Gouache, body color, opaque watercolor, or guache, is one type of watermedia, paint consisting of pigment, water, a binding agent, and sometimes additional inert material. Gouache is designed to be used with methods of painting. The term, derived from the Italian guazzo, refers to using this opaque method. Gouache has a history going back over 600 years. It is similar to watercolor because it can be rewet and the paint can become infused with its paper support and it can form a superficial layer like acrylic or oil paint. Also like watercolor, gouache dries to a matte finish and it is similar to acrylic or oil paints in that it is normally used in an opaque painting style. Many manufacturers of watercolor paints produce gouache and the two can easily be used together, Gouache paint is similar to watercolor modified to make it opaque. Just as in watercolor, an agent is present. This was traditionally gum arabic but since the nineteenth century cheaper varieties use yellow dextrin. When the paint is sold as a paste, e. g. in tubes, to improve the adhesive and hygroscopic qualities of the paint, as well as the flexibility of the rather brittle paint layer after drying, often propylene glycol is added.
This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities, Gouache generally dries to a different value than it appears when wet, which can make it difficult to match colors over multiple painting sessions. Its quick coverage and total hiding power mean that gouache lends itself to more direct painting techniques than watercolor, en plein air paintings take advantage of this, as do the works of J. M. W. Gouache is used most consistently by commercial artists for works such as posters, comics, most 20th-century animations used it to create an opaque color on a cel with watercolor paint used for the backgrounds. Using gouache as poster paint is desirable for its speed as the paint layer dries completely by the relatively quick evaporation of the water, the use of gouache is not restricted to the basic opaque painting techniques using a brush and watercolor paper. It is often applied with an airbrush, as with all types of paint, gouache has been used on unusual surfaces from Braille paper to cardboard.
A variation of traditional application is the used in the gouaches découpées created by Henri Matisse. His Blue Nudes series is an example of the technique. Guazzo, Italian for mud, was originally a term applied to the early 16th century practice of applying oil paint over a tempera base, during the eighteenth century gouache was often used in a mixed technique, for adding fine details in pastel paintings
Vanity Fair (UK magazine)
The second Vanity Fair was a British weekly magazine published from 1868 to 1914. Subtitled A Weekly Show of Political and Literary Wares, it was founded by Thomas Gibson Bowles, the first issue appeared in London on 7 November 1868. It offered its readership articles on fashion, current events, the theatre, social events, Thomas Allinson bought the magazine in 1911 from Frank Harris, by which time it was failing financially. He failed to revive it and the issue of Vanity Fair appeared on 5 February 1914, after which it was merged into Hearth. A full-page, colour lithograph of a celebrity or dignitary appeared in most issues. Subjects included artists, royalty, scientists, actors, religious personalities, business people and scholars. More than two thousand of these images appeared, and they are considered the cultural legacy of the magazine
Jean-Hippolyte Flandrin was a 19th-century French painter. His celebrated 1836 work Jeune Homme Nu Assis au Bord de la Mer is in the Louvre, from an early age, Flandrin showed interest in the arts and a career as a painter. However, his parents pressured him to become a businessman, and having little training. Hippolyte was the second of three sons, all of whom were painters in some aspect, his older brother, spent most of his life as a professor at Lyon and died there. Paul, his brother, was a painter of portraits. Hippolyte and Paul spent some time at Lyon, saving to leave for Paris in 1829, they settled in the studio of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, who became not only their instructor but their friend for life. At first, Hippolyte struggled as a poor artist, however, in 1832, he won the Prix de Rome for his painting Recognition of Theseus by his Father. This prestigious art scholarship meant that he was no longer limited by his poverty, the Prix de Rome allowed him to study for five years in Rome.
While there, he created paintings, increasing his celebrity both in France and Italy. His painting St. Clair Healing the Blind was created for the cathedral of Nantes and the Little Children was given by the government to the town of Lisieux. Dante and Virgil visiting the Envious Men struck with Blindness and Euripides writing his Tragedies are now in the Museum of Fine Arts in Lyon, upon his return to Paris in 1856, Flandrin received a commission from the chapel of St John in the church of St Séverin. As a result, his reputation even more impressive, virtually guaranteeing him continuous employment for the rest of his life. In addition to works, Flandrin painted a great number of portraits. However, he is more known today for his monumental decorative paintings. List of works by Eugène Guillaume This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Catholic Encyclopedia entry Delaborde, Lettres et pensies de H. Flandrin Beul, Notice historique sur H. F. Jeune homme nu assis au bord de la mer
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
James Abbott McNeill Whistler was an American artist, active during the American Gilded Age and based primarily in the United Kingdom. He was averse to sentimentality and moral allusion in painting, and was a proponent of the credo art for arts sake. His famous signature for his paintings was in the shape of a stylized butterfly possessing a long stinger for a tail, the symbol was apt, for it combined both aspects of his personality—his art was characterized by a subtle delicacy, while his public persona was combative. Finding a parallel between painting and music, Whistler entitled many of his paintings arrangements and nocturnes and his most famous painting is Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1, commonly known as Whistlers Mother, the revered and oft-parodied portrait of motherhood, Whistler influenced the art world and the broader culture of his time with his artistic theories and his friendships with leading artists and writers. James Abbott Whistler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, on July 10,1834 and his father was a railroad engineer, and Anna was his second wife.
James lived the first three years of his life in a modest house at 243 Worthen Street in Lowell, the house is a museum dedicated to Whistler. During the Ruskin trial, Whistler claimed St. Petersburg, Russia, as his birthplace, declaring, I shall be born when and where I want, in 1837, the Whistlers moved from Lowell to Stonington, where George Whistler worked for the Stonington Railroad. Sadly, during this period, three of George and Anna Whistlers children died in infancy, in 1839, the Whistlers fortunes improved considerably when George Whistler received the appointment that would make his fortune and fame - that of chief engineer for the Boston & Albany Railroad. Thus, the moved to Springfield, one of the United States most prosperous cities. The Whistlers lived in Springfield until they left the United States in late 1842, Nicholas I of Russia learned of George Whistlers ingenuity in engineering the Boston & Albany Railroad, and offered Whistler a position in 1842 engineering a railroad from St.
Petersburg to Moscow. In the winter of 1842, the Whistlers moved from Springfield to St. Petersburg, in years, James Whistler played up his mothers connection to the American South and its roots, and presented himself as an impoverished Southern aristocrat. After her death, he adopted her name, using it as an additional middle name. Young Whistler was a moody child prone to fits of temper and insolence and his parents discovered in his early youth that drawing often settled him down and helped focus his attention. Beginning in 1842, his father was employed to work on a railroad in Russia, after moving to St. Petersburg to join his father a year later, the young Whistler took private art lessons, enrolled in the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts at age eleven. In 1844, he met the noted artist Sir William Allan, Whistlers mother noted in her diary, the great artist remarked to me Your little boy has uncommon genius, but do not urge him beyond his inclination. In 1847-48, his family spent some time in London with relatives, Whistlers brother-in-law Francis Haden, a physician who was an artist, spurred his interest in art and photography.
Haden took Whistler to visit collectors and to lectures, and gave him a set with instruction
Alfred Stevens (painter)
Alfred Émile Léopold Stevens was a Belgian painter, known for his paintings of elegant modern women. Alfred Stevens was born in Brussels and he came from a family involved with the visual arts, his older brother Joseph and his son Léopold were painters, while another brother Arthur was an art dealer and critic. His father, who had fought in the Napoleonic wars in the army of William I of the Netherlands, was an art collector who owned several watercolors by Eugène Delacroix, among other artists. His mothers parents ran Café de lAmitié in Brussels, a place for politicians, writers. All the Stevens children benefited from the people met there. Following a traditional curriculum, he drew from casts of classical sculpture for the first two years, and drew from live models, in 1843, Stevens went to Paris, joining his brother Joseph who already was there. He was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts, the most important art school in Paris, although it is said that he became a student of its director Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, this is likely not true.
An early picture by Stevens, The Pardon or Absolution and dated 1849, like the Belgian painter and friend with whom he stayed in Paris, Florent Joseph Marie Willems, Stevens carefully studied works by painters such as Gerard ter Borch and Gabriel Metsu. Stevenss work was shown publicly for the first time in 1851 and he was awarded a third-class medal at the Paris Salon in 1853, and a second-class medal at the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1855. His Ce quon appelle le vagabondage attracted the attention of Napoleon III who, as a result of the scene in the picture, ordered that soldiers no longer be used to pick up the poor from the streets. In 1857, Stevens made his first important sale to a private collector, in 1858, Stevens married Marie Blanc, who came from a rich Belgian family and old friends of the Stevenss. Eugène Delacroix was a witness at the ceremony, during the 1860s, Stevens became an immensely successful painter, known for his paintings of elegant modern women. His exhibits at the Salons in Paris and Brussels attracted favorable critical attention, in 1863, he received the Legion of Honor from the French government.
Stevens fought for the French during the siege of Paris in the Franco-Prussian War and they returned after the war, and Stevens continued to achieve critical acclaim as well as great success with collectors. In 1875, he bought a house and garden in Paris on rue des Martyrs. In 1878, he was made a Commander of the Legion of Honor, an additional expense came from summers by the sea, which a doctor told Stevens in 1880 were essential for his health. Thus the artist was glad to agree when the Paris dealer Georges Petit offered him 50,000 francs to finance his vacation in exchange for the paintings Stevens produced during that time, many of them are painted in a sketchy style that shows the influence of the Impressionists. Stevens began to take students, including Sarah Bernhardt, who became a close personal friend
Genre art is the pictorial representation in any of various media of scenes or events from everyday life, such as markets, domestic settings, parties, inn scenes, and street scenes. Such representations may be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist, some variations of the term genre art specify the medium or type of visual work, as in genre painting, genre prints, genre photographs, and so on. Rather confusingly, the meaning of genre, covering any particular combination of an artistic medium. Painting was divided into a hierarchy of genres, with painting at the top, as the most difficult and therefore prestigious. But history paintings are a genre in painting, not genre works, the following concentrates on painting, but genre motifs were extremely popular in many forms of the decorative arts, especially from the Rococo of the early 18th century onwards. Single figures or small groups decorated a huge variety of such as porcelain, wallpaper. Genre painting, called genre scene or petit genre, depicts aspects of life by portraying ordinary people engaged in common activities. A work would often be considered as a genre work even if it could be shown that the artist had used a known member of his family.
In this case it would depend on whether the work was likely to have intended by the artist to be perceived as a portrait—sometimes a subjective question. The depictions can be realistic, imagined, or romanticized by the artist, because of their familiar and frequently sentimental subject matter, genre paintings have often proven popular with the bourgeoisie, or middle class. Genre themes appear in all art traditions. These were part of a pattern of Mannerist inversion in Antwerp painting, giving low elements previously in the background of images prominent emphasis. The generally small scale of these paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers. Often the subject of a painting was based on a popular emblem from an Emblem book. The merry company showed a group of figures at a party, other common types of scenes showed markets or fairs, village festivities, or soldiers in camp. In Italy, a school of painting was stimulated by the arrival in Rome of the Dutch painter Pieter van Laer in 1625.
He acquired the nickname Il Bamboccio and his followers were called the Bamboccianti, whose works would inspire Giacomo Ceruti, Antonio Cifrondi, jean-Baptiste Greuze and others painted detailed and rather sentimental groups or individual portraits of peasants that were to be influential on 19th-century painting. Spain had a tradition predating The Book of Good Love of social observation and commentary based on the Old Roman Latin tradition, practiced by many of its painters and illuminators
The franc, commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1450 and 1999, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it was revalued in 1960, with each new franc being worth 100 old francs. The French franc was a commonly held reserve currency of reference in the 19th and 20th centuries. The first franc was a gold coin introduced in 1360 to pay the Ransom of King John II of France and this coin secured the kings freedom and showed him on a richly decorated horse earning it the name franc à cheval. The obverse legend, like other French coins, gives the title as Francorum Rex. Its value was set as one livre tournois, john’s son, Charles V, continued this type. It was copied exactly at Brabant and Cambrai and, with the arms on the horse cloth changed, conquests led by Joan of Arc allowed Charles VII to return to sound coinage and he revived the franc à cheval. John II, was not able to strike enough francs to pay his ransom, John II died as a prisoner in England and his son, Charles V was left to pick up the pieces.
Charles V pursued a policy of reform, including stable coinage, an edict dated 20 April 1365 established the centerpiece of this policy, a gold coin officially called the denier d’or aux fleurs de lis which had a standing figure of the king on its obverse. Its value in money of account was one livre tournois, just like the franc à cheval, in accordance with the theories of the mathematician and royal advisor Nicolas Oresme, Charles struck fewer coins of better gold than his predecessors. In the accompanying deflation both prices and wages fell, but wages fell faster and debtors had to settle up in better money than they had borrowed, the Mayor of Paris, Etienne Marcel, exploited their discontent to lead a revolt which forced Charles V out of the city. The States General which met at Blois in 1577 added to the pressure to stop currency manipulation. Henry III agreed to do this and he revived the franc and this coin and its fractions circulated until 1641 when Louis XIII of France replaced it with the silver Écu.
Nevertheless, the franc continued in accounting as a synonym for the livre tournois. The decimal franc was established as the currency by the French Revolutionary Convention in 1795 as a decimal unit of 4.5 g of fine silver. This was slightly less than the livre of 4.505 g, silver coins now had their denomination clearly marked as “5 FRANCS” and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs. e. Coinage with explicit denominations in decimal fractions of the franc began in 1795, decimalization of the franc was mandated by an act of 7 April 1795, which dealt with of weights and measures. France’s first decimal coinage used allegorical figures symbolizing revolutionary principles, like the designs the United States had adopted in 1793
Jewish Museum (Manhattan)
It focuses both on artifacts of Jewish history and on modern and contemporary art. Its permanent exhibition and Continuity, The Jewish Journey, is supplemented by multiple temporary exhibitions each year. Felix M. Warburg and his brother Paul Warburg were international bankers in the early 20th Century who cultivated their fortunes at the New York banking firm Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. Felix and Paul moved to the United States in 1894 and Felix soon after married Freida Schiff, daughter of Jacob Schiff, active in the Jewish community and philanthropy for most of his life, Felix organized the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies by combining 75 separate charities and organizations. He served as the director of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America along with his father-in-law Jacob H. Schiff, by that time, the Warburg family had been living in the house since 1908 when construction that began two years prior was completed. The collection was moved in 1931, with the Seminary, to 122nd, the Jewish Theological Seminary received over 400 Jewish ceremonial items and created, The Museum of Jewish Ceremonial Objects, previously the Jacob Schiff Library.
The collection was expanded by major donations from Hadji Ephraim Benguiat. In 1939, in light of WWII, Poland sent about 350 objects to New York city from homes and synagogues in order to preserve them. Frieda Warburg said at the opening that the museum would not be a somber memorial, the first expansion of the museum was the addition of a sculpture garden in 1959 by Adam List. The building was expanded in 1963 and further by architect Kevin Roche in 1993, in the 1960s, the museum took a more active role in the general world of contemporary art, with exhibitions such as Primary Structures, which helped to launch the Minimalist art movement. In the decades since, the museum has had a focus on Jewish culture. From 1990 through 1993, director Joan Rosenbaum led the project to renovate and expand the building and carry out the museum’s first major capital campaign, the project, designed by architect Kevin Roche, doubled the size of the museum, providing it with a seven-story addition. In 1992, the Jewish Museum and the Film Society of Lincoln Center teamed up to create The New York Jewish Film Festival, the museum provides educational programs for adults and families, sponsoring concerts, films and lectures related to its exhibitions.
Joan Rosenbaum was the director from 1981 until her retirement in 2010. In 2011 the museum named Claudia Gould as its new director, in 2012 Jens Hoffmann joined as Deputy Director and Public Programs. The Felix M. Warburg House was constructed in François I style, 1906-1908 for Felix and Frieda Warburg, François I style was originally found in New York City in the late 19th century through the works of Richard Morris Hunt. Hunt was a renowned architect throughout the Northeast, particularly in New England and was one of the first American architects to study at the elite Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. Gilbert was an apprentice of Hunt and emulated Hunts classic Châteauesque style for the Warburg house while adding some Gothic features, the original house is built in limestone with mansard roofs, dripping moldings, and gables
French Third Republic
It came to an end on 10 July 1940. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France. The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic and it consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. The period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured sharply polarized politics, Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s the form of government that divides France least, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized. On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution, on the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France, after Napoleons capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan, Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870. The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president and this first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris. After the French surrender in January 1871, the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate. The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters. The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities.
The following repression of the communards would have consequences for the labor movement. The Orléanists supported a descendant of King Louis Philippe I, the cousin of Charles X who replaced him as the French monarch in 1830, his grandson Louis-Philippe, Comte de Paris. The Bonapartists were marginalized due to the defeat of Napoléon III and were unable to advance the candidacy of any member of his family, the Bonaparte family. Legitimists and Orléanists came to a compromise, whereby the childless Comte de Chambord would be recognised as king, consequently, in 1871 the throne was offered to the Comte de Chambord. Chambord believed the monarchy had to eliminate all traces of the Revolution in order to restore the unity between the monarchy and the nation, which the revolution had sundered apart. Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour, full name National Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte. The order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction, Officier, Grand Officier and Grand-Croix. The orders motto is Honneur et Patrie and its seat is the Palais de la Légion dHonneur next to the Musée dOrsay, in the French Revolution, all French orders of chivalry were abolished, and replaced with Weapons of Honour. The Légion however did use the organization of old French orders of chivalry, the badges of the legion bear a resemblance to the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon. Napoleon originally created this to ensure political loyalty, the organization would be used as a facade to give political favours and concessions. The Légion was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional cohorts, the highest rank was not a grand cross but a Grand Aigle, a rank that wore all the insignia common to grand crosses.
The members were paid, the highest of them extremely generously,5,000 francs to an officier,2,000 francs to a commandeur,1,000 francs to an officier,250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led, do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning. That is good only for the scholar in his study, the soldier needs glory, rewards. This has been quoted as It is with such baubles that men are led. The order was the first modern order of merit, under the monarchy, such orders were often limited to Roman Catholics, and all knights had to be noblemen. The military decorations were the perks of the officers, the Légion, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted. The new legionnaire had to be sworn in the Légion and it is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion is a secular institution. The jewel of the Légion has five arms, in a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted.
This decoration, a cross on a sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand Aigle. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the legion among his family and this collar was abolished in 1815. The Légion dhonneur was prominent and visible in the French Empire, the Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time