James Rodney Schlesinger was an American economist and public servant, best known for serving as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975 under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Prior to becoming Secretary of Defense, he served as Chair of Atomic Energy Commission from 1971 to 1973, as CIA Director for a few months in 1973, he became America's first Secretary of Energy under Jimmy Carter in 1977, serving until 1979. While Secretary of Defense, he opposed amnesty for draft resisters and pressed for development of more sophisticated nuclear weapon systems. Additionally, his support for the A-10 and the lightweight fighter program helped ensure that they were carried to completion. James Rodney Schlesinger was born in New York City, the son of Jewish parents, Rhea Lillian and Julius Schlesinger, his mother was a Lithuanian emigrant from what was part of the Russian Empire and his father's family was from Austria. He converted to Lutheranism in his early 20s. Schlesinger was educated at the Horace Mann School and Harvard University, where he earned a B.
A. M. A. and Ph. D. in economics. Between 1955 and 1963 he taught economics at the University of Virginia and in 1960 published The Political Economy of National Security. In 1963, he moved to the RAND Corporation, where he worked until 1969, in the years as director of strategic studies. In 1969, Schlesinger joined the Nixon administration as assistant director of the Bureau of the Budget, devoting most of his time to Defense matters. In 1971, President Nixon appointed Schlesinger a member of the Atomic Energy Commission and designated him as chairman. Serving in this position for about a year and a half, Schlesinger instituted extensive organizational and management changes in an effort to improve the AEC's regulatory performance. Schlesinger was CIA Director from February 2, 1973 to July 2, 1973. Schlesinger was unpopular with CIA staff, as he reduced CIA staff by 7%, was considered a Nixon loyalist seeking to make the agency more obedient to Nixon, he had a CCTV camera installed near his official portrait at the CIA headquarters in Langley, Va. as it was believed that vandalism of the portrait by disgruntled staff was likely.
Schlesinger left the CIA to become Secretary of Defense on July 2, aged 44. As a university professor, researcher at Rand, government official in three agencies, he had acquired an impressive resume in national security affairs. Shortly after assuming office, Schlesinger outlined the basic objectives that would guide his administration: maintain a "strong defense establishment". E must not be forced out at sea, or in the air. Eli Whitney belongs to us, not to our competitors." In particular, Schlesinger saw a need in the post-Vietnam era to restore the morale and prestige of the military services. Analyzing strategy, Schlesinger maintained that the theory and practice of the 1950s and 1960s had been overtaken by events the rise of the Soviet Union to virtual nuclear parity with the United States and the effect this development had on the concept of deterrence. Schlesinger believed, he had grave doubts about the assured destruction strategy, which relied on massive nuclear attacks against an enemy's urban-industrial areas.
Credible strategic nuclear deterrence, the secretary felt, depended on fulfilling several conditions: maintaining essential equivalence with the Soviet Union in force effectiveness. S. population or economic targets. To meet these needs, Schlesinger built on existing ideas in developing a flexible response nuclear strategy, with the President's approval, he made public by early 1974; the United States, Schlesinger said, needed the ability, in the event of a nuclear attack, to respond so as to "limit the chances of uncontrolled escalation" and "hit meaningful targets" without causing widespread collateral damage. The nation's assured destruction force would be withheld in the hope that the enemy would not attack U. S. cities. In rejecting assured destruction, Schlesinger quoted President Nixon: "Should a President, in the event of a nuclear attack, be left with the single option of ordering the mass destruction of enemy civilians, in the face of the certainty that it would be followed by the mass slaughter of Americans?"With this approach, Schlesinger moved to a partial counterforce policy, emphasizing Soviet military targets such as ICBM missile installations, avoiding initial attacks on population centers, minimizing unintended collateral damage.
He explicitly disavowed any intention to acquire a destabilizing first-strike capability against the USSR. But he wanted "an offensive capability of such size and composition that all will perceive it as in overall balance with the strategic forces of any potential opponent
Liora Ofer is the chairwoman of the Israeli firm Ofer Investments Ltd. and one of Israel's two female billionaires. She owns stakes in Bank Mizrahi-Tefahot and Melisron, is a director of Mizrahi Tefahot Bank. Liora Ofer is the daughter of Israeli billionaire Yuli Ofer who founded the firm with his brother Sammy Ofer. Yuli Ofer died in 2011. Yuli changed his will in November 2008. Yuli's first will signed in April 2008 had divided the estate but his son Doron, who owned a 15% stake in the company, was left out of the final will. Sources close to the family have speculated that the change in the will may have been precipitated by Doron's objections to splitting the family's holdings in Mizrahi Tefahot Bank and Melisron. In 2013 a legal dispute between Liora and her brother Doron concluded in Liora's favor. Israel's Promotion of Competition and Reduction of Concentration Law called the Business Concentration Law set a December 2019 deadline for Israel's largest holding groups to divest some of their holdings.
The law, passed in 2013, bars companies from holding significant financial and non-financial assets at the same time. Rather than divest, the Ofer family preferred to divide some of their assets to comply with the laws requirements. Liora will sell shares in Mizrahi Tefahot Bank to her cousin Eyal Ofer and will receive shares in Melisron. Liora, her brother Doron, their cousin Eyal collectively control 22.5% shares in Mizrahi Tefahot Bank and 60.8% of shares in Melisron. The family's compliance with the Business Concentration Law is required for Mizrahi Tefahot Bank's proposed acquisition of the Union Bank of Israel to be approved by the Israel Antitrust Authority, considering the proposal. Under the arrangement announced on March 18, 2016 Liora will have exclusive control over the family's holding in Melisron. Liora made a public announcement saying explaining: "My decision to remain with the investment in real assets reflects my confidence in the Israeli real estate market."
Bruno Bruni senior is an Italian lithographer, graphic artist and sculptor. He became commercially successful in the 1970s. In 1977, he won the International Senefeld award for Lithography, he has since become one of the most successful Italian artists in Germany and one of Germany's best known lithographers. Born in Gradara, in the Province of Pesaro and Urbino on the Adriatic Coast in 1935, the son of a railway attendant, Bruni started painting as a young boy, he was a pupil of Giuliano Vanghi. He moved to London, where he became interested in pop art. In 1960, after an exhibit of his work at London's John Whibley Gallery, after meeting a girl from Hamburg, he moved there to live with her and enrolled at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg, he has lived in the city since and visits his hometown regularly. In the 1970s, Bruno Bruni made a name for himself as a draftsman, lithographer and sculptor in the international art world. In 1977, he won the International Senefeld Competition for Lithography.
He is influenced by German expressionists like Otto Dix, George Grosz etc. and the Italian old masters. In particular, he is noted as one of the few lithographic artists "who paint all work directly onto the stone", he is known for his erotic female forms. He has said, "I cannot paint an abstract picture. If I had gone along with the trends I'd have disappeared long ago", he resides in a converted swimming pool, more than a century old, which serves as apartment and gallery. He sells his art through his wife's gallery in Hanover and is reputedly one of Germany's top earning artists, he is a keen cook of Italian cuisine, is a boxing fan and a close friend of former boxing champion Dariusz Michalczewski, for whom he used to cook for before matches. He has cooked for Gerhard Schröder and has published a cooking book with his favourite recipes and pictures related to his life. Der gelbe Stern pen Kleines Veilchen pencil and gouache Con bicchiere pencil on grey paper stop gouache Manfred drypoint Donna-fiore lithography Knospe I lithography Metamorphosis lithography in four colours Onda lithography in three colours Amanti lithography in seven colours Figure e fiori sequence of five lithographies Nicht sehen, nicht reden, nicht hören lithography in five colours Der Kuss bronze La sorella bronze Europa mit dem Stier Carrara marble Il Ritorno bronze Candelieri da Pergola bronze La venere sdraiata Volker Huber: Bruno Bruni - Farblithographien.
Edition Volker Huber, Offenbach am Main 1989. ISBN 3-921785-44-8 Bruno Bruni - Neue Arbeiten 1977 bis 1982. Athenäum Verlag, Königstein/Ts. 1982. ISBN 3-7610-8196-0 Bruno Bruni: Gaumenfreuden und Kunstgenuss. Meine Art zu leben. Walter Hädecke Verlag, Weil der Stadt 2005. ISBN 3-7750-0460-2 Literature by and about Bruno Bruni in the German National Library catalogue Vanessa Seifert: Maler Bruno Bruni: Ein Leben zwischen Italien und Hamburg Hamburger Abendblatt 22 November 2010 Video on YouTube