SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

James Wolfe

James Wolfe was a British Army officer known for his training reforms and remembered chiefly for his victory in 1759 over the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in Quebec as a major general. The son of a distinguished general, Edward Wolfe, he received his first commission at a young age and saw extensive service in Europe where he fought during the War of the Austrian Succession, his service in Flanders and in Scotland, where he took part in the suppression of the Jacobite Rebellion, brought him to the attention of his superiors. The advancement of his career was halted by the Peace Treaty of 1748 and he spent much of the next eight years on garrison duty in the Scottish Highlands. A brigade major at the age of 18, he was a lieutenant-colonel by 23; the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1756 offered Wolfe fresh opportunities for advancement. His part in the aborted raid on Rochefort in 1757 led William Pitt to appoint him second-in-command of an expedition to capture the Fortress of Louisbourg.

Following the success of the Siege of Louisbourg he was made commander of a force which sailed up the Saint Lawrence River to capture Quebec City. After a long siege Wolfe defeated a French force under the Marquis de Montcalm, allowing British forces to capture the city. Wolfe was killed at the height of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham due to injuries from three musket balls. Wolfe's part in the taking of Quebec in 1759 earned him lasting fame, he became an icon of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War and subsequent territorial expansion, he was depicted in the painting The Death of General Wolfe. Wolfe was posthumously dubbed "The Hero of Quebec", "The Conqueror of Quebec", "The Conqueror of Canada", since the capture of Quebec led directly to the capture of Montreal, ending French control of the country. James Wolfe was born at the local vicarage on 2 January 1727 at Westerham, the older of two sons of Colonel Edward Wolfe, a veteran soldier of Irish origin, the former Henrietta Thompson.

His uncle was a distinguished politician. Wolfe's childhood home in Westerham, known in his lifetime as Spiers, has been preserved in his memory by the National Trust under the name Quebec House. Wolfe's family were long settled in Ireland and he corresponded with his uncle Major Walter Wolfe in Dublin; the Wolfes were close to the Warde family. Wolfe's boyhood friend George Warde achieved fame as Commander-in-Chief in Ireland when he crushed the Irish rebellion of 1798, repelled two attempted French invasions in 1796 and 1798. Around 1738, the family moved in north-west Kent. From his earliest years, Wolfe was destined for a military career, entering his father's 1st Marine regiment as a volunteer at the age of thirteen. Illness prevented him from taking part in a large expedition against Spanish-held Cartagena in 1740, his father sent him home a few months later, he missed what proved to be a disaster for the British forces at the Siege of Cartagena during the War of Jenkins' Ear, in which most of the expedition died from disease.

In 1740 the War of the Austrian Succession broke out in Europe. Although Britain did not intervene, the presence of a sizable French army near the border of the Austrian Netherlands compelled the British to send an expedition to help defend the territory of their Austrian ally in 1742. James Wolfe was given his first commission as a second lieutenant in his father's regiment of Marines in 1741. Early in the following year he transferred to the 12th Regiment of Foot, a British Army infantry regiment, set sail for Flanders some months where the British took up position in Ghent. Here, Wolfe was made adjutant of his battalion, his first year on the continent was a frustrating one as, despite rumours of a British attack on Dunkirk, they remained inactive in Flanders. In 1743, he was joined by his younger brother, who had received a commission in the same regiment; that year the Wolfe brothers took part in an offensive launched by the British. Instead of moving southwards as expected, the British and their allies instead thrust eastwards into Southern Germany where they faced a large French army.

The army came under the personal command of George II but in June he appeared to have made a catastrophic mistake which left the Allies trapped against the River Main and surrounded by enemy forces in "a mousetrap". Rather than contemplate surrender, George tried to rectify the situation by launching an attack on the French positions near the village of Dettingen. Wolfe's regiment was involved in heavy fighting, as the two sides exchanged volley after volley of musket fire, his regiment had suffered the highest casualties of any of the British infantry battalions, Wolfe had his horse shot from underneath him. Despite three French attacks the Allies managed to drive off the enemy, who fled through the village of Dettingen, occupied by the Allies. However, George failed allowing them to escape. In spite of this the Allies had thwarted the French move into Germany, safeguarding the independence of Hanover. Wolfe's regiment at Battle of Dettingen came to the attention of the Duke of Cumberland, close to him during the battle when they came under enemy fire.

A year he became a captain of the 45th Regiment of Foot. After the success of Dettingen, the 1744 campaign was another frustration as the Allies forces now led by George Wade f

Hysteria (play)

Hysteria: Or Fragments of an Analysis of an Obsessional Neurosis is a two-hour comedy play, by British dramatist Terry Johnson, fictionalising a real-life 1938 meeting between Salvador Dalí and Sigmund Freud a year before the latter's death. It is named after the Freudian psychological term "hysteria". Freud and Dali meet for tea at Freud's house in Hampstead one summer's afternoon in 1938; the play combines that meeting with the arrival of the mysterious Jessica, who brings serious charges against Freud relating to his treatment of her mother and his theory of presexual shock. In the last months of his illness, the exhausted Freud, trying to put his affairs in order, soon finds himself up to his neck explaining both his life's work and the female undergarments in his garden; the play's London premiere, on 1 August 1993 at the Royal Court Theatre, was directed by Phyllida Lloyd, with Henry Goodman as Freud, Tim Potter as Dali, Phoebe Nicholls as Jessica and David de Keyser as Yahuda. Beryl Bainbridge wrote in her 2005 book Front Row: Evenings at the Theatre: "there's an awful lot going on in this stunning play, the actors - Henry Goodman, Phoebe Nicholls, David de Keyser and Tim Potter - all give massively intelligent performances".

This production was revived in 1995, as part of the'Royal Court Classics' season at the Duke of York's Theatre, with Aisling O'Sullivan as Jessica and Fred Pearson as Yahuda. The Sunday Times said of the production: "This is an utterly hilarious and brilliant show and I do mean brilliant, it sparkles, it shines, it lights up the mind". In a 2007 production at the Birmingham Rep, Sean Foley appeared as Freud, Sam Swainsbury as Dalí, Ruth Miller as Jessica, John Burgess as Yahuda. In the 2012 production at the Theatre Royal, Antony Sher appeared as Freud, Will Keen as Dalí, Indira Varma as Jessica, David Horovitch as Yahuda. Sher and Horovitch revived their roles from 5 September to 12 October 2013 at the Hampstead Theatre, with Adrian Schiller as Dalí and Lydia Wilson as Jessica. Charles Spencer, writing in The Daily Telegraph, said: "Twenty years on it strikes me as a modern classic... Johnson directs his own wildly imaginative but scrupulously researched play with panache, achieving a farcical comic momentum that somehow finds space for moments of both deep emotion and intellectual rigour...the cast is outstanding."

Johnson, Terry. Hysteria: Fragments of an Analysis of an Obsessional Neurosis. Royal Court writers series. London: Methuen Drama in association with Royal Court Theatre. ISBN 0-413-68210-2

England women's national rugby sevens team

The English women's national rugby sevens team has been competing in the Hong Kong Women's Sevens tournaments since 1997. England are one of six teams announced by the International Rugby Board as "core teams" that will compete in all four rounds of the inaugural IRB Women's Sevens World Series in 2012–13. Hong Kong Women's Sevens 2001 Cup Semi Finals Hong Kong Women's Sevens 2003 Cup Final Hong Kong Women's Sevens 2012 Cup Final Squad to IRB Women's Sevens Challenge Cup - 2012 London Sevens: Rachael Burford Heather Fisher Sonia Green Natasha Hunt Sarah McKenna Katherine Merchant Isabelle Noel-Smith Alice Richardson Emily Scarratt Michaela Staniford Joanne Watmore Kay Wilson England women's national rugby union team