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James Scullin

James Henry Scullin was an Australian Labor Party politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia. Scullin led Labor to government at the 1929 election; the Wall Street Crash of 1929 transpired just two days after his swearing in, which would herald the beginning of the Great Depression in Australia. Scullin's administration would soon be overwhelmed by the economic crisis, with interpersonal and policy disagreements causing a three-way split of his party that would bring down the government in late 1931. Despite his chaotic term of office, Scullin remained a leading figure in the Labor movement throughout his lifetime, served as an éminence grise in various capacities for the party until his retirement in 1949; the son of working-class Irish-immigrants, Scullin spent much of his early life as a laborer and grocer in Ballarat. An autodidact and passionate debater, Scullin would join the Australian Labor Party in 1903, beginning a career spanning five decades, he was a political organizer and newspaper editor for the party, was elected to the House of Representatives first in 1910 and again in 1922 until 1949.

Scullin established himself as a leading voice in parliament rising to become deputy leader of the party in 1927 and Leader of the Opposition in 1928. After Scullin had won a landslide election in 1929, events took a dramatic change with the crisis on Wall Street and the rapid onset of the Great Depression around the world, which hit indebted Australia hard. Scullin and his Treasurer Ted Theodore responded by developing several plans during 1930 and 1931 to repay foreign debt, provide relief to farmers and create economic stimulus to curb unemployment based on deficit spending and expansionary monetary policy. Although the Keynesian Revolution would see these ideas adopted by most Western nations by the end of the decade, in 1931 such ideas were considered radical and the plans were bitterly opposed by many who feared hyperinflation and economic ruin; the still opposition-dominated Senate, the conservative-dominated boards of the Commonwealth Bank and Loan Council blocked the plans. With the prospect of bankruptcy facing the government, Scullin backed down and instead advanced the Premiers' Plan, a far more conservative measure that met the crisis with severe cutbacks in government spending.

Pensioners and other core Labor constituencies were affected by the cuts, leading to a widespread revolt and multiple defections in parliament. After several months of infighting the government collapsed, was resoundingly defeated by the newly formed United Australia Party at the subsequent 1931 election. Scullin would remain party leader for four more years but the party split would not be healed until after Scullin's return to the backbenches in 1935. Scullin became a respected elder voice within the party and leading authority on taxation and government finance, would play a significant role in reforming both when Labor returned to government in 1941. Although disappointed with his own term of office, he nonetheless lived long enough to see many of his government's ideas implemented by subsequent governments before his death in 1953. James Henry Scullin was born in Trawalla, Victoria on 18 September 1876, his parents and Ann Scullin, were both Irish Catholics from County Londonderry. His father was a railway labourer.

His mother joined her husband in Australia later. James was the fourth of eight children, grew up in a tight-knit and devoutly Catholic home. James attended the Trawalla State School from 1881 to 1887 and earned an early reputation as an active and quick-witted boy, though never physically robust; these characteristics would remain with him for life. The family moved to Mount Rowan, Ballarat in 1887, the young James attended school at Mount Rowan State School until 12. Thereafter he held various manual odd-jobs in the Ballarat district until about 1900, for ten years from 1900 he ran a grocer's shop in Ballarat. In his mid-20s he attended night school, was a voracious reader and became somewhat of an autodidact, he joined a number of societies and was active in the Australian Natives' Association and the Catholic Young Men's Society becoming president of the latter. He was a skilled debater, participating in local competitions and having an association with the Ballarat South Street debating society for nearly 30 years, which would prove formative to his interest and talent in politics.

Scullin was a non-drinker and a non-smoker all his life. Scullin became active in politics during his years in Ballarat, being influenced by the ideas of Tom Mann and the growing labour movement in Victoria, as were many of his ministerial colleagues such as Frank Anstey, John Curtin and Frank Brennan, he became a foundation member of his local Political Labor Council in 1903 and was active in local politics thereafter. He was a campaigner and political organizer for the Australian Workers' Union, the union movement with which he would remain most associated throughout his career, he spoke around Ballarat on political issues and helped with Labor campaigns at state and federal level. At the 1906 federal election he was selected as the Labor candidate for the seat of Ballarat against Prime Minister Alfred Deakin. Although a race in which Labor had no chance of winning, Scullin ran a spirited campaign and impressed those within the movement for his efforts. On 11 November 1907 he married a dressmaker from Ballarat.

The marriage was childless. Due to Scullin's frequent and serious bouts of illness over his long career, Sarah served the role as her husband's protector and was a crucial source of su

Jefferson County Courthouse (Texas)

The Jefferson County Courthouse in Beaumont, Texas is one of the tallest courthouses in the state, is an excellent example of Art Deco architecture. Built in 1931, it is the fourth courthouse built in Jefferson County, it was designed by Fred Stone and Augustin Babin, is thirteen stories high. In 1981, an annex was added to the west side of the courthouse; the county has had four courthouses. The first building built by the county was a simple wood structure built to serve as the county jail; the second courthouse was a simple two story square structure. A third courthouse, a three-story red brick building designed by E. T. Heiner, was built in 1893. By the late 1920s Beaumont had grown so much that the courthouse was inadequate to meet the needs of the people, by early 1931 the present brick structure was completed; the architects were Fred C. Stone & A. Babin; the building has retained nearly all of its originality over the years, including its marble interior, but in 1981 an annex was added to the west side to increase space.

The annex connects to the original courthouse through the basement and second floors. The only public entrance is through the annex due to recent security upgrades. Floors eight through thirteen of the courthouse once served as the county jail, one can tell by the barred windows. Today the space is used for storage. A $22 million restoration project is underway. Phase one was completed in May 2009 when the copper roof from the 1940s was replaced with a multicolored tile roof, similar to the original. Phase two began August 2010, will clean and restore granite and windows from the fifth to 13th floor. National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Texas Jefferson County Courthouse Texasescapes.com

Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular

Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular known as Waterworld, is an attraction based on the 1995 film Waterworld found at Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal Studios Japan, Universal Studios Singapore. The original attraction opened at the same time as the film. Although the film was considered a critical and financial disappointment, the show was praised, winning a 1996 Thea Award from the Themed Entertainment Association; the attraction remains rated by park guests. Adapted by Ben Hurst, the attraction's story occurs after the events of the movie, beginning with Helen's return from "Dryland" to get her friends from the "Atoll"; the show includes the characters Helen, the Deacon, the Mariner, as well as several "Atollers" and "Smokers". The show is 16 minutes long and includes stunts on water and overhead, supported by many pyrotechnic, flame and other special effects, including the explosive crash landing of the seaplane; the stunt show's unique soundtrack was crafted from snips from the movie score.

The seating is in three sections of arena seating. The first five row of seats are the "Soak Zones", which are the target of splashes from the Jet Skis and various wet special effects; the show begins with the Atollers noticing that Helen is returning and they signal back and open the gate to let her in the atoll. She that the Smokers are after her; the seaplane attacks the atoll while water ski's. One of the Smokers opens the gate to let the other Smokers inside. Helen and the others fight them using water cannons but the Atollers are one by one killed while Helen jumps from the tower that she's standing on before it collapses. One Smoker signals the Deacon, who arrives in his ship. During his arrival, he swings a golf ball to the audience as a greeting, takes Helen hostage, demanding that she tell him the whereabouts of Dryland and has one of the surviving Atollers dropped into a toxic tank when she refuses. A Smoker realizes that the Mariner is coming, who emerges from underwater to get into the atoll, leading to a massive brawl between Helen, the Mariner, the Smokers that ends with all the Smokers being killed, with the Mariner killed as well.

The Deacon proceeds to escape with Helen, but the Mariner, who survived, rescues her and resumes the fight against the Deacon. During the fight, the Deacon accidentally shoots down the seaplane. In the end, Helen sets the Deacon on fire, killing him; this lights the leaking fuel in the water. Helen and the Mariner manage to escape on Helen's boat before the fuel tank explodes, ending the show. "Action Horizons". Action Horizons. Retrieved January 12, 2010. "AET Company Profile". Advanced Entertainment Technologies. Retrieved January 9, 2010. "Amphibian Stunts: Exciting and Reliable Live Shows". Amphibian Stunts. Retrieved January 9, 2010. "Flame Effects". The Attraction Services Company. 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2010. "News". Birket Engineering. Retrieved January 9, 2010. "Waterworld". Grayson Production Services. Retrieved January 9, 2010. "Norm Kahn". Utopia Entertainment. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2010. Media related to Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular at Wikimedia Commons

Approximate limit

In mathematics, the approximate limit is a generalization of the ordinary limit for real-valued functions of several real variables. A function f on R k has an approximate limit y at a point x if there exists a set F that has density 1 at the point such that if xn is a sequence in F that converges towards x f converges towards y; the approximate limit of a function, if it exists, is unique. If f has an ordinary limit at x it has an approximate limit with the same value. We denote the approximate limit of f at x0 by lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f. Many of the properties of the ordinary limit are true for the approximate limit. In particular, if a is a scalar and f and g are functions, the following equations are true if values on the right-hand side are well-defined lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ a ⋅ f = a ⋅ lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ = lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f + lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ g lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ = lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f − lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ g lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ = lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f ⋅ lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ g lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ = lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f / lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ g If lim x → x 0 ap ⁡ f

David Hughes (astronomer)

David W. Hughes was a professor of astronomy at the University of Sheffield, where he worked since 1965. Hughes has published over 200 research papers on asteroids, comets and meteoroids, he has written on the history of astronomy, the origin of the Solar System and the impact threat to planet Earth. Hughes taught undergraduates at the University of Sheffield, specialising in the history of astronomy and planetary studies, geophysics; the University gave him an emeritus chair. Hughes was born in East Retford and educated at Mundella School, Birmingham University and Oxford University, where he got a D. Phil in solar astrophysics. Hughes has appeared on TV, most notably with the live coverage of the ESA Giotto space mission to Halley's Comet and discussing the Star of Bethlehem.. Since retiring Hughes has spent his life in Sheffield writing about astronomy, being a member of the Royal Astronomical Society's Astronomy Heritage Committee, he enjoys giving astronomy talks on cruise ships, where, on many occasions, he represents the Smithsonian Museum in Washington DC.

Hughes enjoys collecting Chinese ceramics and cast-iron railway signs. He is married to Carole Stott and they have two children and Owen; the Mars-crossing asteroid 4205 David Hughes, discovered by Edward Bowell in 1985, was named in his honor. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 2 November 1990

Cumberland station (CTA)

Cumberland is a station on the Chicago Transit Authority's'L' system. Situated on the Blue Line between Rosemont and Harlem, the station is located in the median of the Kennedy Expressway at Cumberland Avenue in the O'Hare neighborhood on Chicago's Northwest Side, it is in close proximity to both the Norwood Park neighborhood and the city of Park Ridge. The area surrounding the station consists of mixed residential development; the Cumberland station was first proposed in 1972 as part of an extension of the Blue Line from Logan Square to O'Hare International Airport. The station opened on February 1983, along with Harlem and Rosemont; the three new stations brought 6,000 new riders to the northwest CTA line in the following month, Cumberland became attractive to suburban commuters. The station at Cumberland consists of a single island platform; the station includes a bus terminal and a park and ride lot. Trains serve Cumberland 24 hours a day every day. In addition to trains, Cumberland serves CTA buses, Pace buses, Burlington Trailways buses, Greyhound buses.

Cumberland is located at the junction of the Kennedy Expressway. The station is located on a border between Norwood Park, it is the closest'L' station to the city of Park Ridge, which borders Chicago along Higgins Road north of the station. The area surrounding the station consists of a mixture of planned development and residential areas. Citicorp Plaza, an office building which houses the headquarters of telecommunications provider U. S. Cellular, is located to the south of Cumberland at 8410 W. Bryn Mawr; the Renaissance Chicago O'Hare Suites Hotel is located near the station at 8500 W. Bryn Mawr; the extension of the CTA line in the median of the Kennedy Expressway from Jefferson Park to O'Hare Airport, which included the construction of the Cumberland station, was first proposed by Mayor Richard J. Daley in 1972 by the Chicago Public Works Commission; the cost of this project was estimated at $80 million. The Chicago Plan Commission approved the project on August 8, 1974; the federal government approved the project and agreed to provide 80 percent of the funds for its construction in 1978, construction on the 7.9-mile extension began in March 1980.

The extension was planned to open in 1982. The section of the extension from Jefferson Park to River Road, including Cumberland, opened on February 27, 1983; the final cost of the extension was $198.9 million, with the Cumberland station costing $10 million. In the month following the opening of the three new stations 6,000 additional commuters used the northwest service; the Cumberland station became attractive to suburban commuters from Des Plaines and Park Ridge. The influx of suburban commuters to the new Blue Line stops led to a fall in ridership on the Chicago & Northwestern's Northwest Line, which traditionally served the northwest suburbs near the new stops; the Cumberland station was designed by Wojciech M. Madeyski of the architectural firm Perkins and Will. Cumberland's island platform is located in the median of the Kennedy Expressway to the west of Cumberland Avenue, it serves the Blue Line's two tracks. Electronic signs on the platform offer real-time information about train arrivals and service alerts.

A pedestrian overpass connects the platform to entrances on the north and south sides of the expressway. The north side of the overpass leads to an exit stairway, while the south side leads to the main station building; the station building houses Rock Bow by Charles Ross. Cumberland's bus terminal and park and ride lot are located south of the platform; the park and ride lot is operated by CPS Parking. The facilities at Cumberland are handicapped accessible. Cumberland is part of the CTA's Blue Line, which runs from O'Hare Airport to downtown Chicago and Forest Park, it is the third inbound station from O'Hare on the Blue Line and is situated between the Rosemont and Harlem stations. Blue Line trains serve Cumberland 24 hours a day every day; the station is seven minutes from O'Hare, 31 minutes from Clark/Lake in the Loop, 52 minutes from Forest Park. 1,304,280 passengers boarded at Cumberland in 2011. CTA 81W West Lawrence Pace 240 Dee Road 241 Greenwood/Talcott 290 Touhy Avenue 331 Cumberland/5th Avenue Greyhound Cumberland services several bus routes in addition to'L' trains.

One CTA bus route terminate at the station