New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Conrad Moffat Black, Baron Black of Crossharbour, KCSG is a Canadian-born British former newspaper publisher and convicted felon. In 2007, Black was convicted on four counts of fraud in U. S. District Court in Chicago. While two of the criminal fraud charges were dropped on appeal, a conviction for felony fraud and obstruction of justice were upheld in 2010 and he was re-sentenced to 42 months in prison and a fine of $125,000. Black controlled Hollinger International, once the world's third-largest English-language newspaper empire, which published The Daily Telegraph, Chicago Sun-Times, The Jerusalem Post, National Post, most of the leading newspapers in Australia and Canada and hundreds of community newspapers in North America, before controversy erupted over the sale of some of the company's assets. Black was born in Montreal, Quebec, to a well-to-do family from Winnipeg, Manitoba, his father, George Montegu Black, Jr. a Chartered Accountant, became the president of Canadian Breweries Limited, an international brewing conglomerate that had earlier absorbed Winnipeg Breweries.
Conrad Black's mother was the former Jean Elizabeth Riley, a daughter of Conrad Stephenson Riley, whose father founded The Great-West Life Assurance Company, a great-granddaughter of an early co-owner of The Daily Telegraph. His father was a shareholder in The Daily Telegraph. Biographer George Toombs said of Black's motivations: "He was born into a large family of athletic, handsome people, he wasn't athletic or handsome like they were, so he developed a different skill – wordplay, which he practiced a lot with his father." Black has written that his father was "cultured humorous" and that his mother was a "natural and altogether virtuous person." Of his older brother George Montegu Black III, Black has written that he was "one of the greatest natural athletes I have known", that though "generally more sociable than I was, he was never a cad or inconstant, or an ungenerous friend or less than a gentleman." The Black family maintains a family plot at Mt. Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto where Black's parents and brother are buried along with his good friend and his wife's former husband, journalist and broadcaster, George Jonas.
Black was first educated at Upper Canada College, during which time, at age eight, he invested his life savings of $60 in one share of General Motors. Six years he was expelled from UCC for selling stolen exam papers, he attended Trinity College School in Port Hope, where he lasted less than a year, being expelled for insubordinate behaviour. He did complete the year as an extramural student. Black went on to a small, now defunct, private school in Toronto called Thornton Hall, continuing on to post-secondary education at Carleton University, he attended Toronto's Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, but his studies ended after he failed his first year exams. He completed a law degree at Université Laval, in 1973 completed a Master of Arts degree in History at McGill University. Black's thesis at McGill would become the first half of his first book of Quebec premier Maurice Duplessis. Black had been granted access to Duplessis' papers, housed in Duplessis' former residence in Trois-Rivières, which included "figures from the famous Union Nationale Caisse Electorale, a copy of the Leader of the Opposition's tax returns, gossip from bishops," as well as significant letters from Cardinal Jean-Marie-Rodrigue Villeneuve and Paul-Émile Léger, Governor General Field Marshal Alexander, Lord Beaverbrook and French Prime Ministers and Eminent Canadian and American finance ministers side-by-side with hand-written, ungrammatical requests for jobs with the Quebec Liquor Board, unpaid bills, the returns of his ministers who were cheating on their taxes, a number of scribbled notes for Assembly speeches, tidbits of political espionage, compromising photographs, a ledger listing the political contributions of every tavern-keeper in the province.
Black subsequently had the principal items from the papers copied and microfilmed, he donated copies to McGill and Windsor universities. Black's first marriage was in 1978 to Joanna Hishon of Montreal, who worked as a secretary in his and his brother Montegu's brokerage office; the couple had a daughter. They separated in 1991, their divorce was finalized in 1992. Black described Amiel, in the first volume of his autobiography as "beautiful, ideologically a robust spirit" and "chic and preternaturally sexy". Courtroom evidence revealed. In a February 2011, public Valentine's Day greeting, Black wrote: I have been persecuted and Barbara was under no obligation to share in the life-enhancing and undoubtedly character-building experience of sharing that fate with me completely, but she has, no one can know, it is beyond my power adequately to express here, what her constancy has meant to me. For more than four years before I was sent to prison, she toiled with me against the heavy odds generated by the legal and media onslaught.
She endured an avalanche of abuse directed at her as extravagant, apt to bolt and what Kafka called "nameless crimes". For the next 29 months, she led a lonely life in Florida, in a climate that aggravated her medical problems, and once or twice every week, she got up at 3 a.m. to drive over four hours to see me. "My family", Black wrote in 2009, "was divided between atheism and agnosticism, I followed rather unthinkingly and inactively in those path
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American political figure and activist. She served as the First Lady of the United States from March 4, 1933 to April 12, 1945 during her husband President Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office, making her the longest serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952. President Harry S. Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements. Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American Roosevelt and Livingston families and a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, she had an unhappy childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended Allenwood Academy in London and was influenced by its headmistress Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U. S. she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in 1905. The Roosevelts' marriage was complicated from the beginning by Franklin's controlling mother and after Eleanor discovered her husband's affair with Lucy Mercer in 1918, she resolved to seek fulfillment in leading a public life of her own.
She persuaded Franklin to stay in politics after he was stricken with a paralytic illness in 1921, which cost him the normal use of his legs, began giving speeches and appearing at campaign events in his place. Following Franklin's election as Governor of New York in 1928, throughout the remainder of Franklin's public career in government, Roosevelt made public appearances on his behalf, as First Lady, while her husband served as President, she reshaped and redefined the role of First Lady. Though respected in her years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness on civil rights for African-Americans, she was the first presidential spouse to hold regular press conferences, write a daily newspaper column, write a monthly magazine column, host a weekly radio show, speak at a national party convention. On a few occasions, she publicly disagreed with her husband's policies, she launched an experimental community at Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners widely regarded as a failure.
She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the civil rights of African Americans and Asian Americans, the rights of World War II refugees. Following her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life, she became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights and oversaw the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, she chaired the John F. Kennedy administration's Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as "one of the most esteemed women in the world". In 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallup's List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 at 56 West 37th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to socialites Anna Rebecca Hall and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt. From an early age she preferred to be called by Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt.
Through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions Valentine Gill "Vallie" Hall III and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her "Granny". Anna was somewhat ashamed of her daughter's plainness. Roosevelt had two younger brothers: Hall, she had a half brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her father's affair with Katy Mann, a servant employed by the family. Roosevelt was born into a world of immense wealth and privilege, as her family was part of New York high society called the "swells", her mother died from diphtheria on December 7, 1892, Elliott Jr. died of the same disease the following May. Her father, an alcoholic confined to a sanitarium, died on August 14, 1894, after jumping from a window during a fit of delirium tremens, he died from a seizure. Roosevelt's childhood losses left her prone to depression throughout her life, her brother Hall suffered from alcoholism. Before her father died, he implored her to act as a mother towards Hall, it was a request she made good upon for the rest of Hall's life.
Roosevelt doted on Hall, when he enrolled at Groton School in 1907, she accompanied him as a chaperone. While he was attending Groton, she wrote him daily, but always felt a touch of guilt that Hall had not had a fuller childhood, she took pleasure in Hall's brilliant performance at school, was proud of his many academic accomplishments, which included a master's degree in engineering from Harvard. After the deaths of her parents, Roosevelt was raised in the household of her maternal grandmother, Mary Livingston Ludlow of the Livingston family in Tivoli, New York; as a child, she was insecure and starved for affection, considered herself the "ugly duckling". However, Roosevelt wrote at 14 that one's prospects in life were not dependent on physical beauty: "no matter how plain a woman may be if truth and loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her."Roosevelt was tutored and with the encouragement of her aunt Anna "Bamie" Roosevelt, she was sent to Allenswood Academy at the age of 15, a private finishing school in Wimbledon, outside London, where she was educated from 1899 to 1902.
The headmistress, Marie Souvestre, was a noted educator who sought to cultivate in
James Buchanan Jr. was the 15th president of the United States, serving prior to the American Civil War. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the 17th United States secretary of state and had served in the Senate and House of Representatives before becoming president. Buchanan was born in Pennsylvania, to parents of Ulster Scots descent, he became a prominent lawyer in Lancaster and won election to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a Federalist. In 1820, Buchanan won election to the United States House of Representatives becoming aligned with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. After serving as Jackson's Minister to Russia, Buchanan won election as a senator from Pennsylvania. In 1845, he accepted appointment as President James K. Polk's Secretary of State. A major contender for his party's presidential nomination throughout the 1840s and 1850s, Buchanan won his party's nomination in 1856, defeating incumbent President Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the 1856 Democratic National Convention.
Buchanan and his running mate, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, defeated Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 election. Shortly after his election, Buchanan lobbied the Supreme Court to issue a broad ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which he endorsed as president, he allied with the South in attempting to gain the admission of Kansas to the Union as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution. In the process, he alienated both Republican abolitionists and Northern Democrats, most of whom supported the principle of popular sovereignty in determining a new state's slaveholding status, he was called a "doughface", a Northerner with Southern sympathies, he fought with Douglas, the leader of the popular sovereignty faction, for control of the Democratic Party. In the midst of the growing sectional crisis, the Panic of 1857 struck the nation. Buchanan indicated in his 1857 inaugural address that he would not seek a second term, he kept his word and did not run for re-election in the 1860 presidential election.
Buchanan supported the North during the Civil War and publicly defended himself against charges that he was responsible for the war. He died in 1868 at age 77, was the last president to be born in the eighteenth century, he is the only president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Buchanan wished and aspired to be a president who would rank in history with George Washington, by using his tendencies toward neutrality and impartiality. Historians fault him, for his failure to address the issue of slavery and the secession of the southern states, bringing the nation to the brink of civil war, his inability to address the divided pro-slavery and anti-slavery partisans with a unifying principle on the brink of the Civil War has led to his consistent ranking by historians as one of the worst presidents in American history. Historians who participated in a 2006 survey voted his failure to deal with secession as the worst presidential mistake made. James Buchanan Jr. was born in a log cabin in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, in Franklin County, on April 23, 1791, to James Buchanan, Sr. a businessman and farmer, Elizabeth Speer, an educated woman.
His parents were both of Ulster Scot descent, his father having emigrated from Milford, County Donegal, Ireland, in 1783. One of eleven siblings, Buchanan was the oldest child in the family to survive infancy. Shortly after Buchanan's birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, in 1794 the family moved to Mercersburg itself. Buchanan's father became the wealthiest person in town, having attained success as a merchant and real estate investor. Buchanan attended the village academy and, starting in 1807, Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Though he was nearly expelled at one point for poor behavior, he pleaded for a second chance and subsequently graduated with honors on September 19, 1809; that year, he moved to Lancaster, which, at the time, was the capital of Pennsylvania. James Hopkins, the most prominent lawyer in Lancaster, accepted Buchanan as a student, in 1812 Buchanan was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar after an oral exam. Though many other lawyers moved to Harrisburg, after it became the capital of Pennsylvania in 1812, Lancaster would remain Buchanan's home town for the rest of his life.
Buchanan's income rose after he established his own practice and by 1821 he was earning over $11,000 per year. Buchanan handled various types of cases, including a high-profile impeachment trial in which he defended Pennsylvania Judge Walter Franklin. Buchanan began his political career in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives as a member of the Federalist Party; the legislature met for only three months a year, Buchanan's notoriety as a legislator helped him earn clients for his legal practice. Like his father, Buchanan believed in federally-funded internal improvements, a high tariff, a national bank, he emerged as a strong critic of the leadership of Democratic-Republican President James Madison during the War of 1812. When the British invaded neighboring Maryland in 1814, he served in the defense of Baltimore after enlisting as a private in Henry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania Militia, a unit of yagers or light dragoons. Buchanan is the only president with military experience who did not, at some point, serve as an officer.
An active Freemason, he was the Master of Masonic Lodge No. 43 in Lancaster, a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. By 1820, the F
James Roosevelt "Tadd" Roosevelt Jr. was an American heir and automobile worker. James Roosevelt Roosevelt Jr. was born on August 20, 1879. He was the son of diplomat James Roosevelt "Rosey" Roosevelt of the Roosevelt family and Helen Schermerhorn Roosevelt of the Astor family, he had Helen Rebecca Roosevelt. Among his large and prominent family were uncles Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who became President of the United States, Colonel John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV, who died during the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Tadd's paternal grandparents were businessman James Roosevelt I and Rebecca Brien Roosevelt, while his maternal grandparents were businessman William Backhouse Astor Jr. and socialite Caroline Astor, known as the "Mrs. Astor", he and Franklin both attended Groton School and Harvard University, with Tadd being ahead of Franklin. Their kinship led to Franklin being mockingly referred to as "Uncle Frank" while the two attended Groton together. Upon his mother's death in 1893, Tadd inherited $1,500,000.
On June 14, 1900, while still a student at Harvard, Roosevelt married a Hungarian-born working class woman, Sadie Messinger. Tadd's father Rosey, upon learning of the wedding, brought Tadd home, their union sparked controversy, Rosey ended up disowning Tadd. In 1907, Tadd was arrested for speeding on Ocean Parkway in Brooklyn. In February 1917, Tadd was again arrested in Florida and required to stay in Florida pending a divorce suit, he had lived in Daytona under the name "M. S. King" with another woman; the Roosevelt family had opposed the marriage to Sadie and had prevailed in achieving a separation, in which Sadie was to receive a $10,000 annual income. A court soon granted $625 per month alimony to Sadie, pending settlement of the divorce. At the time, Tadd was reported to be the Floridian paying the highest income taxes, having a $12,000,000 fortune. By October 1921, Tadd and Sadie were no longer living together. However, they remained married until her death, they never had children. Roosevelt died in Manhattan on June 7, 1958.
A recluse in his years, his fortune was donated to the Salvation Army. Moffat, R. Burnham The Barclays of New york: who they are and who they are not,-and some other Barclays Black, Conrad Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom Panchyk, Richard Franklin Delano Roosevelt for Kids: His Life and Times with 21 Activities Tadd Roosevelt at Find a Grave
Sara Ann Delano Roosevelt was the second wife of James Roosevelt I, the mother of President of the United States Franklin Delano Roosevelt, her only child, subsequently the mother-in-law of Eleanor Roosevelt. Delano grew up in Newburgh, New York, spent three years in Hong Kong, she gave birth to Franklin in 1882, was a devoted mother to him for the remainder of her life, including home schooling and living close by in adulthood. She had a complex relationship with her daughter-in-law Eleanor, which has led to media portrayals of her as a domineering and fearsome mother-in-law, though these are at odds with other views, she died in 1941, with her son the President, at her side. Sara Delano was born at the Delano Estate in the town of Newburgh, New York, to Warren Delano, Jr. and Catherine Robbins Lyman. She had ten siblings. Three more died in their twenties. In 1862, her mother Catherine, six brothers and sisters traveled to Hong Kong on the clipper ship Surprise, where they joined Warren Delano who had resumed his business of trading in opium still legal.
On board ship, Sara enjoyed spending time in the sailmaker's loft listening to the sailmaker tell sea stories. Her brother Fred discovered Catherine's journal of the voyage many years in 1928. In 1865, she moved with her family back to Newburgh, she was educated at home, aside from a brief period in a girls' school in Dresden, Germany in 1876. Delano was described as 5'10", an intelligent debutante beauty in her youth, she was known for her sense of purpose that many young women of her age and class lacked at the time. After many suitors, Sara married James Roosevelt I in 1880. Two years she gave birth to a son, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on January 30, 1882. After the birth of her son, doctors advised Sara not to have any more children, thus the young Franklin became the focus of her attention. Sara was quoted as saying "the greatest constant in his life and his biggest supporter". Many wealthy parents of this time period relied on servants to care for their children, but not Sara, she taught Franklin reading and geography, employed tutors rather than sending him to a conventional school.
After the death of her husband in 1900, she temporarily moved to Boston, Massachusetts to be close to her son, studying at Harvard University. Sara did not approve of many of the women; when Franklin fell in love with his distant cousin, Eleanor Roosevelt, Sara was determined to change his mind. She tried to coerce him out of the engagement, but with no luck, she insisted that her son keep his arrangement a secret for over a year. Sara was involved in the lives of Franklin and Eleanor's children, she offered advice on how to raise them, undermined the couple's disciplinary skills by spoiling her grandchildren. Eleanor relied on Sara's direction to make her feel more secure in her role of being a mother. Though Sara became known popularly as a stereotypical domineering mother-in-law after being portrayed as much in the film Sunrise at Campobello, her actual relationship with Eleanor was much more complex, it is quoted that, "the relationship between Sara Delano Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt varied from close to distant as different times.
The pair grew close during the early years of the marriage as Eleanor's mother had died when she was young, she used Sara as a surrogate mother to discuss issues. She supported Eleanor after she discovered Franklin's affair with Lucy Mercer, which put the marriage close to collapse. However, the relationship began to be more distant after Eleanor became more involved in politics and activism. Franklin Roosevelt never had a home of his own, separate from that of his mother's. In 1906, Roosevelt commissioned a pair of houses to be built at E 65 Street, New York City, as a wedding present for Franklin and his wife, Eleanor, on the strict condition that she could move in next to them, she oversaw a series of connecting doors between the houses, allowing her access to the drawing room and children's bedrooms in the neighbouring property. Her son and daughter-in-law moved out after Franklin took office in the White House in 1933, she lived to see Franklin elected President of the United States three times, becoming the first Presidential mother to vote for her son.
Sara continued to support her son's career standing in as First Lady on several occasions. She was always prepared to say something positive about her son, remained protective of him and his family. Due to insufficient information presented in Roosevelt biographies, Sara is not well known for the large role that she played in shaping Franklin's social outlook and overall character. Sara Delano Roosevelt died on September 7, 1941 with the President at her side, two weeks before her 87th birthday. "Minutes after her death, the largest oak tree at Hyde Park toppled to the ground. It was a clear windless day."The funeral was held at Springwood. The President can be seen wearing a black mourning band on his arm in photographs of him signing the declaration of war against Japan, his mother's memory is commemorated with the Sara Delano Roosevelt Park in New York City's Lower East Side, dedicated during her lifetime, in 1934. She was buried next to her husband at the churchyard at St. James Episcopal Church in Hyde Park.
In 2003, the City University of New York announced they would restore Roosevelt's former home, now known as the Sara Delano Roosevelt Memorial House, on 47 East 65th Street, where she lived from 1908 until her death. Delano family Citations Sources Gullan, Harold. Faith of Our Mothers: The Stories of Presidential Mothers from Mary Washington to Barbara Bush. Wm. B
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1