Charles W. Fairbanks
Charles Warren Fairbanks was an American politician who served as the 26th vice president of the United States from 1905 to 1909 and a senator from Indiana from 1897 to 1905. He was the Republican vice presidential nominee in the 1916 presidential election. Born in Unionville Center, Fairbanks moved to Indianapolis after graduating from Ohio Wesleyan University, he became an railroad financier, working under railroad magnate Jay Gould. Fairbanks delivered the keynote address at the 1896 Republican National Convention and won election to the Senate the following year. In the Senate, he became an advisor to President William McKinley and served on a commission that helped settle the Alaska boundary dispute; the 1904 Republican National Convention selected Fairbanks as the running mate for President Theodore Roosevelt. As vice president, Fairbanks worked against Roosevelt's progressive policies. Fairbanks unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination at the 1908 Republican National Convention and backed William Howard Taft in 1912 against Roosevelt.
Fairbanks sought the presidential nomination at the 1916 Republican National Convention, but was instead selected as the vice presidential nominee, serving on a ticket with Charles Evans Hughes. In the 1916 election, the Republican ticket lost to the Democratic ticket of President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall. Fairbanks was born in a log cabin near Unionville Center, the son of Mary Adelaide and Loriston Monroe Fairbanks, a wagon-maker. Fairbanks in his youth saw his family's home used as a hiding place for runaway slaves. After attending country schools and working on a farm, Fairbanks attended Ohio Wesleyan University, where he graduated in 1872. While there, Fairbanks was co-editor of the school newspaper with Cornelia Cole, whom he married after both graduated from the school. Fairbanks's first position was as an agent of the Associated Press in Pittsburgh, reporting on political rallies for Horace Greeley during the 1872 presidential election, he studied law in Pittsburgh before moving to Cleveland, where he continued to work for the Associated Press while attending a semester at Cleveland Law School to complete his legal education.
Fairbanks was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1874, moved to Indianapolis, Indiana. In 1875 he received his master of arts degree from Ohio Wesleyan. During his early years in Indiana, Fairbanks was paid $5,000 a year as manager for the bankrupt Indianapolis and Western Railroad. With the assistance of his uncle, Charles W. Smith, whose connections had helped him obtain the position, Fairbanks was able to become a railroad financier, served as counsel for millionaire Jay Gould. Prior to the 1888 Republican National Convention, federal judge Walter Q. Gresham sought Fairbanks's help in campaigning for the Republican nomination for U. S. President; when Benjamin Harrison won the nomination, Fairbanks supported him and made campaign speeches on his behalf. Afterwards, Fairbanks began to take an greater interest in politics, made campaign speeches on Harrison's behalf again in the campaign of 1892. In 1893, Fairbanks was a candidate for the United States Senate, but Democrats controlled the state legislature and reelected incumbent Democrat David Turpie.
In 1894, Fairbanks was the most visible organizer and speaker on behalf of Republicans in elections for the state legislature. He was credited with delivering Republican majorities to both the Indiana House of Representatives and Indiana Senate, ensuring that a Republican would be elected to succeed Daniel W. Voorhees in the United States Senate at the end of Voorhees's term in 1897. At the 1896 Republican National Convention, Fairbanks was both temporary chairman and keynote speaker, further raising his public profile. Fairbanks was the most Republican candidate for Voorhees's seat, in January 1897 Republican legislators formally chose him as their nominee. On January 19, 1897, Fairbanks was elected to the Senate, he took his seat on March 4. During his eight years in the U. S. Senate, Fairbanks served as a key advisor to McKinley during the Spanish–American War and was the Chairman of the Committee on Immigration and the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds. In 1898, Fairbanks was appointed a member of the United States and British Joint High Commission which met in Quebec City for the adjustment of Canadian questions, including the boundary dispute about Alaska.
Fairbanks was elected Vice President of the United States in 1904 on the Republican ticket with Theodore Roosevelt and served a four-year term, 1905 to 1909. He became the first vice president to serve a complete term without casting any tie-breaking votes as President of the Senate. Fairbanks, a conservative whom Roosevelt had once labeled a "reactionary machine politician" worked against Roosevelt's progressive "Square Deal" program. Roosevelt did not give Fairbanks a significant role in his administration, promoted William Howard Taft as his potential successor in 1908. Fairbanks sought the Republican nomination for President, but was unsuccessful and returned to the practice of law. In 1912, Fairbanks supported Taft's reelection against Roosevelt's Bull Moose candidacy. In 1916, Fairbanks was in charge of establishing the platform for the Republican party, he sought that year's Republican presidential nomination at the party's June convention. When Charles Evans Hughes was nominated, Fairbanks was chosen as the vice presidential nominee.
In November and Fairbanks lost a close election to the Democratic incumbents Woodrow Wilson and Thomas Marshall. Fairbanks and Adlai Stevenso
James J. Belden
James Jerome Belden was an American politician and a U. S. Representative from New York. Born in Fabius, New York, Belden was the son of Royal Denison Belding and Olive Cadwell and attended the common schools, he married Mary Anna Gere and they had a daughter, Harriet Anna Belden. After completing his education in local schools, Belden worked in a Jefferson County store to learn bookkeeping and accounting, he went into banking in Syracuse, New York, in 1880. He was active in construction, completing many railroad and public works projects, he was President of the company that published the Syracuse Post, was a hotel owner. In 1877 and 1878, he served as mayor of New York. Belden was elected as a Republican to the Fiftieth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Frank Hiscock, elected to the office of United States Senator. Reelected to the Fifty-first and Fifty-second Congresses, Belden served as U. S. Representative for the twenty-fifth district of New York from November 8, 1887 to March 3, 1893.
He was elected for the Fifty-third Congress and served as U. S. Representative for the twenty-seventh district of New York from March 4, 1893 to March 3, 1895, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1894. Again elected to the Fifty-fifth Congress, Belden served as U. S. Representative for the twenty-seventh district of New York from March 4, 1897 to March 3, 1899, he retired to Syracuse. Belden died, of uremic poisoning, in Syracuse, Onondaga County, New York, on January 1, 1904, he is interred at Oakwood Cemetery. When he died, he was Syracuse's richest citizen with his wealth being estimated at $10 million, according to an obituary in The Sheffield Observer on January 7, 1914. United States Congress. "James J. Belden". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
1908 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1908 was the 31st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1908. Secretary of War and Republican Party nominee William Howard Taft defeated three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan. Popular incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt honored his promise not to seek a third term, persuaded his close friend, Taft, to become his successor. With Roosevelt's support, Taft won the presidential nomination of the 1908 Republican National Convention on the first ballot. Having lost the 1904 election badly, the Democratic Party re-nominated Bryan, defeated in 1896 and 1900 by Republican William McKinley. Despite his two previous defeats and the waning of the Free Silver issue, Bryan remained popular among the more liberal and populist elements of the Democratic Party. Bryan ran a vigorous campaign against the nation's business elite, but the Democrat suffered the worst loss of his three presidential campaigns. Taft carried most states outside of the Solid South.
Taft's triumph gave Republicans their fourth straight presidential election victory. Two third party candidates, Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party and Eugene W. Chafin of the Prohibition Party, each took over 1% of the popular vote. Republican candidates: Charles W. Fairbanks, Vice President of the United States Joseph B. Foraker, Senator from Ohio Philander C. Knox, Senator from Pennsylvania Robert M. La Follette, Sr. Senator from Wisconsin L. M. Shaw, former Secretary of the Treasury William Howard Taft, Secretary of War The Republican nomination contest marked the introduction of the presidential preference primary; the idea of the primary to nominate candidates was sponsored by anti-machine politicians such as New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes and Senator Albert B. Cummins; the first state to hold a presidential primary to select delegates to a national convention was Florida in 1904, when Democratic Party voters held a primary among uninstructed candidates for delegate. Early in 1908, the only two Republican contenders running nationwide campaigns for the presidential nomination were Secretary of War William Howard Taft and Governor Joseph B.
Foraker, both of Ohio. In the nomination contest, four states held primaries to select national convention delegates. In Ohio, the state Republican Party held a primary on February 11. Candidates pledged to Taft were printed on the ballot in a Taft column, candidates pledged to Foraker were printed in a column under his name. Taft won a resounding victory in Ohio; the three states holding primaries to select delegates without the preference component were split: California chose a slate of delegates that supported Taft. La Follette, Sr. and Pennsylvania elected a slate that supported its Senator Philander C. Knox; the 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago between June 16 and 19. William Howard Taft was nominated with 702 votes to 68 for Knox, 67 for Hughes, 58 for Cannon, 40 for Fairbanks, 25 for La Follette, 16 for Foraker, 3 for President Roosevelt, one abstention. Representative James S. Sherman from New York received the vice-presidential nomination; as the 1908 election approached, William Jennings Bryan was the front-runner for the Democratic presidential nomination.
Bryan's most formidable challenger for the nomination was Minnesota Governor John Albert Johnson. Johnson's rags-to-riches story, reformist credentials, ability to win in a Republican state made him popular within the Democratic Party. In March, the Minnesota Democratic State Convention endorsed Johnson for president. By the end of June, Bryan had amassed more than the requisite two-thirds of the delegates needed for nomination; the 1908 Democratic National Convention was held in Denver between July 7 and 10. Johnson, aware of the fact that Bryan's nomination was a foregone conclusion, released his delegates, thereby allowing Bryan to win the nomination on the first ballot. Bryan left the choice of vice-president to the delegates. John W. Kern from Indiana was unanimously declared the candidate for vice-president without a formal ballot after the names of Charles A. Towne, Archibald McNeil, Clark Howell were withdrawn from consideration. Kern was two-time gubernatorial candidate. In response to nomination of Bryan and Kern, The New York Times disparagingly pointed out that the Democratic national ticket was consistent because "a man twice defeated for the Presidency was at the head of it, a man twice defeated for governor of his state was at the tail of it."
Independence candidates: John T. Graves, Journalist from New York William Randolph Hearst, former U. S. representative and newspaper magnate from New York Thomas L. Hisgen and former Gubernatorial candidate from Massachusetts Milford W. Howard, former U. S. representative from Alabama Reuben R. Lyon, Lawyer from New York Disappointed with his performance in the 1904 Democratic presidential nomination campaign, disillusioned as to his chances of attaining it in 1908, William Randolph Hearst decided to run instead on the ticket of a third party of his own making. Borne from the Municipal Ownership League, a vehicle for Hearst's unsuccessful bid for the mayoralty of New York in 1905, it was Hearst's intention to fuse it with the remnants of the Populist Party led by Thomas Watson, a former Representative from Georgia, its presidential nominee in 1904. However, these intentions were dashed when every candidate that the Independence Party put forth in elections held in New York was elected except Hearst himself, despite an endorsement by the Democratic Party.
Devastated, Hearst declared his
Sherman Indian High School
Sherman Indian High School is an off-reservation boarding high school for Native Americans. Opened in 1892 as the Perris Indian School, in Perris, the school was relocated to Riverside, California in 1903, under the name Sherman Institute; when the school was accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges in 1971, it became known as Sherman Indian High School. Operated by the Bureau of Indian Education/Bureau of Indian Affairs and the United States Government Department of the Interior, the school serves grades 9 through 12; the school mascot is the Brave and the school colors are purple and yellow. There are seven dormitory facilities on the SIHS grounds; the male facilities are Wigwam and Kiva. Female facilities are Wauneka and Winona; the last dorm is Hogan. In addition to the seven dorms, there is a set of 13 honor apartments named Sunset. Only four dorms are available for students to live in including Wigwam, Ramona and Winona. According to the Sherman Indian Museum, SIHS was founded by the United States Government in order to assimilate Native Americans into the mainstream society.
SIHS was known as the Perris Indian School, established in 1892 under the direction of Mr. M. S. Savage; this was the first off-reservation boarding school in California. The enrollment consisted of Southern California Indian children from the Tule River Agency to San Diego County. Students ranged in age from 5 years old to early 20s; the main subjects taught were domestic science. The 80-acre site in Perris, California was at the corner of today's Perris Boulevard and Morgan Street. Due to an inadequate water supply to conduct the primary subjects at the school, a better location was sought. By 1901 a site in the city of Riverside was selected, at the corner of Magnolia Avenue and Jackson Street. On July 19, 1901, the cornerstone was laid for the new school building of Sherman Institute. Perris Indian School remained in operation until December 1904 when the remaining students were transferred to Riverside, it was named after Congressman James S. Sherman, who helped establish funding for the school in 1900.
The Mission Revival Style architecture was considered a novelty when the school was built, the city promoted the school as one of the landmarks to visit by tourists. To meet earthquake standards, most of the original school buildings were demolished during the 1970s, new structures were built in their place; the California Native Tribes were required to pay for the new buildings. During the 2008–09 school year, SIHS administration removed more than 30 staff from their facility, upsetting the students; the students protested, to no effect. Officials stated that there were not enough BIA funds to pay the employees, let go; that same year, traditional ceremonies for the school's annual spring pow-wow were replaced with Christian prayers. The Sherman Museum is the school's only original architecture; the building has been designated a National Historic Landmark and Riverside Landmark number 16. In 1995 Huell Howser Productions, in association with KCET/Los Angeles, featured Sherman Institute High School in California's Gold.
Because of Bureau of Indian Affairs policies, students did not return home for several years. Those who died were buried in the school cemetery. May 3 marks an old tradition amongst the local tribes where many local reservations decorate their cemeteries with flowers and replace old crosses. Sherman Indian High School designates this as Indian Flower Day; every year, in mid-April, Sherman hosts a one-day pow-wow. The event ends Sherman's parent-teacher conference week. SIHS holds an annual Talent Show on the Thursday of that week; the Miss Sherman Pageant occurs during this week annually, traditionally on Friday, the evening before the pow-wow. Reggie Attache, professional American football player, attended SIHS Elmer Busch, professional American football player, attended from 1907–1910 Jean Fredericks, attended after receiving grade school education on the Third Mesa Hopi Reservation Mathew B. Juan, SIHS graduate, Native American hero of World War I Bemus Pierce, professional American football player, coached Sherman Braves in 1902 and 1903 Saint Boniface Indian School, in Banning, California Clifford E. Trafzer, Matthew Sakiestewa Gilbert, Lorene Sisquoc, eds..
The Indian School on Magnolia Avenue: Voices and Images from Sherman Institute. Oregon State University Press. ISBN 978-0870716935. OCLC 821804322. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Paxton, Katrina A.. "7. Learning Gender: Female Students at the Sherman Institute, 1907–1925". In Clifford E. Trafzer, Jean A. Keller, Lorene Sisquoc. Boarding House Blues: Revisiting American Indian Educational Experiences. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0803244467. OCLC 63703921. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter Official website Sherman Indian Museum
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Thomas R. Marshall
Thomas Riley Marshall was an American politician who served as the 28th vice president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A prominent lawyer in Indiana, he became an active and well known member of the Democratic Party by stumping across the state for other candidates and organizing party rallies that helped him win election as the 27th governor of Indiana. In office, he proposed a controversial progressive change to the Constitution of Indiana. Marshall's popularity as Indiana governor, the state's status as a critical swing state, helped him secure the Democratic vice presidential nomination on a ticket with Wilson in 1912 and win the subsequent general election. An ideological rift developed between the two men during their first term, leading Wilson to limit Marshall's influence in the administration, his brand of humor caused Wilson to move Marshall's office away from the White House. During Marshall's second term he delivered morale-boosting speeches across the nation during World War I and became the first U.
S. vice president to hold cabinet meetings. As he was President of the United States Senate, a small number of anti-war Senators kept it deadlocked by refusing to end debate. To enable critical wartime legislation to be passed, Marshall had the body adopt its first procedural rule allowing filibusters to be ended by a two-thirds majority vote—a variation of this rule remains in effect. Marshall's vice presidency is most remembered for a leadership crisis following a stroke that incapacitated Wilson in October 1919; because of their personal dislike for him, Wilson's advisers and wife Edith sought to keep Marshall uninformed about the president's condition to prevent him from assuming presidential powers and duties. Many people, including cabinet officials and Congressional leaders, urged Marshall to become acting president, but he refused to forcibly assume Wilson's powers and duties for fear of setting a precedent. Without strong leadership in the executive branch, the administration's opponents defeated the ratification of the League of Nations treaty and returned the United States to an isolationist foreign policy.
Marshall is the only known Vice President of the United States to have been targeted in an assassination attempt while in office. Marshall was the first Vice President since Daniel D. Tompkins, nearly a century earlier, to serve two full terms. Marshall was known for his sense of humor. After his terms as vice president, he opened an Indianapolis law practice, where he authored several legal books and his memoir, Recollections, he continued to speak publicly. Marshall died while on a trip after suffering a heart attack in 1925. Thomas Marshall's paternal grandfather, Riley Marshall, immigrated to Indiana in 1817 and settled on a farm in present-day Whitley County, he became wealthy. The money allowed him to purchase a modest estate and spend the rest of his life as an active member of the Indiana Democratic Party, serving as an Indiana State Senator, party chairman, financial contributor, he was able to send his only child, Daniel, to medical school. Marshall's mother, Martha Patterson, was orphaned at age thirteen while living in Ohio and moved to Indiana to live with her sister on a farm near the Marshalls' home.
Martha was known for her wit and humor, as her son would be. Martha and Daniel met and married in 1848. Thomas Riley Marshall was born in North Manchester, Indiana, on March 14, 1854. Two years a sister was born, but she died in infancy. Martha had contracted tuberculosis, which Daniel believed to be the cause of their infant daughter's poor health. While Marshall was still a young boy, his family moved several times in search of a good climate for Daniel to attempt different "outdoor cures" on Martha, they moved first to Quincy, Illinois in 1857. While the family was living in Illinois, Daniel Marshall, a supporter of the American Union and a staunch Democrat, took his four-year-old son, Thomas, to the Lincoln and Douglas debate in Freeport in 1858. Marshall recalled that during the rally he sat on the laps of Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln, alternating between the two candidates when they were not speaking, remembered it as one of his earliest and most cherished memories; the family moved to Osawatomie, Kansas, in 1859, but the frontier violence caused them to move to Missouri in 1860.
Daniel succeeded in curing Martha's disease. As the American Civil War neared, violence spread into Missouri during the Bleeding Kansas incidents. In October 1860 several men led by Duff Green demanded that Daniel Marshall provide medical assistance to the pro-slavery faction, but he refused, the men left; when the Marshalls' neighbors warned that Green was planning to return and murder them, the family packed their belongings and escaped by steamboat to Illinois. The Marshalls remained in Illinois only before relocating to Indiana, farther from the volatile border region. On settling in Pierceton, Marshall began to attend public school, his father and grandfather became embroiled in a dispute with their Methodist minister when they refused to vote Republican in the 1862 election. The minister threatene