall at the University of Melbourne, The Women's College at the University of Sydney.
The job of running the school was soon delegated to McCay's brother Adam. He completed his Bachelor of Arts degree, he embarked on a Bachelor of Laws degree. In 1895, he was awarded an MA degree, he completed his law degree the next year, with first class honours, in spite of attending the lectures due to his work and military commitments. In 1895, he was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the Supreme Court of Victoria and established a legal practice in Castlemaine, his practice had the first telephone in the town. He was awarded his Master of Laws degree in 1897. In 1898, he went into partnership with William Thwaites; the firm's name was changed to McCay & Thwaites. It would hire one of the first women to become an articled clerk in Victoria. On 8 April 1896, McCay married Julia Mary O'Meara, the daughter of a Roman Catholic Kyneton police magistrate. Sectarianism in Australia made such marriages uncommon, the marriage was opposed by both their families, it produced Margaret Mary and Beatrix Waring, born in 1897 and 1901, respectively.
In August 1890, McCay was elected to the local council of the Castlemaine Borough. When the prominent local Member of the Legislative Assembly, Sir James Patterson, died in 1894, McCay ran for his seat of Castlemaine in the resulting by-election. After a hard-fought campaign, McCay won by just ten votes. McCay devoted his maiden speech to what would be his defining cause as a state politician, women's suffrage:I believe the principle applies to woman by virtue of her citizenship as applies to man; as she has to bear her share of the duties of citizenship, she is entitled to vote unless good cause can be shown to the contrary. On other issues, McCay supported Federation, was one of a number of young politicians who rallied around Alfred Deakin, threatening to bring down Sir George Turner's government if it attempted to block federation. McCay opposed sending Victorian troops to fight in the Boer War, calling war in general an "anachronism". In 1899, McCay was one of the young radicals who supported Allan McLean and crossed the floor to bring down the Turner government.
McLean gave McCay the portfolio of Minister for Customs in his new ministry. At the time it was the custom for members
Sir James McCulloch, Australian colonial politician, was the fifth Premier of Victoria. McCulloch was born in Glasgow, Scotland, he was the son of George McCulloch, a quarry master and contractor, Jane Thomson, a farmer's daughter. He had only a primary education and as a young man worked in shops becoming a junior partner in a softgoods firm. On 11 May 1853 McCulloch arrived in Melbourne aboard the Adelaide to manage the mercantile firm of Dennistoun Brothers in Melbourne. Following closure of the Dennistoun office in 1861, James McCulloch started his own business McCulloch and Company in partnership with fellow Scot Robert Sellar. In the boom conditions following the Victorian Gold Rush, he soon became a wealthy man and a director of several banks and other companies, he was President of the Chamber of Commerce 1856–1857 and 1862–1863. McCulloch was appointed a member of the Legislative Council on 1 August 1854, replacing Andrew Aldcorn; when Victoria gained responsible government in 1856, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Wimmera, which he represented from November 1856 to around August 1859, when he shifted to East Melbourne from October 1859.
He represented Mornington from March 1862 to around March 1872 and Warrnambool from May 1874 to around May 1878. The historian Raymond Wright describes McCulloch as a "cautious liberal." He served as Commissioner for Trade and Customs 1857–58 under William Haines and as Treasurer 27 October 1859 to 26 November 1860 under William Nicholson. When John O'Shanassy's conservative government resigned in June 1863 McCulloch became Premier and Chief Secretary for the first time, he was Postmaster-General of Victoria 9 May 1864 to 6 May 1868. McCulloch's liberal government was the strongest Victoria had yet seen, proved to be the longest lived so far, surviving for nearly five years. Much of its reforming zeal came from George Higinbotham, a crusading radical; the McCulloch government fought a series of battles with the conservative landowners who dominated the Legislative Council. The most important was over the tariff issue: McCulloch was a protectionist while the Council was controlled by free traders.
In 1865, the Council sought a confrontation with the Assembly by rejecting the government's tariff bill and denying supply to McCulloch's government. McCulloch, a director of the London Bank took the extraordinary step of lending his own government 860,000 pounds to meet its debts and running expenses. After a conference between the two Houses broke down, McCulloch called an election in February 1866, at which his supporters won a large majority in the Assembly; when the Council again rejected his tariff bill, he resigned, leaving the Governor, Charles Darling, unable to find anyone else who could form a government. After prolonged negotiations, McCulloch agreed to resume office and the Council passed a modified tariff bill and granted supply. Both sides claimed victory. In 1867 another crisis blew up when the Council again rejected the government's budget, because it contained a clause granting a pension to the retiring Governor Darling, which conservatives said was a payment for his collusion in McCulloch's unorthodox methods of financing the government.
McCulloch called another election for February 1868. But in May word came that the Colonial Secretary in London, the Duke of Buckingham, had instructed the new Governor, Sir John Manners-Sutton, to support the Council in blocking the grant to Darling. McCulloch at once resigned, the Governor commissioned a conservative member of the Council, Charles Sladen, to form a government which did not have a majority in the Assembly; this negation of democracy provoked widespread protests and produced a dangerous situation, resolved only in July when the Colonial Office changed its mind about Darling's pension and the Council agreed to a moderate reform bill broadening its electoral base. McCulloch resumed office, but without Higinbotham. McCulloch remained in office until September 1869, was Premier again from 9 April 1870 to 19 June 1871 and from 20 October 1875 to 21 May 1877, but these periods in office were uneventful, his main achievement in this period was to pass a bill abolishing all government funding to religious schools, a measure, supported by all denominations except the Anglicans, since it freed church schools from government supervision.
McCulloch's government introduced a bill to create a system of free, secular government schools, but the Catholics and Anglicans joined forces to block it. McCulloch grew conservative after 1870 and in 1875 he had a political falling out with Higinbotham. Tired and disillusioned, he resigned from Parliament in 1878. After politics, McCulloch focussed on business life, he had several directorships including the Bank of New South Wales. McCulloch was knighted in 1870 and made KCMG in 1874. In 1886, he retired to England, died in Epsom, Surrey on 31 January 1893, he had no children. A young cousin, George McCulloch, was manager of the Mount Gipps sheep run for McCulloch, Sellar and Co; this country was the site of the fabulous silver mines of Broken Hill and Silverton, by good fortune George was one of the original investors and became wealthy from its discovery. Colonial liberalism Geoff Browne, A Biographical Register of the Victorian Parliament, 1900–84, Government Printer, Melbourne, 1985 Don Garden, Victoria: A History, Thomas Nelson, Melbourne, 1984 Kathleen Thompson and Geoffrey Serle
Charles Gavan Duffy
Sir Charles Gavan Duffy KCMG, Irish-Australian nationalist, journalist and politician, was the 8th Premier of Victoria and one of the most colourful figures in Victorian political history. The suburb of Duffy in the Australian Capital Territory is named after him. Duffy was born in Dublin Street, Monaghan Town, County Monaghan, the son of a Catholic shopkeeper. Both his parents died while he was still a child and his uncle, Fr James Duffy, the Catholic parish priest of Castleblayney, became his guardian for a number of years, he was educated at St Malachy's College in Belfast. Duffy edited The Vindicator from its foundation in 1839 until 1842, while editing the Belfast based paper he studied law at the King's Inns in Dublin, was admitted to the Irish Bar in 1845. Before being admitted to the bar, Duffy was active on the Irish land question, in that connection in 1842 he became an ally of James Godkin. Duffy became a leading figure in Irish literary circles, he edited Ballad Poetry of Ireland and contributed works on Irish literature and political history, including Young Ireland: a fragment of Irish history, 1840-1850, The league of north and south.
An episode in Irish history, 1850-1854. Gavan Duffy became its first editor. All three were members of Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Association; this paper, under Gavan Duffy, transformed from a literary voice into a "rebellious organisation". As a result of The Nation's support for Repeal, Gavan Duffy, as owner, was arrested and convicted of seditious conspiracy in relation to the Monster Meeting planned for Clontarf, just outside Dublin, but was released after an appeal to the House of Lords. In 1849 Duffy toured Ireland with Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle to record the ongoing Great Hunger in Ireland, it seems Duffy had invited Carlyle - a staunch Calvinist and Unionist, to record the happenings of the time as he was a well respected writer in Britain at that time. When their journey concluded Duffy wrote a damning editorial about the political establishment in'The Nation'. While Carlyle showed little sympathy to the destitute Irish. In August 1850, Gavan Duffy formed the Tenant Right League to bring about reforms in the Irish land system and protect tenants' rights, in 1852 he was elected to the House of Commons for New Ross.
In November 1852, Lord Derby's government introduced a land bill to secure to Irish tenants on eviction, in accordance with the principles of the Tenant League, compensation for improvements prospective and retrospective made by them in the land. The bill passed the House of Commons in 1853 and 1854, but in both years failed to pass the House of Lords. In 1855 the cause of the Irish tenants, indeed of Ireland seemed to Duffy more hopeless than ever. Broken in health and spirit, he published in 1855 a farewell address to his constituency, declaring that he had resolved to retire from parliament, as it was no longer possible to accomplish the task for which he had solicited their votes. In 1842, he married Emily McLaughlin, who died in 1845, he married Susan Hughes in 1846, with. In 1856, despairing of the prospects for Irish independence, he resigned from the House of Commons and emigrated with his family to Australia. After being feted in Sydney and Melbourne, Duffy settled in the newly formed Colony of Victoria.
A public appeal was held to enable him to buy the freehold property necessary to stand for the colonial Parliament. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Villiers and Heytesbury in the Western District in 1856. A Melbourne Punch cartoon depicted Duffy entering Parliament as a bog Irishman carrying a shillelagh atop the parliamentary benches, he represented Dalhousie and North Gippsland. With the collapse of the Victorian Government's Haines Ministry, during 1857, another Irish Catholic, John O'Shanassy, unexpectedly became Premier and Duffy his second-in-charge. Duffy was Commissioner for Public Works, President of the Board of Land and Works, Commissioner for Crown Lands and Survey. Irish Catholics serving as Cabinet Ministers was hitherto unknown in the British Empire and the Melbourne-based Protestants "were not prepared to counternance so startling a novelty". In 1858–59, Melbourne Punch cartoons linked Duffy and O'Shanassy with images of the French Revolution to undermine their Ministry.
One famous Punch image, "Citizens John and Charles", depicted the pair as French revolutionaries holding the skull and cross bone flag of the so-called Victorian Republic. The O'Shanassy Ministry was defeated at a new government formed. Like other radicals, Duffy's main priority was to unlock the colony's lands from the grip of the squatter class, but his 1862 lands bill was amended into ineffectiveness by the Legislative Council. Historian Don Garden commented that "Unfortunately Duffy's dreams were on a higher plane than his practical skills as a legislator and the morals of those opposed to him." In 1871 Duffy led the opposition to Premier Sir James McCulloch's plan to introduce a land tax, on the grounds that it unfairly penalised small farmers. When McCulloch's government was defeated on this issue, Duffy became Chief Secretary. Victoria's finances were in a poor state and he was forced to introduce a tariff bill to provide government revenue, despite his adherence to British free trade principles.
An Irish Catholic Premier was unpopular with the Protestant majority in the colony, Duffy was accused of favouring Catholics in government appointments, an example being the appointment of John Cashel Hoey to a position in L
Sir Graham Berry,Australian colonial politician, was the 11th Premier of Victoria. He was one of the most radical and colourful figures in the politics of colonial Victoria, made the most determined efforts to break the power of the Victorian Legislative Council, the stronghold of the landowning class. Berry was born in Twickenham, near London, where his father, Benjamin Berry, was a licensed victualler, he had a primary education until 11 years old became an apprentice draper. In 1848 he married Harriet Ann Blencowe. In 1852 he migrated to Victoria, went into business as a grocer in Prahran as a general storekeeper in South Yarra, his business skills and Victoria's booming economy soon made him a wealthy man. After his first wife's death he married Rebekah Evans in 1871. At his death, Berry was survived by eight of the children from his first marriage and all seven of the children from his second marriage. In Victoria, Berry, by voracious reading, acquired the education he had missed in England, taught himself economics and philosophy.
But all his life he retained a broad London accent, which many Victorian conservatives found offensive or amusing. In Parliament he once asked the Speaker: "What is now before the'Ouse?" To which the Leader of the Opposition interjected: "An H!" He developed a powerful rhetorical style modelled on that of his hero Gladstone effective in the rough-house of the colonial Parliament or on the hustings. The conservative newspaper The Argus conceded: "His oratory might not be polished: it was not—but it was passionate, it told." Noted for his humour, Berry was a tough and determined politician. Berry was elected to the Legislative Assembly for East Melbourne at a by-election in 1861, as what The Argus called "an extreme liberal." At the general election in the same year he switched to Collingwood famously the most radical electorate in the colony. He was re-elected in 1864, but his criticism of James McCulloch's government during the tariff crisis of 1865 led to his defeat in that year's snap election.
In 1866 Berry moved to Geelong, where he started a newspaper, the Geelong Register, as a rival to the established Geelong Advertiser. Using the paper as a platform, he was elected for Geelong West in February 1869. In 1877 he switched to Geelong, which he represented until February 1886, he was Treasurer in John MacPherson's government in 1870. When Charles Gavan Duffy formed a strong liberal government in June 1871, Berry again became Treasurer, he was a convinced protectionist, steered a bill for increased tariffs through the Parliament. After the conservative interlude of the Francis and Kerferd governments, Berry assumed leadership of the liberals and became Premier and Treasurer in August 1875, but the liberal majority in the Assembly was unreliable, in October the government's budget was defeated and Berry resigned. He was refused, he campaigned across the colony in opposition to the third McCulloch government. At the May 1877 election, with the powerful backing of the Melbourne Age under David Syme, he won a huge liberal majority in the Assembly and returned to office at the head of a radical ministry.
Berry's election manifesto proposed a punitive land tax designed to break up the squatter class's great pastoral properties – about 800 men at this time owned most of Victoria's grazing lands. He advocated a high tariff to foster local manufacturing, which threatened to harm the importing and banking interests, he promised that if the Council, elected on a limited property-based franchise, blocked his program, it would be "dealt with according to its deserts." He described the Council as "a chamber which robs the people of the gold in the soil and the land God gave them." Given that there was no mechanism in the Victorian Constitution to override the Council, this was taken by conservatives to be a threat of revolutionary violence. Berry had no plans for illegal measures, but the Councillors were sufficiently alarmed to pass a modified version of Berry's land tax bill, despite the urgings of the ultra-conservative former Premier Sir Charles Sladen to reject it outright. Berry, next introduced a bill for the payment of members of the Assembly, which the trade unions were demanding so that working class candidates could be elected.
Berry "tacked" the bill to the Appropriation Bill so that Council could not reject it without paralysing the Colony's finances. The Council resented this blackmail and at Sladen's urging declined to pass the bill, laying it aside. With the two Houses deadlocked, Berry embarked on a public campaign of "coercion" against the Council. "We coerce madmen", he said, "We put them into lunatic asylums, never was anything more the act of madmen than the rejection of the Appropriation Bill." To bring matters to a head, on 8 January 1878 Berry's government began to dismiss public servants, starting with police and judges, arguing that without an Appropriation Bill they could not be paid. Berry next brought in a bill to strip the Council of its powers, which the Council of course rejected. For the next two years Berry clung to office while the colony was gripped with class conflict, including huge torchlit processions through Melbourne sponsored by The Age and The Argus – although, there was no violence.
No legislation was passed and the administration ground to a halt as funds ran out. Berry's next tactic was to pass a bill through the Assembly stating that finance bills did not need to be passed by the Council, but would beco
Order of St Michael and St George
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George, Prince Regent King George IV, while he was acting as regent for his father, King George III. It is named in honour of St Michael and St George; the Order of St Michael and St George was awarded to those holding commands or high position in the Mediterranean territories acquired in the Napoleonic Wars, was subsequently extended to holders of similar office or position in other territories of the British Empire. It is at present awarded to men and women who hold high office or who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country, can be conferred for important or loyal service in relation to foreign and Commonwealth affairs; the Order includes three classes, in descending order of seniority and rank: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion It is used to honour individuals who have rendered important services in relation to Commonwealth or foreign nations.
People are appointed to the Order rather than awarded it. British Ambassadors to foreign nations are appointed as KCMGs or CMGs. For example, the former British Ambassador to the United States, Sir David Manning, was appointed a CMG when he worked for the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, after his appointment as British Ambassador to the US, he was promoted to a Knight Commander, it is the traditional award for members of the FCO. The Order's motto is Auspicium melioris ævi, its patron saints, as the name suggests, are St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, patron saint of England. One of its primary symbols is that of St Michael subduing Satan in battle; the Order is the sixth-most senior in the British honours system, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick, The Most Honourable Order of the Bath, The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. The third of the aforementioned Orders—which relates to Ireland, no longer a part of the United Kingdom—still exists but is in disuse.
The last of the Orders on the list, related to India, has been in disuse since that country's independence in 1947. The Prince Regent founded the Order to commemorate the British amical protectorate over the Ionian Islands, which had come under British control in 1814 and had been granted their own constitution as the United States of the Ionian Islands in 1817, it was intended to reward "natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, for such other subjects of His Majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean". In 1864, the protectorate ended and the Ionian Islands became part of Greece. A revision of the basis of the Order in 1868, saw membership granted to those who "hold high and confidential offices within Her Majesty's colonial possessions, in reward for services rendered to the Crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire". Accordingly, numerous Governors-General and Governors feature as recipients of awards in the order.
In 1965 the order was opened to women, with Evelyn Bark becoming the first female CMG in 1967. The British Sovereign appoints all other members of the Order; the next-most senior member is the Grand Master. The office was filled by the Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Grand Masters include: 1818–1825: Sir Thomas Maitland 1825–1850: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 1850–1904: Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 1904–1910: George, Prince of Wales 1910–1917: None 1917–1936: Edward, Prince of Wales 1936–1957: Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone 1957–1959: Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax 1959–1967: Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis 1967–present: Prince Edward, Duke of KentThe Order included 15 Knights Grand Cross, 20 Knights Commanders, 25 Companions but has since been expanded and the current limits on membership are 125, 375, 1,750 respectively. Members of the Royal Family who are appointed to the Order do not count towards the limit, nor do foreign members appointed as "honorary members".
The Order has six officers. The Order's King of Arms is not a member of the College of Arms, like many other heraldic officers; the Usher of the Order is known as the Lady Usher of the Blue Rod. Blue Rod does not, unlike the usher of the Order of the Garter, perform any duties related to the House of Lords. Prelate – The Rt. Rev. David Urquhart Chancellor – Rt Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen Secretary – Sir Simon McDonald Registrar – Sir David Manning King of Arms – Sir Jeremy Greenstock Lady Usher of the Blue Rod – Dame DeAnne Julius Members of the Order wear elaborate regalia on important occasions, which vary by rank: The mantle, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of Saxon blue satin lined with crimson silk. On the left side is a representation of the star; the mantle is bound with two large tassels. The collar, worn only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross, is made of gold, it consists of depictions of crowned lions, Maltese Crosses, the cyphers "SM" and "SG", all alternately.
In the centre are two winged lions, each holding a book and seven arrows. At less important occasions, simpler insignia are used: The star is an insignia used only by Knights and Dames Grand Cross and Knights and Dames Commanders, it is worn pinned to the left breast. The Knight and