The news media or news industry are those elements of the mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public. These include print media, broadcast news, and more recently the Internet, a medium is a carrier of something. Common things carried by media include information, art, or physical objects, a medium may provide transmission or storage of information or both. The industries which produce news and entertainment content for the media are often called the media. In the late 20th century it became commonplace for this usage to be construed as singular rather than as the traditional plural, broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video signals to a number of recipients that belong to a large group. This group may be the public in general, or a large audience within the public. Thus, an Internet channel may distribute text or music worldwide, the sequencing of content in a broadcast is called a schedule. Television and radio programs are distributed through radio broadcasting or cable, by coding signals and having decoding equipment in homes, the latter enables subscription-based channels and pay-per-view services.
A broadcasting organization may broadcast several programs at the time, through several channels, for example BBC One. On the other hand, two or more organizations may share a channel and each use it during a part of the day. Digital radio and digital television may transmit multiplexed programming, with several channels compressed into one ensemble, when broadcasting is done via the Internet the term webcasting is often used. Broadcasting forms a large segment of the mass media. Broadcasting to a narrow range of audience is called narrowcasting. In a broadcast system, journalists or reporters are involved editing the video material that has been shot alongside their research. Broadcast journalists often make an appearance in the story at the beginning or end of the video clip. In television or broadcast journalism, news analysts examine, anchors present this as news, either videotaped or live, through transmissions from on-the-scene reporters. News films can vary in length, there are some which may be as long as ten minutes, others that need to fit in all the relevant information and material in two or three minutes.
News channels these days have begun to host special documentary films that stretch for much longer durations and are able to explore a news subject or issue in greater detail
Harry S Truman Building
The Harry S Truman Building is the headquarters of the United States Department of State. It is located in the capital, Washington, D. C. It is located to the west of Edward J. Kelly Park and north of the National Academy of Sciences building, the Truman Building houses the office of the United States Secretary of State. Leading up to World War II, the expanding Department of War occupied several different buildings on the mall and it was always intended to construct the building in two phases, and the Foggy Bottom site was chosen because it was large enough to accommodate both. Gilbert Stanley Underwood and William Dewey Foster won the contract for the War Department building and they designed the building during 1938–1939 and construction began in 1940. During the design process, several agencies expressed concern that the War Department had already expanded beyond the capacity of the building. These concerns turned out to be correct, while some offices of the War Department moved into the building for a few years, by the time construction was complete, the War Department had already outgrown the building.
Congress appropriated funds for construction of the Pentagon early in 1941, the structure was used for the Department of State. Although the original portion of the building is commonly referred to as the War Department Building. World War II spurred the growth of department as well. However, the expansion was delayed until Congress allocated funds for the addition in 1955. Harley, Probst Associates, a joint venture between Harley and Day of Detroit and Graham, Anderson and White of Chicago, the addition, known as the State Department Extension, was completed in 1960 and dedicated in 1961. The original building was informally called Old State with the addition identified as New State, in September 2000, the State Department building was named in honor of President Harry S. Truman. Currently, more than 8,000 employees work in the Truman Building, the building houses 1,400,000 square feet of usable space, the corridors take up over 267,000 square feet, and the roof area is about 7 acres. There are 43 elevators, over 4,000 windows, the building is currently being renovated under a 12-year plan to modernize the structure.
In May 2014, the General Services Administration awarded a $25 million contract to build a new entrance on the east side of the Truman Building. The glass and steel structure will act not only as a high-security entrance to the building, the 20, 000-square-foot addition, called the U. S. Diplomacy Center, was designed by the firm Beyer Binder Belle, the addition is being privately funded by the Diplomacy Center Foundation, a nonprofit established by former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright in 2000 to honor American diplomats
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982, Scottish and Irish editions of the daily paper were launched in 1947 and 2006 respectively. A survey in 2014 found the age of its reader was 58. It had a daily circulation of 1,510,824 copies in November 2016. Its website has more than 100 million unique visitors per month, the Daily Mail has been accused of racism, and printing sensationalist and inaccurate scare stories of science and medical research. The Mail was originally a broadsheet but switched to a format on 3 May 1971. On this date it absorbed the Daily Sketch, which had been published as a tabloid by the same company. The publisher of the Mail, the Daily Mail and General Trust, is currently a FTSE250 company, the paper has a circulation of around two million, which is the fourth largest circulation of any English-language daily newspaper in the world.
Circulation figures according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations in March 2014 show gross daily sales of 1,708,006 for the Daily Mail. According to a December 2004 survey, 53% of Daily Mail readers voted for the Conservative Party, compared to 21% for Labour, the main concern of Viscount Rothermere, the current chairman and main shareholder, is that the circulation be maintained. The Mail has been edited by Paul Dacre since 1992, the Daily Mail, devised by Alfred Harmsworth and his brother Harold, was first published on 4 May 1896. It cost a halfpenny at a time when other London dailies cost one penny, and was more populist in tone and more concise in its coverage than its rivals. The planned issue was 100,000 copies but the print run on the first day was 397,215, Lord Salisbury, 19th-century Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, dismissed the Daily Mail as a newspaper produced by office boys for office boys. By 1902, at the end of the Boer Wars, the circulation was over a million, from the beginning, the Mail set out to entertain its readers with human interest stories, serials and competitions.
In 1900 the Daily Mail began printing simultaneously in both Manchester and London, the first national newspaper to do so, the same production method was adopted in 1909 by the Daily Sketch, in 1927 by the Daily Express and eventually by virtually all the other national newspapers. Printing of the Scottish Daily Mail was switched from Edinburgh to the Deansgate plant in Manchester in 1968 and, for a while, in 1987, printing at Deansgate ended and the northern editions were thereafter printed at other Associated Newspapers plants. In 1906 the paper offered £1,000 for the first flight across the English Channel, punch magazine thought the idea preposterous and offered £10,000 for the first flight to Mars, but by 1910 both the Mails prizes had been won. Before the outbreak of World War I, the paper was accused of warmongering when it reported that Germany was planning to crush the British Empire
Bloomberg L. P. is a privately held financial software and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Bloomberg L. P. was founded by Michael Bloomberg in 1981 with the help of Thomas Secunda, Duncan MacMillan, Charles Zegar, in 1981, Salomon Brothers was acquired, and Michael Bloomberg, a general partner, was given a $10 million partnership settlement. Bloomberg, having designed in-house computerized financial systems for Salomon, used his $10 million severance check to start Innovative Market Systems, Bloomberg developed and built his own computerized system to provide real-time market data, financial calculations and other financial analytics to Wall Street firms. In 1983, Merrill Lynch invested $30 million in IMS to help finance the development of the Bloomberg terminal computer system and by 1984, in 1986, the company was renamed Bloomberg L. P. and 5,000 terminals had been installed in subscribers offices. Within a few years, ancillary products including Bloomberg Tradebook, the Bloomberg Messaging Service, Bloomberg launched its news services division in 1990.
Bloomberg. com was first established on September 29,1993 as a portal with information on markets, currency conversion and events. In late 1996, Bloomberg bought back one-third of Merrill Lynchs 30 percent stake in the company for $200 million, Bloomberg L. P. has remained a private company since its founding, the majority of which is owned by Michael Bloomberg. To run for the position of Mayor of New York against Democrat Mark Green in 2001, Bloomberg gave up his position of CEO, in 2008, Fenwick became the CEO of Bloomberg Ventures, a new venture capital division. Daniel Doctoroff, former deputy mayor in the Bloomberg administration, now serves as president, in September 2014, Bloomberg sold its Bloomberg Sports analysis division to the data analysis firm STATS LLC for a fee rumored to be between $15 million and $20 million. On July 9,2014, Bloomberg L. P. acquired RTS Realtime Systems, in 1992, Bloomberg L. P. purchased New York Radio station WNEW for $13.5 million. The station was converted into a format, known as Bloomberg Radio.
Bloomberg L. P. bought weekly business magazine, BusinessWeek, following the acquisition, BusinessWeek was renamed Bloomberg Businessweek. In 2010, Bloomberg L. P acquired Eagle Eye Publishing and this acquisition became part of Bloomberg Government which was launched in early 2011. In 2009, Bloomberg L. P. purchased New Energy Finance, New Energy Finance was created by Michael Liebreich in 2004 to provide news and analysis on carbon and clean energy markets. Bloomberg L. P. acquired the company to become a resource for information to support low-carbon energy solutions. Liebreich continued to lead the company, serving as the executive officer until 2014. Bloomberg L. P. purchased Arlington, Virginia-based Bureau of National Affairs in August 2011 for $990 million to bolster its existing Bloomberg Government, BNA publishes specialized online and print news and information for professionals in business and government. On 16 December 2015 it was announced that Barclays had agreed to sell its business, Barclays Risk Analytics and Index Solutions Ltd, to Bloomberg L. P. for £520 million
NBC News is a division of the American broadcast network NBC. The division operates under NBCUniversal News Group, a subsidiary of NBCUniversal, the groups various operations report to the president of NBC News, Noah Oppenheim. NBC News aired the first news program in American broadcast television history on February 21,1940, the groups broadcasts are produced and aired from 30 Rockefeller Center, NBCs headquarters in New York City. The division presides over Americas number-one-rated newscast, NBC Nightly News, NBC News offers 70 years of rare historic footage from the NBCUniversal Archives online. NBC News operates a 24-hour cable news network known as MSNBC, the cable network shares staff and editorial control with NBC News. The first American television newscast in history was made by NBC News on February 21,1940, anchored by Lowell Thomas, due to wartime restrictions, there were no live telecasts of the 1944 conventions, although films of the events were reportedly shown over WNBT the next day.
In 1948, NBC teamed up with Life magazine to provide election night coverage of President Harry S. Trumans surprising victory over New York governor Thomas E. Dewey, the television audience was small, but NBCs share in New York was double that of any other outlet. The following year, the Camel News Caravan, anchored by John Cameron Swayze, lacking the graphics and technology of years, it nonetheless contained many of the elements of modern newscasts. NBC hired its own crews and in the programs early years, it dominated CBSs competing program. In 1950, David Brinkley began serving as the programs Washington correspondent, in 1955, the Camel News Caravan fell behind CBSs Douglas Edwards with the News, and Swayze lost the already tepid support of NBC executives. The following year, NBC replaced the program with the Huntley-Brinkley Report, beginning in 1951, NBC News was managed by director of news Bill McAndrew, who reported to vice president of news and public affairs J. Davidson Taylor. Television assumed a prominent role in American family life in the late 1950s.
NBC president Robert Kintner provided the division with ample amounts of both financial resources and air time. Created by producer Reuven Frank, NBCs Huntley-Brinkley Report had its debut on October 29,1956, during much of its 14-year run, it exceeded the viewership levels of its CBS News competition, anchored initially by Douglas Edwards and, beginning in April 1962, by Walter Cronkite. Senator to observe later, When I think of Little Rock, in an era when space missions rated continuous coverage, NBC configured its largest studio, Studio 8H, for space coverage. NBCs coverage of the first moon landing in 1969 earned the network an Emmy Award, in the late 1950s, Kintner reorganized the chain of command at the network, making Bill McAndrew president of NBC News, reporting directly to Kintner. McAndrew served in that position until his death in 1968, McAndrew was succeeded by his executive vice president, producer Reuven Frank, who held the position until 1973. On November 22,1963, NBC interrupted various programs on its stations at 1,45 p. m.
to announce that President John F. Kennedy had been shot in Dallas, Texas
The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented by the Newspaper Guild, which operates under the Communications Workers of America. As of 2007, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,700 newspapers, in addition to more than 5,000 television, the photograph library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries and it operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports.
The AP employs the inverted pyramid formula for writing that enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the storys essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time, documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851, initially known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, when the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour.
During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity, the cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East. He introduced the telegraph typewriter or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914, in 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave AP a major advantage over other media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco, eventually AP had its network across the whole United States, in 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations, it created its own radio network in 1974
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. It has been the residence of every U. S. president since John Adams in 1800, the term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in The White House announced that. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style, construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior, reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824, because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901.
Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, in the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as an area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space, by 1948, the houses load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the rooms were completely dismantled. Once this work was completed, the rooms were rebuilt. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, the property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the Presidents Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of Americas Favorite Architecture, in May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it.
The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790, the July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction. The City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morriss city house at 190 High Street for Washingtons presidential residence, the first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797, and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House. As part of an effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800, on Saturday, November 1,1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House. The Presidents House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, the Presidents House was a major feature of Pierre Charles LEnfants plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C
A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member, the term column applies especially to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal and made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces, other compression members are often termed columns because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are frequently used to support beams or arches on which the parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, column refers to such an element that has certain proportional. A column might be an element not needed for structural purposes, many columns are engaged. All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns, egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres.
Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians and they included double-bull structures in their capitals. The Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 ×70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I, many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. The Minoans used whole tree-trunks, usually turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a set in the stylobate. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos, the Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals. These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization, particularly in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their bases have and through these we may see their use. The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most easily distinguished by the form of the column and their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders.
Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages. Early columns were constructed of stone, some out of a piece of stone. Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture, other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of stone, mortared or dry-fit together
Fox News, officially known as the Fox News Channel, is an American basic cable and satellite news television channel that is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group subsidiary of 21st Century Fox. As of February 2015, approximately 94,700,000 American households receive the Fox News Channel, the channel broadcasts primarily from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York City, New York. The channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch, who hired former Republican Party media consultant and it launched on October 7,1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. It grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become a dominant cable news network in the United States, Rupert Murdoch is the current chairman and acting CEO of Fox News. Fox News Channel has been accused of biased reporting and promoting the Republican Party, critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News Channel employees have responded that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, in July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced that Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50 percent of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation.
A year later, 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its third period ended May 31,1986. Prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporations BSkyB subsidiary began Europes first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989, in February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel Americas Talking, Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7,1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC, however, it was absent from the markets of New York City. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the topic or the guest. The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneiders fast-paced delivery of the news, during the evening, Fox featured opinion shows, The OReilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes.
From the beginning, FNC has placed emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to be colorful and attention-getting, this helped the viewer to grasp the main points of what was being said, Fox News created the Fox News Alert, which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel and this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed that this violated an agreement, citing its agreement to keep its U. S. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warners cable franchises in the city, during the September 11,2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day
The West Wing of the White House, known as the Executive Office Building, houses the offices of the President of the United States. The West Wing contains the Oval Office, the Cabinet Room, the Situation Room, the Vice-President has an office in the building, but his primary office is next door in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building. Before construction of the West Wing, presidential staff worked on the floor of what is now the Executive Residence. However, when Theodore Roosevelt became President, he found that the offices in the Mansion were insufficient to accommodate his family of six children as well as his staff. Congress approved over half a million dollars for the renovation, the West Wing was originally intended as a temporary office structure, built on the site of the greenhouse and stables. The Presidents Office and the Cabinet Room took up the third of the building. President Roosevelts office was located approximately where the Roosevelt Room is now, in 1909, William Howard Taft expanded the building southward, covering the tennis court.
He placed the first Oval Office at the center of the south facade. President Herbert Hoover rebuilt the West Wing at the beginning of his administration, excavating a partial basement, the completed building lasted less than seven months. On December 24,1929, the West Wing was significantly damaged by an electrical fire, Hoover rebuilt it, and added air-conditioning. The fourth and final major reorganization was undertaken by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, dissatisfied with the size and layout of the West Wing, he engaged New York architect Eric Gugler to redesign it in 1933. The directive to wring the most office space out of the building was responsible for its narrow corridors. Guglers most notable change was the addition to the east side containing a new Cabinet Room, Secretarys Office, and Oval Office. The new offices location gave presidents greater privacy, allowing them to slip back, as presidential staffs grew substantially in the latter half of the 20th century, the West Wing generally came to be seen as too small for its modern governmental functions.
In the past, the portrait not hanging over the mantel hung on the opposite wall, during the 1930s, the March of Dimes constructed a swimming pool so that FDR could exercise, as therapy for his disability. Richard Nixon had the swimming pool covered over to create the Press Briefing Room, the West Wing ground floor is the site of a cafeteria, staffed by Naval culinary specialists and called the White House Mess. It is located underneath the Oval Office, and was established by President Truman on June 11,1951. In 1999, The West Wing television series brought greater attention to the workings of the Presidential staff
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and emerged as a figure in world events during the mid-20th century. He directed the United States government during most of the Great Depression and he is often rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U. S. Presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in 1882 to an old, prominent Dutch family from Dutchess County and he attended the elite educational institutions of Groton School, Harvard College, and Columbia Law School. At age 23 in 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt, and he entered politics in 1910, serving in the New York State Senate, and as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson. In 1920, Roosevelt was presidential candidate James M. Coxs running mate and he was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform governor, promoting the enactment of programs to combat the depression besetting the United States at the time.
In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated incumbent Republican president Herbert Hoover in a landslide to win the presidency, Roosevelt took office while in the United States was in the midst of the worst economic crisis in its history. Energized by his victory over polio, FDR relied on his persistent optimism and activism to renew the national spirit. He created numerous programs to support the unemployed and farmers, and to labor union growth while more closely regulating business. His support for the repeal of Prohibition in 1933 added to his popularity, the economy improved rapidly from 1933–37, but relapsed into a deep recession in 1937–38. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court, when the war began and unemployment ended, conservatives in Congress repealed the two major relief programs, the WPA and CCC. However, they kept most of the regulations on business, along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Wagner Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Social Security.
His goal was to make America the Arsenal of Democracy, which would supply munitions to the Allies, in March 1941, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to Britain and China. He supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort, as an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented a war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers and initiate the development of the worlds first atomic bomb. His work influenced the creation of the United Nations. Roosevelts physical health declined during the war years, and he died 11 weeks into his fourth term. One of the oldest Dutch families in New York State, the Roosevelts distinguished themselves in other than politics. One ancestor, Isaac Roosevelt, had served with the New York militia during the American Revolution, Roosevelt attended events of the New York society Sons of the American Revolution, and joined the organization while he was president
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921. Born in Staunton, Virginia, he spent his years in Augusta and Columbia. In 1910, he was the New Jersey Democratic Partys gubernatorial candidate and was elected the 34th Governor of New Jersey, while in office, Wilson reintroduced the spoken State of the Union, which had been out of use since 1801. Leading the Congress that was now in Democratic hands, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. The Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, through passage of the Adamson Act that imposed an 8-hour workday for railroads, he averted a railroad strike and an ensuing economic crisis. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality, Wilson faced former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes in the presidential election of 1916. By a narrow margin, he became the first Democrat since Andrew Jackson elected to two consecutive terms, Wilsons second term was dominated by American entry into World War I.
In April 1917, when Germany had resumed unrestricted submarine warfare and sent the Zimmermann Telegram, the United States conducted military operations alongside the Allies, although without a formal alliance. During the war, Wilson focused on diplomacy and financial considerations, leaving military strategy to the generals, loaning billions of dollars to Britain and other Allies, the United States aided their finance of the war effort. On the home front, he raised taxes, borrowing billions of dollars through the publics purchase of Liberty Bonds. In his 1915 State of the Union Address, Wilson asked Congress for what became the Espionage Act of 1917, the crackdown was intensified by his Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to include expulsion of non-citizen radicals during the First Red Scare of 1919–1920. Wilson staffed his government with Southern Democrats who implemented racial segregation at the Treasury, Navy and he gave department heads greater autonomy in their management. Following his return from Europe, Wilson embarked on a tour in 1919 to campaign for the treaty.
The treaty was met with concern by Senate Republicans, and Wilson rejected a compromise effort led by Henry Cabot Lodge. Due to his stroke, Wilson secluded himself in the White House, disability having diminished his power, forming a strategy for re-election, Wilson deadlocked the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but his bid for a third-term nomination was overlooked. Wilson was a devoted Presbyterian and Georgist, and he infused his views of morality into his domestic and he appointed several well known radically progressive single taxers to prominent positions in his administration. His ideology of internationalism is now referred to as Wilsonian, an activist foreign policy calling on the nation to promote global democracy and he was the third of four children of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow. Wilsons paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone and his mother was born in Carlisle, the daughter of Rev. Dr. Thomas Woodrow from Paisley and Marion Williamson from Glasgow