Mount Desert Island
Mount Desert Island in Hancock County, Maine, is the largest island off the coast of Maine. With an area of 108 square miles it is the 52nd-largest island in the United States, the sixth-largest island in the contiguous United States, the second-largest island on the Eastern seaboard, behind Long Island and ahead of Martha's Vineyard. According to the 2010 census, the island has a year-round population of 10,615. In 2017, an estimated 3.5 million tourists visited Acadia National Park on MDI. The island is home to numerous well known summer colonies such as Bar Harbor; some residents stress the second syllable in the French fashion, while others pronounce it like the English common noun desert. French explorer Samuel de Champlain's observation that the summits of the island's mountains were free of vegetation as seen from the sea led him to call the island L’Isle des Monts-déserts. There are four towns on Mount Desert Island: Bar Harbor, with the villages of Eden, Hulls Cove, Salisbury Cove, Town Hill.
Deep shell heaps indicate American Indian encampments dating back 6,000 years in Acadia National Park, but prehistoric data is scanty. The first written descriptions of Maine coast Indians, recorded 100 years after European trade contacts began, describe American Indians who lived off the land by hunting, collecting shellfish, gathering plants and berries; the Wabanaki Indians knew Mount Desert Island as Pemetic, "the sloping land". They built bark-covered conical shelters, traveled in exquisitely designed birch bark canoes. Historical notes record that the Wabanaki wintered in interior forests and spent their summers near the coast. Archeological evidence suggests the opposite pattern; the first meeting between the people of Pemetic and the Europeans is a matter of conjecture, but it was a Frenchman, Samuel de Champlain, who made the first important contribution to the historical record of Mount Desert Island. Champlain led an expedition from the St. Croix Settlement, he was tasked with exploring the coast in a patache with twelve sailors and two American Indian guides.
They were in search of a mythical wealthy American Indian city named Norumbega. On September 6, 1604 the expedition crossed Frenchman Bay and sailed towards Otter Creek, where smoke could be seen rising from an American Indian encampment. During high tide the ship hit a ledge off Otter Cliff and while repairing a hole two American Indians boarded the ship as guides, it is not clear whether Champlain sailed around the Island or was informed by the guides, but on that day, he wrote in his journal, "Le sommet de la plus part d’icelles est desgarny d’arbres parceque ce ne sont que roches. Je l’ay nommée l’Isle des Monts-déserts", which translates to "The mountain summits are all bare and rocky. I name it Isles des Monts Desert." In 1613, French Jesuits, welcomed by Indians, established the first French mission in America—Saint Sauveur Mission—on what is now Fernald Point, near the entrance to Somes Sound. Saint Sauveur Mountain, overlooking the point, still bears the name of the mission; the French missionaries began to build a fort, plant their corn, baptize the natives.
Two months on 2 July 1613, Captain Samuel Argall of the Colony of Virginia arrived on board the Treasurer and destroyed their mission. Three of the missionaries were killed and three were wounded; the rest of the company, some twenty in all, were taken prisoner. Argall took many of the prisoners to Jamestown, he returned to Saint-Sauveur and cut down the cross the Jesuits had planted, replacing it with a Protestant version. He set fire to the few buildings that were there, he went on to burn the remaining French buildings on Saint Croix Island and Port Royal, Nova Scotia. The English raid at Fernald Point signaled the dispute over the boundary between the French colony of Acadia to the north and the English colony of New England to the south. There is evidence that Claude de La Tour challenged the English action by re-establishing a fur-trading post in the nearby village of Castine in the wake of Argall's raid. There was a brief period. In 1688, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, an ambitious young man who had immigrated to New France and bestowed upon himself the title sieur de Cadillac, asked for and received 100,000 acres of land along the Maine coast, including all of Mount Desert.
Cadillac's hopes of establishing a feudal estate in the New World, were short-lived. Although he and his bride resided here for a time, they soon abandoned their enterprise. Cadillac gained lasting recognition as the founder of Detroit; the island's highest point, at 1,528 feet the highest point on the eastern seaboard of the United States, bears the name Cadillac Mountain, is notable for the fact that its summit is among the first points in the United States touched by the rays of the rising sun. During much of the seventeenth century, nearby Castine was the most southern settlement of Acadia. No one settled in this contested territory, for the next 150 years Mount Desert Island's importance was its use as a landmark for seamen, as for example when John Winthrop, first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Angel Island (California)
Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais. The entire island is included within Angel Island State Park and is administered by California State Parks; the island, a California Historical Landmark, has been used for a variety of purposes, including military forts, a US Public Health Service Quarantine Station, a US Bureau of Immigration inspection and detention facility. The Angel Island Immigration Station on the northeast corner of the island, where officials detained and examined one million immigrants, has been designated a National Historic Landmark. Angel Island is the second largest island in area of the San Francisco Bay. On a clear day and Napa can be seen from the north side of the island; the highest point on the island exactly at its center, is Mount Caroline Livermore, more known as Mt Livermore, at a height of 788 feet. The island is entirely in the city of Tiburon, in Marin County, there is a small sliver at the eastern end of it which extends into the territory of the City and County of San Francisco.
The island is separated from the mainland of Marin County by Racoon Strait, the depth of the water 90 feet. The United States Census Bureau reported a land area of 3.107 km² and a population of 57 people as of the 2000 census. Until about ten thousand years ago, Angel Island was connected to the mainland. From about two thousand years ago the island was a fishing and hunting site for Coast Miwok Native Americans. Similar evidence of Native American settlement is found on the nearby mainland of the Tiburon Peninsula upon Ring Mountain. In 1775, the Spanish naval vessel San Carlos made the first European entry to the San Francisco Bay under the command of Juan de Ayala. Ayala anchored off Angel Island, gave it its modern name. In his book Two Years Before the Mast, published in 1840, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. mentions in chapter 26, that in 1834 his sailing ship collected wood from "a small island, about two leagues from the Yerba Buena anchorage, called by us'Wood Island' and by the Mexicans'Isla de los Ángeles' and was covered with trees to the waters edge."
Like much of the California coast, Angel Island was subsequently used for cattle ranching. In 1863, during the American Civil War, the U. S. Army was concerned about Confederate naval raiders attacking San Francisco, it decided to construct artillery batteries on Angel Island, first at Stuart Point and Point Knox. Col. René Edward De Russy was the Chief Engineer; the Army established a camp on the island, it subsequently became an infantry garrison during the US campaigns against Native American peoples in the West. In the 19th century, the army designated the entire island as "Fort McDowell" and developed further facilities there, including what is now called the East Garrison or Fort McDowell. A quarantine station was opened in Ayala Cove in 1891. During the Spanish–American War the island served as a discharge depot for returning troops, it continued to serve as a transit station throughout the first half of the 20th century, with troops engaged in World War I embarking and returning there. At the end of World War I the disembarkation center was commanded by William P. Burnham, who had commanded the 82nd Division in France during the war.
In 1938, hearings concerning charges of membership in the Communist political party against labor leader Harry Bridges were held on Angel Island before Dean James Landis of Harvard Law School. After eleven weeks of testimony that filled nearly 8,500 pages, Landis found in favor of Bridges; the true decision was accepted by the United States Department of Labor and Bridges was freed. During World War II the need for troops in the Pacific far exceeded prior needs; the facilities on Angel Island were expanded and further processing was done at Fort Mason in San Francisco. Prior to the war the infrastructure had been expanded, including building the Army ferry USAT General Frank M. Coxe, which transported troops to and from Angel Island on a regular schedule. Fort McDowell was used as a detention station for Japanese and Italian immigrant residents of Hawaii arrested as potential fifth columnists; these internees were transferred to inland Department of Justice and Army camps. Japanese and German prisoners of war were held on the island, supplanting immigration needs, which were curtailed during the war years.
The army decommissioned the military post in 1947. In 1954 a Nike missile station was installed on the island; the missile magazines were constructed above Point Blunt on the island's southeast corner, the top of Mount Ida was flattened to make way for a helipad and the associated radar and tracking station. The missiles were removed in 1962; the missile launch pad still exists, but the station atop Mount Caroline Livermore was reverted to its original contours in 2006. The Bubonic plague posed such a threat to the U. S. that Angel island opened as a quarantine station in 1891 to screen Asian passengers and their baggage prior to landing on U. S. soil. The construction of this federally funded quarantine station was completed in 1890 at a
Clarence Rivers King was an American geologist and author. He served as the first director of the United States Geological Survey from 1879 to 1881. King was noted for his exploration of the Sierra Nevada. Clarence King was the son of Florence Little King. Clarence's father was part of a family firm engaged in trade with China, which kept him away from home a great deal, he died in 1848, so Clarence was brought up by his mother. By 1848 his only two siblings had died. Clarence developed an early interest in outdoor exploration and natural history, encouraged by his mother and by Reverend Dr. Roswell Park, head of the Christ Church Hall school in Pomfret, Connecticut that Clarence attended until he was ten, he attended schools in Boston and New Haven, at age thirteen was accepted to the prestigious Hartford High School. He was a versatile athlete, of short stature but unusually strong, his mother received an income from the King family business until it met with a series of problems and dissolved in 1857.
After a few years of straitened circumstances, during part of which Clarence suffered from a serious depression, his mother married George S. Howland in July 1860. Howland financed Clarence's enrollment in the Sheffield Scientific School affiliated with Yale College in 1860. At Yale, King specialized in "applied chemistry" and studied physics and geology. One inspiring teacher was James Dwight Dana, a regarded geologist who had participated in a scientific expedition to the South Atlantic, South Pacific, the west coasts of South and North America. King graduated with a Ph. B. in July 1862. He and several friends borrowed one of Yale's rowboats that summer for a trip along the shores of Lake Champlain and a series of Canadian rivers returned to New Haven for the fall regatta. In October 1862, on a visit to the home of his former professor George Jarvis Brush, King heard Brush read aloud a letter he had received from William Henry Brewer telling of an ascent of Mount Shasta in California believed to be the tallest mountain in the country.
King began to read more about geology, attended a lecture by Louis Agassiz, soon wrote to Brush that he had "pretty much made up my mind to be a geologist if I can get work in that direction." He was fascinated by descriptions of the Alps by John Tyndall and John Ruskin. In late 1862 or early 1863, King moved to New York City to share an apartment with James Terry Gardiner, a close friend from high school and college, they associated with a group of American artists and architects who were admirers of John Ruskin. In February 1863 King became one of the founders, along with John William Hill, Clarence Cook and others, of the Ruskinian Association for the Advancement of Truth in Art, an American group similar to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, was elected its first secretary, but he was anxious to see the mountains of the American West, his friend Jim Gardiner was miserable in law school. By May 1863 King, an acquaintance named William Hyde traveled by railroad to Missouri and joined a wagon train, which they left at Carson City, Nevada.
King and Gardiner soon continued on to California, where King joined the California Geological Survey without pay, in which he worked with William H. Brewer, Josiah D. Whitney and Gardiner and Richard D. Cotter. In July 1864, King and Cotter made the first ascent of a peak in the Eastern Sierra that King named Mount Tyndall in honor of one of his heroes. From there they discovered several higher peaks, including the one that came to be named Mount Whitney. In September 1864, upon the designation by President Abraham Lincoln of the Yosemite Valley area as a permanent public reserve and Gardiner were appointed to make a boundary survey around the rim of Yosemite Valley, they returned to the East Coast by way of Nicaragua the following winter. King suffered from several bouts of malaria in the spring and summer of 1865 while Whitney in the East, worked on securing funding for further survey projects. King, Gardiner and Whitney's wife sailed back to San Francisco in the fall, where Whitney lined up a survey project for King and Gardiner in the Mojave Desert and Arizona under U.
S. Army auspices, they returned to San Francisco in the spring, King returned to Yosemite in the summer of 1866 to make more field notes for Whitney. When King heard of the death of his stepfather, he and Gardiner resigned from the Whitney survey and once again sailed to New York, they had been developing a plan for an independent survey of the Great Basin region for some time, in late 1866 King went to Washington to secure funding from Congress for such a survey. King made a persuasive argument for, he received federal funding and was named U. S. Geologist of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel known as the Fortieth Parallel Survey, in 1867, he persuaded Gardiner to be his second in command, they assembled a team that included, among others, Samuel Franklin Emmons, Arnold Hague, A. D. Wilson, the photographer Timothy H. O'Sullivan, guest artist Gilbert Munger. Over the next six years King and his team explored areas from eastern California to Wyoming. During that time he published his famous Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada.
While King was finishing the 40th Parallel Survey, the western US was abuzz with news of a secret diamond deposit. King and some of his crew tracked down the secret location in northwest Colorado, exposed it as a fraud, now known as the Diamond hoax of 1872, he became an international celebrity through exposing the hoax. In 1878 King published Systematic G
Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel
The Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel was a geological survey made by order of the Secretary of War according to acts of Congress of March 2, 1867, March 3, 1869, under the direction of Brig. and Bvt. Major General A. A. Humphreys, Chief of Engineers, by Clarence King, U. S. geologist. More known as the Fortieth Parallel Survey, the survey conducted field work from 1867 to 1872, exploring the area along the fortieth parallel north from northeastern California, through Nevada, to eastern Wyoming; the results of the survey were published in eight volumes of the Fortieth Parallel Survey: Vol. I. Systematic geology, by Clarence King, U. S. Geologist. 1878. Xii, 803 pp. and atlas of 12 sheets. Vol. II. Descriptive geology, by Arnold Hague and S. F. Emmons. 1877. Xiii, 890 pp. Vol. III. Mining industry, by James D. Hague, with geological contributions by Clarence King. 1870. Xv, 647 pp. and atlas of 14 sheets. Vol. IV. Part I, Palaeontology. By F. B. Meek. Part II, Palaeontology, by James Hall and R. P. Whitfield.
Part III, Ornithology, by Robert Ridgway. 1877. Xii, 669 pp. Vol. V. Botany, by Sereno Watson, aided by Prof. Daniel C. Eaton and others. 1871. Liii, 525 pp. Vol. VI. Microscopical petrography, by Ferdinand Zirkel. 1876. Xv, 297 pp. Vol. VII. Odontornithes, A monograph on the extinct toothed birds of North America, by Othniel Charles Marsh. 1880. Xv, 201 pp. Special Publication: List of plants collected in Nevada and Utah, 1867-69. Sereno Watson, collector. Atlases: Atlas accompanying the report of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel. by Clarence King, U. S. geologist-in-charge. 1876. Julius Bien, Lithographer. Folio, 2 11. 1 single and 11 double folio sheets. Atlas accompanying Volume III on Mining Industry. Engraved and printed by Julius Bien, New York. Folio, 11. 14 plates. USGS Historical Photography Library - Collection of photographs from the 40th Parallel Survey. Photos of volumes - held at the American Geographical Society Library, UW Milwaukee
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies in Nevada; the Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, is 70 miles across east-to-west. Notable Sierra features include the largest alpine lake in North America; the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks; the character of the range is shaped by its ecology. More than one hundred million years ago during the Nevadan orogeny, granite formed deep underground; the range started to uplift four million years ago, erosion by glaciers exposed the granite and formed the light-colored mountains and cliffs that make up the range.
The uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by tectonic forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra; the Sierra Nevada has a significant history. The California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855. Due to inaccessibility, the range was not explored until 1912; the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a small but important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevada's elevation increases from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to heights of about 14,000 feet at its crest 50–75 miles to the east; the east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment. Unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift; the Sierra Nevada's irregular northern boundary stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass to the North Fork Feather River.
It represents where the granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada dives below the southern extent of Cenozoic igneous surface rock from the Cascade Range. It is bounded on the west by California's Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province; the southern boundary is at Tehachapi Pass. Physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division; the California Geological Survey states that "the northern Sierra boundary is marked where bedrock disappears under the Cenozoic volcanic cover of the Cascade Range." The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean at San Francisco. The northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River; the southern third of the range is drained by the Kings, Kaweah and Kern rivers, which flow into the endorheic basin of Tulare Lake, which overflows into the San Joaquin during wet years.
The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower. From north to south, the Susan River flows into intermittent Honey Lake, the Truckee River flows from Lake Tahoe into Pyramid Lake, the Carson River runs into Carson Sink, the Walker River into Walker Lake. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California; the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the peaks range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet; the crest near Lake Tahoe is 9,000 feet high, with several peaks approaching the height of Freel Peak. Farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell; the Sierra rises to 14,000 feet with Mount Humphreys near Bishop, California. Near Lone Pine, Mount Whitney is at 14,505 feet, the highest point in the contiguous United States. South of Mount Whitney, the elevation of the range dwindles.
The crest elevation is 10,000 feet near Lake Isabella, but south of the lake, the peaks reach to only a modest 8,000 feet. There are several notable geographical features in the Sierra Nevada: Lake Tahoe is a large, clear freshwater lake in the northern Sierra Nevada, with an elevation of 6,225 ft and an area of 191 sq mi. Lake Tahoe lies between a spur of the Sierra. Hetch Hetchy Valley, Yosemite Valley, Kings Canyon, Kern Canyon are examples of many glacially-scoured canyons on the west side of the Sierra. Yosemite National Park is filled with notable features such as waterfalls, granite domes, high mountains and meadows. Groves of Giant Sequoia
California Geological Survey
The California Geological Survey known as the California Division of Mines and Geology, is the California state geologic agency. Although it was not until 1880 that the California State Mining Bureau, predecessor to the California Geological Survey, was established, the "roots" of California's state geological survey date to an earlier time; as might be expected for a state that owed its existence to the gold rush of 1849, the California State Legislature recognized that geologists could provide valuable information. In 1851, one year after California was admitted to the United States, the Legislature named John B. Trask, a medical practitioner and active member of the California Academy of Sciences, as Honorary State Geologist. In 1853 the Legislature passed a joint resolution asking him for geological information about the state, he submitted a report On California Range. About two months the Legislature created the first California Geological Survey headed by Trask, who retained the title of State Geologist.
Within a few years the mining of placer gold began to decline and mining of quartz lodes began. These changes, coupled with publication of reports by Trask, created a public clamor for a state geological survey. In 1860 the Legislature passed an act creating the Office of State Geologist and defining the duties thereof; the act named Josiah D. Whitney to fill the office. A Yale graduate, Whitney had worked on several surveys in the east; the act directed Whitney to make an complete geological survey of the state. Whitney chose William Henry Brewer as chief botanist to lead the original field party. Brewer added Clarence King, James Gardiner, topographer Charles F. Hoffmann and packer Dick Cotter, it was one of the most ambitious geological surveys attempted and yielded a vast amount of information about California, hitherto unknown and unpublished. Among the natural features of California they were the first to describe Kings Canyon, which they discovered in 1864; the original California Geological Survey influenced the future of surveying and spurred the creation of the United States Geological Survey.
Funding for the field work was limited and the last field work was done in 1870 by Hoffmann and W. A. Goodyear. In 1874 the Survey was ended due to hostility between Governor of California Newton Booth and Whitney. In 1880 the State Mining Bureau was established by the Legislature; the establishment of the Bureau was a direct action in response to the need for information on the occurrence and processing of gold in the state. Its focus was on the Governor appointed the State Mineralogist. In 1891, the Bureau published the first geologic map of the state showing eight stratigraphic units in color, along with numerous blank areas where information was lacking; the second colored geologic map of the state, published in 1916, showed 21 stratigraphic units and was accompanied by an explanatory volume. In 1927 the Bureau became the Division of Mines within the Department of Natural Resources. In 1928, with the hiring of the first geologist, the focus of the Division began to shift towards the gathering of basic geologic information.
In 1938 a new 1:500,000-scale geologic map was published. During the 1940s and 1950s, the Division developed as a state geological survey and two well-defined branches were established: the Mining Engineering Branch and the Geology Branch; the Division began processing numerous geological quadrangle reports for publication. In 1952 the Division conducted its first public-safety related effort by documenting the impacts of the 1952 Kern County earthquake and its aftershocks; the 1960s were years of modernization of long-standing programs. In 1962, eighty-one years after its creation, the Division of Mines was renamed the Division of Mines and Geology, its focus had shifted from an organization, mine-oriented to one responsible for a broader range of practical applications of geology geologic hazards and seismic hazards. A highlight of the decade was the completion in 1966 of the geologic mapping program. From the early 1970s to the present, Division programs have expanded due to the passage of legislation.
Following earthquakes and landslide damage during the 1970s and 1980s, legislation passed which focused DMG’s authority on several fronts, including: Establishing the Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program to obtain statewide records of the response of rock and structures to ground motion caused by earthquakes. Enacting the Alquist Priolo Special Studies Zone Act, mandating the delineation of zones along traces of hazardous faults. Enacting the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act to ensure that significant mineral deposits are identified and protected and the reclamation of mined lands. Declaring that the California Department of Conservation is the primary state agency responsible for geologic hazard review and investigation. Enacting the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act, establishing a program to identify and map seismic hazard zones. Language was added which outlined DMG’s responsibilities as encompassing: Hazard assessment – identification and mapping of geologic hazards and estimates of potential consequences and likelihood of occurrence.
Information and advisory services including maintenance of a geologic library, public education program, maintenance of a geologic data base, review functions, expert consulting to federal and local government agencies. Emergency response including monitoring and assessment of anomalous geologic activity, operation of a clearinghouse for post-event earth science investigations. Developm