click links in text for more info

James Silk Buckingham

James Silk Buckingham was a Cornish-born author and traveller, known for his contributions to Indian journalism. He was a pioneer among the Europeans. Buckingham was born at Flushing near Falmouth on 25 August 1786, the son of Thomasine Hambly of Bodmin and Christopher Buckingham of Barnstaple, his father, his ancestors, were seafaring men. James was the youngest of three boys and four girls and his youth was spent at sea; the property of his deceased parents consisted of houses, land and shares, left to the three youngest children. In 1797 he was held as a prisoner of war at Corunna. In 1821, his Travels in Palestine was published, followed by Travels Among the Arab Tribes in 1825. After years of wandering he settled in India, where he established a periodical, the Calcutta Journal, in 1818; this venture at first proved successful, but in 1823 the paper's outspoken criticisms of the East India Company led to the expulsion of Buckingham from India and to the suppression of the paper by John Adam, the acting governor-general in 1823.

His case was brought before a select committee of the House of Commons in 1834, a pension of £500 a year was subsequently awarded to him by the East India Company as compensation. Buckingham continued his journalistic ventures on his return to England. Between 1832 and 1836 Buckingham served as MP for Sheffield, he was a strong advocate of social reform, calling for the end of flogging in the armed services, abolition of the press-gang and the repeal of the Corn Laws. Following his retirement from parliament, in October 1837, Buckingham began a four-year tour of North America. In 1844 he was central to the foundation of the British and Foreign Institute in Hanover Square. Buckingham was the former editor of Asiatic Mirror, he was a prolific writer. He had travelled in Europe and the East, wrote many useful travel books, as well as many pamphlets on political and social subjects. "In 1851, the value of these and of his other literary works was recognized by the grant of a Civil List pension of £200 a year.

At the time of his death in London, Buckingham was at work on his autobiography, two volumes of the intended four being completed and published". This work is important as it mentions in detail the life of the black composer Joseph Antonio Emidy who settled in Truro. In February 1806, Buckingham married the daughter of a Cornish farmer. Buckingham died after a long illness at Stanhope Lodge, Upper Avenue Road, St John's Wood, London, on 30 June 1855. Buckingham is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery, his youngest son, Leicester Silk Buckingham, was a popular playwright. Contribution For the Commemoration of the Fourth of July, 1838. Contribution For the Commemoration of the Fourth of July 1838. Written on a couch of sickness. By J S Buckingham, of England, Albany, N. Y. 3 July 1838. America, historical and descriptive. Jackson, Son, London, 1841; the Slaves States of North America, VI. Fisher, Co. London, 1842; the Slaves States of North America, VII. Fisher, Co. London, 1842. National Evils and Practical Remedies.

With the Plan of a Model Town. Jackson, Son, London, 1849.: Travels in Palestine Through the Countries of Bashan and Gilead, East of the River Jordan, Including a Visit to the Cities of Geraza and Gamala in the Decapolis In two volumes.: Travels among the Arab Tribes Inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine. The full text, google-books.: Travels in Mesopotamia Including a Journey from Aleppo to Bagdad By the Route of Beer, Diarbekr and Mosul. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Buckingham, James Silk". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. G. F. R. Barker, ‘Buckingham, James Silk ’, rev. Felix Driver, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 11 Oct 2007 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Silk Buckingham Portraits of James Silk Buckingham at the National Portrait Gallery, London

Maybe (Jay Sean song)

"Maybe" is the second single from Jay Sean's second album My Own Way. It was scheduled to be released on 7 April 2008 but was postponed; the digital download was available on iTunes from 20 April 2008 and for wider release on 20 April 2008, the song physically came out on 28 April 2008. The song reached the Top 20 in the UK Singles Chart, peaking at #19 on the week dated 4 May 2008, it was Sean's most successful song in East Asia, where it reached #7 on the Japan Hot 100 Singles chart. It reached #1 on the Japanese Airplay Charts. A Hindi version sung by Sean was released as part of My Own Way in India. A Mandarin Chinese cover version by Coco Lee has been released in China. Speaking in March 2008 to noted UK R&B writer Pete Lewis of the award-winning Blues & Soul, Jay Sean explained how the song first came about: "I'd been listening to some old skool R&B in my car when I first happened to come up with the melody! As soon as it came into my head, I went to the studio. And, once I got in there, I told the producer'Don't speak to me!

Let me just hum this melody to you before I forget it!'... And, once I'd started singing, he straightaway began playing some guitar around it. So it was all organically written, there was no'Oh, what a cool beat - where's the sample from?'. Instead of being based on production, it was purely about the song, the melody and the lyrics." "Maybe" was planned to be released in the United Kingdom on 7 April 2008 followed by the album My Own Way on 14 April 2008. However, due to unknown reasons both the single and album release dates were pushed back to 21 April 2008 and 12 May 2008 respectively. A Hindi version of the song was released on YouTube. It's known as Shayad. On 14 August 2009, Coco Lee's Mandarin Chinese album East to west contains a cover versions of Jay Sean's "Maybe", called "Love Right Now". Jay Sean has become #1. On 22 February 2008, the video was available to watch on YouTube. On 7 March 2008 the music video premiered on the music channel The Box and BBC. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Sealing wax

Sealing wax is a wax material of a seal which, after melting, hardens forming a bond, difficult to separate without noticeable tampering. Wax is used to verify something such as a document is unopened, to verify the sender's identity, for example with a signet ring, as decoration. Sealing wax can be used to take impressions of other seals. Wax was used to seal letters close and from about the 16th century, envelopes. Before sealing wax, the Romans used bitumen for this purpose. Formulas vary. In the Middle Ages sealing wax was made of beeswax and "Venice turpentine", a greenish-yellow resinous extract of the European Larch tree; the earliest such wax was uncoloured. From the 16th century it was compounded of various proportions of shellac, resin, chalk or plaster, colouring matter, but not beeswax; the proportion of chalk varied. In some situations, such as large seals on public documents, beeswax was used. On occasion, sealing wax has been perfumed by ambergris and other scents. By 1866 many colours were available: gold, black, yellow, green and so on.

Some users, such as the British Crown, assigned different colours to different types of documents. Today a range of synthetic colours are available. Sealing wax is available in the form of sticks, sometimes as granules; the stick is melted at one end, or the granules heated in a spoon using a flame, placed where required on the flap of an envelope. While the wax is still soft, the seal should be and pressed into it and released; the modern day has brought sealing wax to a new level of application. Traditional sealing wax candles are produced in Canada, France and Scotland, with formulations similar to those used historically. Since the advent of a postal system, the use of sealing wax has become more for ceremony than security. Modern times have required new styles of wax, allowing for mailing of the seal without damage or removal; these new waxes are flexible for mailing and are referred to as glue-gun sealing wax, faux sealing wax and flexible sealing wax. Bulla Papal bull Tamper-evident "Sealing Wax".

Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911


Lekbeshi is an urban municipality located in Surkhet District of Karnali Province of Nepal. The total area of the municipality is 180.92 square kilometres and the total population of the municipality as of 2011 Nepal census is 30,295 individuals. The municipality is divided into total 10 wards; the municipality was established on 10 March 2017, when Government of Nepal restricted all old administrative structure and announced 744 local level units as per the new constitution of Nepal 2015. Lekhfarsa, Neta and Satokhani Village development committees were Incorporated to form this new municipality; the headquarters of the municipality is situated at Kalyan

Thinned-array curse

The thinned-array curse is a theorem in electromagnetic theory of antennas. It states that a transmitting antenna, synthesized from a coherent phased array of smaller antenna apertures that are spaced apart will have a smaller minimum beam spot size; the main lobe has a solid angle, smaller by an amount proportional to the ratio of the area of the synthesized array to the total area of the individual apertures. The amount of power, beamed into this main lobe is reduced by an proportional amount, so that the total power density in the beam is constant; the origin of the term is not clear. Robert L. Forward cites use of the term in unpublished Hughes Research Laboratories reports dating from 1976. Consider a number of small sub-apertures that are mutually adjacent to one another, so that they form a filled aperture array. Suppose that they are in orbit, beaming microwaves at a spot on the ground. Now, suppose you hold constant the number of sub-apertures and the power emitted by each, but separate the sub-apertures so as to synthesize a larger aperture.

The spot size on the ground is reduced in size proportionally to the diameter of the synthesized array, but the power density at the ground is unchanged. Thus: The array is radiating the same amount of power, it has the same power per unit area at the center of the receiving spot on the ground. The receiving spot on the ground is smaller. From these three facts, it is clear that if the synthesized aperture has an area A, the total area of it, filled by active transmitters is a at most a fraction a/A of the radiated power reaches the target, the fraction 1 - a/A is lost; this loss shows up in the form of power in side lobes. This theorem can be derived in more detail by considering a filled transmitter array as being the superposition of a filled array plus an array consisting of only the gaps, broadcasting out of phase with the filled array; the interference pattern between the two reduces the power in the main beam lobe by the factor 1 - a/A. Note that the thinned array curse applies only to mutually coherent sources.

If the transmitting sources are not mutually coherent, the size of the ground spot does not depend on the relationship of the individual sources to one another, but is the sum of the individual spots from each source. The thinned array curse means that while synthesized apertures are useful for receivers with high angular resolution, they are not useful for power transmitters, it means that if a filled array transmitter has gaps between individual elements, the main lobe of the beam will lose an amount of power proportional to the area of the gaps. If a transmitter comprises multiple individual transmitters, some of which fail, the power lost from the main lobe will exceed the power of the lost transmitter, because power will be diverted into the side lobes; the thinned array curse has consequences for microwave power transmission and wireless energy transfer concepts such as solar power satellites. A short derivation of the thinned array curse, focusing on the implications for use of lasers to provide impulse for an interstellar probe, can be found in Robert Forward's paper "Roundtrip Interstellar Travel Using Laser Pushed Lightsails."

Radiation pattern

Joseph-Alphonse Esménard

Joseph-Alphonse Esménard was a French poet and the brother of the journalist Jean-Baptiste Esménard. An editor of Royalist newspapers, Esménard left France after 10 August 1792 and travelled throughout Europe, going to England, the Netherlands, Italy and Greece. Returning to Paris in 1797, he wrote for La Quotidienne but was forced to emigrate again after 18 Fructidor, not without first spending two months in the Prison du Temple, he returned to France again after 18 Brumaire, but soon afterwards left for Saint-Domingue as secretary to general Leclerc on the Saint-Domingue expedition. On his return from the expedition, he was made head of the bureau des théâtres under the interior minister thanks to the protection of Savary. Soon after this, however, he left once again to follow admiral Villaret de Joyeuse to Martinique. Esménard came back to France for good, where he received favours from the imperial government for services rendered - censor of theatres and libraries, censor of the Journal de l'Empire and chef de division to the ministry of police.

In 1810, he was elected to the Académie française. For having published a satirical article against one of Napoleon's envoys to Russia in the Journal de l'Empire, he was exiled to Italy for a few months. On his return trip he died in a carriage accident near Naples. Esménard is best known for the didactic and descriptive poem entitled La Navigation, first published in 8 verses in 1805 re-edited to 6 verses in 1806, it is a precise work, drawn from observations made by the author in the course of his travels. Its versification, however, is monotonous and it is marked by a total absence of action and movement. Esménard wrote Le triomphe de Trajan, a three-act opera with music by Jean-François Lesueur, on the life of Trajan but full of flattering allusions to Napoleon I of France, it was produced to triumphal reviews in 1807. He wrote the three-act opera Fernand Cortez ou la conquête du Mexique in collaboration with Victor-Joseph-Étienne de Jouy, with music by Gaspare Spontini; this too proved successful.

He wrote several verses to the glory of Napoleon, collected as La Couronne poétique de Napoléon. Works by or about Joseph-Alphonse Esménard at Internet Archive Académie française