James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred. He was a son of Zebedee and Salome, and brother of John the Apostle and he is called James the Greater or James the Great to distinguish him from James, son of Alphaeus and James the brother of Jesus. James the son of Zebedee is the saint of Spaniards. The son of Zebedee and Salome, James is styled the Greater thunder to distinguish him from the Apostle James the Less and he was the brother of John, the beloved disciple, and probably the elder of the two. His parents seem to have people of means. Zebedee, his father, was a fisherman of the Sea of Galilee, who lived in or near Bethsaida, present Galilee, perhaps in Capernaum. It is probable that his brother had not received the training of the rabbinical schools, in this sense they were unlearned. But, according to the rank of their parents, they must have been men of ordinary education. James is described as one of the first disciples to join Jesus, the Synoptic Gospels state that James and John were with their father by the seashore when Jesus called them to follow him.
James was one of three apostles whom Jesus selected to bear witness to his Transfiguration. James and John asked Jesus to grant them seats on his right, Jesus rebuked them, and the other ten apostles were annoyed with them. James and his brother wanted to call fire on a Samaritan town. The Acts of the Apostles records that Herod the king had James executed by sword and he is the only apostle whose martyrdom is recorded in the New Testament. He is, traditionally believed to be the first of the twelve apostles martyred for his faith, nixon suggests that this may have been caused by James fiery temper, for which he and his brother earned the nickname Boanerges or Sons of Thunder. F. F. Bruce contrasts this story to that of the Liberation of Saint Peter, the New Testament scholar Dennis MacDonald identifies Castor and Pollux as basis characters for the appearance of James and John in the narrative by Mark the Evangelist. The English name James comes from Italian Giacomo, a variant of Giacobo derived from Iacobus in Latin, itself from the Greek Ἰάκωβος Iakōbos, in French, Jacob evolves into Jacques.
In eastern Spain, Iacobus became Jacome or Jaime, in Catalan language, Santiago is the local Galician or Spanish evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctu Iacobu Saint James. Tiago is a popular deglutination native to Portuguese language, it crossed with old Diago to give Diego in Spanish and Diogo in Portuguese, for example, Miguel de Cervantes in his famous Don Quixote uses San Diego instead of Santiago
Andrew the Apostle
Andrew the Apostle, known as Saint Andrew and called in the Orthodox tradition Prōtoklētos or the First-called, was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter. The name Andrew, like other Greek names, appears to have been common among the Jews, Christians, no Hebrew or Aramaic name is recorded for him. According to Orthodox tradition, the successor to Saint Andrew is the Patriarch of Constantinople. The New Testament states that Andrew was the brother of Simon Peter and he was born in the village of Bethsaida on the Sea of Galilee. Both he and his brother Peter were fishermen by trade, hence the tradition that Jesus called them to be his disciples by saying that he make them fishers of men. At the beginning of Jesus public life, they were said to have occupied the house at Capernaum. In the Gospel of Matthew and in the Gospel of Mark Simon Peter and these narratives record that Jesus was walking along the shore of the Sea of Galilee, observed Simon and Andrew fishing, and called them to discipleship.
In the parallel incident in the Gospel of Luke Andrew is not named, the narrative indicates that Simon was not the only fisherman in the boat but it is not until the next chapter that Andrew is named as Simons brother. However, it is understood that Andrew was fishing with Simon on the night in question. Matthew Poole, in his Annotations on the Holy Bible, stressed that Luke denies not that Andrew was there. In contrast, the Gospel of John states that Andrew was a disciple of John the Baptist, whose testimony first led him, Andrew at once recognized Jesus as the Messiah, and hastened to introduce him to his brother. Thenceforth, the two brothers were disciples of Christ, on a subsequent occasion, prior to the final call to the apostolate, they were called to a closer companionship, and they left all things to follow Jesus. Subsequently, in the gospels, Andrew is referred to as being present on important occasions as one of the disciples more closely attached to Jesus. Andrew told Jesus about the boy with the loaves and fishes, Andrew was present at the Last Supper.
Andrew was one of the four disciples who came to Jesus on the Mount of Olives to ask about the signs of Jesus return at the end of the age, Eusebius in his church history 3,1 quoted Origen as saying that Andrew preached in Scythia. The Chronicle of Nestor adds that he preached along the Black Sea and the Dnieper river as far as Kiev, hence, he became a patron saint of Ukraine and Russia. According to tradition, he founded the See of Byzantium in AD38, according to Hippolytus of Rome, Andrew preached in Thrace, and his presence in Byzantium is mentioned in the apocryphal Acts of Andrew. Basil of Seleucia knew of Apostle Andrews missions in Thrace and this diocese would develop into the Patriarchate of Constantinople
The Golden Legend is a collection of hagiographies by Jacobus da Varagine that was widely read in late medieval Europe. More than a thousand manuscripts of the text have survived and it was likely compiled around the year 1260, although the text was added to over the centuries. Initially entitled Legenda sanctorum, it gained its popularity under the title by which it is best known. Over eight hundred manuscript copies of the work survive, and when printing was invented in the 1450s, editions appeared quickly, not only in Latin, among incunabula, printed before 1501, Legenda aurea was printed in more editions than the Bible. It was one of the first books William Caxton printed in the English language, Caxtons version appeared in 1483 and his translation was reprinted, in 1900, the Caxton version was translated by Frederick Startridge Ellis, and published in seven volumes. Jacobus da Varagines original was translated into French around the time by Téodor de Wyzewa. The book sought to compile traditional lore about all of the saints venerated at the time of its compilation, Jacobus da Varagine typically begins with an etymology for the saints name.
An example shows his method, Silvester is said of sile or sol which is light, and of terra the earth, as who saith the light of the earth, that is of the church. Or Silvester is said of silvas and of trahens, that is to say he was drawing wild men and hard unto the faith. Or as it is said in glossario, Silvester is to say green, that is to wit, green in contemplation of heavenly things, and that is to say he was cold and refrigate from all concupiscence of the flesh, full of boughs among the trees of heaven. As a Latin author, Jacobus da Varagine must have known that Silvester, the correct derivation is alluded to in the text, but set out in parallel to fanciful ones that lexicographers would consider quite wide of the mark. Even the correct explanations are used as the basis for an allegorical interpretation, Jacobus da Varagines etymologies had different goals from modern etymologies, and cannot be judged by the same standards. Jacobus etymologies have parallels in Isidore of Sevilles Etymologiae, in which linguistically accurate derivations are set out beside allegorical, the chapter conveys the limited medieval Christian understanding of the beliefs of Saracens and other Muslims.
Many of the stories conclude with miracle tales and similar wonderlore from accounts of those who called upon that saint for aid or used the saints relics, such a tale is told of Saint Agatha, Jacobus da Varagine has pagans in Catania repairing to the relics of St. Then ran the paynims to the sepulchre of S. Agatha, many of his stories have no other known source. A typical example of the sort of story related, involving St, sent the emperor for S. Silvester and asked counsel of him of this matter. S. Silvester answered that by the might of God he promised to make him cease of his hurt, S Silvester put himself to prayer, and S. Then thou shalt bind his mouth with a thread, and seal it with thy seal and the two priests shall come to me whole and safe, and such bread as I shall make ready for you ye shall eat
John of Patmos
John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation, the apocalyptic text forming the final chapter of the New Testament. Traditionally, the writer of Revelation is widely considered to be John the Apostle, others identify the author as John the Elder and many modern scholars believe it was written by an otherwise unknown author, to whom they have given the name John of Patmos. The author of the Book of Revelation identifies himself only as John, this was often believed to be the same person as John, son of Zebedee, one of the apostles of Jesus, to whom the Gospel of John was attributed. The early 2nd century writer, Justin Martyr, was the first to equate the author of Revelation with John the Evangelist, the assumption that the apostle John was author of the Book of Revelation is now widely rejected in modern critical scholarship. John is considered to be exiled to Patmos, undergoing a time of persecution under the Roman rule of Domitian. Revelation 1,9 states, I, both brother and companion in tribulation.
was on the island that is called Patmos for the word of God. Adela Yarbro Collins, a scholar at Yale Divinity School, writes. This tradition is credible because banishment was a punishment used during the Imperial period for a number of offenses. Among such offenses were the practices of magic and astrology, prophecy was viewed by the Romans as belonging to the same category, whether Pagan, Jewish, or Christian. Prophecy with political implications, like that expressed by John in the book of Revelation, three of the islands in the Sporades were places where political offenders were banished
In the days following, Peter proposed that the assembled disciples, who numbered about one hundred and twenty, nominate two men to replace Judas. They chose Joseph called Barsabas and Matthias, they cast lots, and the lot fell to Matthias, so he was numbered with the eleven apostles. Matthias was present with the apostles at Pentecost. No further information about Matthias is to be found in the canonical New Testament, the tradition of the Greeks says that St. Matthias planted the faith about Cappadocia and on the coasts of the Caspian Sea, residing chiefly near the port Issus. According to Nicephorus, Matthias first preached the Gospel in Judaea, an extant Coptic Acts of Andrew and Matthias, places his activity similarly in the city of the cannibals in Aethiopia. A marker placed in the ruins of the Roman fortress at Gonio in the modern Georgian region of Adjara claims that Matthias is buried at that site and he died at Sebastopolis, and was buried there, near the Temple of the Sun. Alternatively, another tradition maintains that Matthias was stoned at Jerusalem by the Jews, according to Hippolytus of Rome, Matthias died of old age in Jerusalem.
Clement of Alexandria observed, Not that they became apostles through being chosen for some distinguished peculiarity of nature, but they were capable of becoming apostles on being chosen by Him who foresees even ultimate issues. Matthias, who was not chosen along with them, surviving fragments of the lost Gospels of Matthias attribute it to Matthias, but Early Church Fathers attributed it to heretical writings in the 2nd century. The feast of Saint Matthias was included in the Roman Calendar in the 11th century, the Eastern Rites of the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrates his feast on August 9. Yet the Western Rite Parishes of the Orthodox Church continues the old Roman Rite of February 24, the Church of Englands Book of Common Prayer liturgy, as well as other older common prayer books in the Anglican Communion, celebrates Matthias on February 24. According to the newer Common Worship liturgy, he is celebrated on May 14 with a Festival, although he may be celebrated on February 24, if desired.
In the Episcopal Church as well as some in the Lutheran Church, including the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, in Evangelical Lutheran Worship, used by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America as well as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the feast date for Matthias is on May 14. It is claimed that St Matthias the Apostles remains are interred in the Abbey of St. Matthias, Germany, brought there through Empress Helena of Constantinople, according to Greek sources, the remains of the apostle are buried in the castle of Gonio-Apsaros, Georgia. Attribution This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles
Cleopas was a figure of early Christianity, one of the two disciples who encountered Jesus during the Road to Emmaus appearance in Luke 24, 13-32. Catholic and Orthodox traditions hold that Clopas, believed as brother of Saint Joseph, is the person with Cleopas. Others consider that Clophas and Alphaeus are all the same name, Cleopas appears in Luke 24, 13-27 as one of two disciples walking from Jerusalem to Emmaus. Cleopas is named in verse 18, while his companion remains unnamed and this occurs three days after the crucifixion, on the day of Jesus resurrection. The two have heard the tomb of Jesus was found empty earlier that day and they are discussing the events of the past few days when a stranger asks them what they are discussing. Their eyes were kept from recognizing him and he soon rebukes them for their unbelief and gives them a Bible study on prophecies about the Messiah. They ask the stranger to them for the evening meal. When he breaks the bread their eyes were opened and they recognize him as the resurrected Jesus and his friend hasten back to Jerusalem to carry the news to the other disciples, and learn Jesus has appeared to them.
The same event is recorded in Mark 16, 12-16,13, Cleopas has no further occurrence in the New Testament, but in tradition he has often been identified with Clopas or Cleophas, another New Testament figure mentioned in Johns Gospel. The historian, Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, quotes the earlier chronicler, Hegesippus and he was, it is said, a cousin of the Saviour. Hegesippus noted that Cleophas was a brother of Joseph, epiphanius adds that Joseph and Cleopas were brothers, sons of Jacob, surnamed Panther. Cleopas is remembered on 30 October in the Eastern Orthodox Church,25 September in the Martyrology of the Roman Catholic Church and on 10 November in the Coptic Orthodox Church
Bartholomew the Apostle
Bartholomew was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. According to the Synaxarium of the Coptic Orthodox Church, his martyrdom is commemorated on the first day of the Coptic Calendar, which currently falls on September 11. His feast is June 11 in Eastern Christianity and August 24 in the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, Anglican Communion, Bartholomew comes from the Aramaic meaning son of Talmai or son of the furrows. Nathanael is mentioned only in the Gospel according to John, giuseppe Simone Assemani specifically remarks, the Chaldeans confound Bartholomew with Nathaniel. Some Biblical scholars reject this identification, Eusebius of Caesareas Ecclesiastical History states that after the Ascension, Bartholomew went on a missionary tour to India, where he left behind a copy of the Gospel of Matthew. Other traditions record him as serving as a missionary in Ethiopia, Parthia, popular traditions and legends say that Bartholomew preached the Gospel in India, went to Greater Armenia. Two ancient testimonies exist about the mission of Saint Bartholomew in India and these are of Eusebius of Caesarea and of Saint Jerome.
Both of these refer to this tradition while speaking of the visit of Pantaenus to India in the 2nd century. Along with his fellow apostle Jude Thaddeus, Bartholomew is reputed to have brought Christianity to Armenia in the 1st century, both saints are considered the patron saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church. He is said to have been martyred in Albanopolis in Armenia, according to one account, he was beheaded, but a more popular tradition holds that he was flayed alive and crucified, head downward. He is said to have converted Polymius, the king of Armenia, Polymius brother, consequently ordered Bartholomews execution. The 13th century Saint Bartholomew Monastery was a prominent Armenian monastery constructed at the site of the martyrdom of Apostle Bartholomew in the Vaspurakan Province of Greater Armenia. The 6th-century writer in Constantinople, Theodorus Lector, averred that in about 507 Emperor Anastasius gave the body of Bartholomew to the city of Dura-Europos, which he had recently re-founded.
A small part of the relics was given in 983 by Holy Roman Emperor Otto II to Rome where it is conserved at the basilica of San Bartolomeo allIsola, in time, the church there inherited an old pagan medical centre. This association with medicine in course of time caused Bartholomews name to become associated with medicine, some of Bartholomews alleged skull was transferred to the Frankfurt Cathedral, while an arm was venerated in Canterbury Cathedral. Of the many miracles performed by Bartholomew before and after his death, the people of Lipari celebrated his feast day annually. The tradition of the people was to take the silver and gold statue from inside the Cathedral of St Bartholomew. On one occasion, when taking the statue down the hill towards the town, when the men carrying the statue regained their strength, they lifted it a second time
Angelo de Rossi
Angelo de Rossi was an Italian sculptor. Born in Genoa, he was apprenticed to Filippo Parodi in 1680, Parodis influence is clear in his first pre-1689 work, nearly unavoidably, he was influenced by the work of Pierre Puget. He went to Rome in 1688, remaining there until his death, another important work is the apostle Saint James the Less in St. John Lateran, Rome. The commemorative Bust of Arcangelo Corelli in the Protomoteca Capitolina of the Palazzo del Senatore of the Campidoglio, de Rossi was said to be close friends with Pierre Le Gros. With a promising career ahead, Angelo de Rossi died prematurely in Rome, robert Enggass, Early Eighteenth-Century Sculpture in Rome, University Park and London 1976. H. N. Franz-Duhme, Angelo de, in, Oxford Art Online - extract
Early Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325. It is typically divided into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period, the early Gospel message was spread orally, probably in Aramaic, but almost immediately in Greek. After the conversion of Paul the Apostle, he claimed the title of Apostle to the Gentiles, Pauls influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. As the New Testament canon developed, the Pauline epistles, the canonical gospels, Early Christians demonstrated a wide range of beliefs and practices, many of which were denounced as heretical. The earliest followers of Jesus composed an apocalyptic, Second Temple Jewish sect, the first part of the period, during the lifetimes of the Twelve Apostles, is called the Apostolic Age. The relationship of Paul the Apostle and Judaism is still disputed although Pauls influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than any other New Testament author and they think the Christians the cause of every public disaster, of every affliction with which the people are visited.
The first action taken against Christians by the order of an emperor occurred half a century earlier under Nero after the Great Fire of Rome in 64 AD. During the Ante-Nicene Period following the Apostolic Age, a diversity of views emerged simultaneously with strong unifying characteristics lacking in the apostolic period. Part of the trend was an increasingly harsh anti-Judaism and rejection of Judaizers. Early Christianity gradually grew apart from Judaism during the first two centuries and established itself as a predominantly gentile religion in the Roman Empire. From the writings of early Christians, historians have tried to piece together an understanding of various early Christian practices including worship services, Early Christian writers such as Justin Martyr described these practices. Early Christian beliefs regarding baptism probably predate the New Testament writings and it seems certain that numerous Jewish sects and certainly Jesuss disciples practised baptism, which became integral to nearly every manifestation of the religion of the Jews.
John the Baptist had baptized many people, before took place in the name of Jesus Christ. Many of the interpretations that would become Orthodox Christian beliefs concerning baptism can be traced to such as Paul. On the basis of this description, it was supposed by some modern theologians that the early Christians practised baptism by submersion and this interpretation is debated between those Christian denominations who advocate immersion baptism exclusively and those who practice baptism by affusion or aspersion as well as by immersion. Yet the Didache, one of the earliest Christian writings on liturgical practices, the Orthodox Church continues this practice, submerging the baptized and pouring water on the head in that formula. Infant baptism was practised at least by the 3rd century. Others believe that infants were excluded from the baptism of households, citing verses of the Bible that describe the baptized households as believing, in the 2nd century, bishop of Lyons, may have referred to it
Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Apostle was, according to the Christian Bible, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus and, according to Christian tradition, one of the four Evangelists. Matthew may have collected taxes from the Hebrew people for Herod Antipas, Matthew is listed among the twelve, but without identification of his background, in Mark 3,18, Luke 6,15 and Acts 1,13. Matthew was a 1st-century Galilean, the son of Alpheus, as a tax collector he would have been literate in Aramaic and Greek. His fellow Jews would have despised him for what was seen as collaborating with the Roman occupation force, after his call, Matthew invited Jesus home for a feast. On seeing this, the Scribes and the Pharisees criticized Jesus for eating with tax collectors and sinners and this prompted Jesus to answer, I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance. The New Testament records that as a disciple, he followed Jesus, and was one of the witnesses of the Resurrection, the disciples withdrew to an upper room in Jerusalem.
The disciples remained in and about Jerusalem and proclaimed that Jesus was the promised Messiah, in the Babylonian Talmud Mattai is one of five disciples of Jeshu. Later Church fathers such as Irenaeus and Clement of Alexandria claim that Matthew preached the Gospel to the Jewish community in Judea, ancient writers are not agreed as to what these other countries are. The Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church each hold the tradition that Matthew died as a martyr, the Gospel of Matthew is anonymous, the author is not named within the text, and the superscription according to Matthew was added some time in the second century. The consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, in the 3rd-century Jewish–Christian gospels attributed to Matthew were used by Jewish–Christian groups such as the Nazarenes and Ebionites. Fragments of these survive in quotations by Jerome, Epiphanius. Most academic study follows the distinction of Gospel of the Nazarenes, Gospel of the Ebionites, critical commentators generally regard these texts as having been composed in Greek and related to Greek Matthew.
A minority of commentators consider them to be fragments of a lost Aramaic or Hebrew language original, the Infancy Gospel of Matthew is a 7th-century compilation of three other texts, the Protevangelium of James, the Flight into Egypt, and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Origen said the first Gospel was written by Matthew and this Gospel was composed in Hebrew near Jerusalem for Hebrew Christians and translated into Greek, but the Greek copy was lost. The Hebrew original was kept at the Library of Caesarea, the Nazarene Community transcribed a copy for Jerome which he used in his work. Matthews Gospel was called the Gospel according to the Hebrews or sometimes the Gospel of the Apostles, this has been challenged by modern biblical scholars such as Bart Ehrman and James R. Edwards. This Gospel has been preserved in the writings of the Church Fathers. Epiphanius does not make his own the claim about a Gospel of the Hebrews written by Matthew, Matthew is recognized as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican churches
Judas Iscariot was, according to the New Testament, one of the twelve original disciples of Jesus Christ, and son of Simon Iscariot. He is known for the kiss and betrayal of Jesus to the Sanhedrin for thirty silver coins and his name is often used synonymously with betrayal or treason. Though there are varied accounts of his death, the traditional version sees him as having hanged himself following the betrayal and his place among the Twelve Apostles was filled by Matthias. Despite his notorious role in the Gospel narratives, Judas remains a figure in Christian history. Gnostic texts – rejected by the mainstream Church as heretical – praise Judas for his role in triggering humanitys salvation, Judas is mentioned in the synoptic gospels, the Gospel of John, and at the beginning of Acts of the Apostles. Judas was a name in New Testament times. Judas Iscariot should not be confused with Jude Thomas, or with Saint Jude Thaddaeus who was one of the Twelve Apostles. Origen of Alexandria, in his Commentary on Johns Gospel, reflected on Judass interactions with the other apostles, Simon Peter spoke for the twelve, Lord, to whom shall we go.
You have the words of eternal life, but Jesus observed that although Judas was one of the twelve whom he had chosen, marks Gospel states that the chief priests were looking for a way to arrest Jesus. They decided not to do so during the feast, since they were afraid people would riot, instead. According to Lukes account, Satan entered Judas at this time, according to the account in the Gospel of John, Judas carried the disciples money bag or box, but Johns Gospel makes no mention of the thirty pieces of silver as a fee for betrayal. However, in John 13, 27-30, when Judas left the gathering of Jesus and His disciples with betrayal in mind and they used it to buy the potters field. The Gospel account presents this as a fulfillment of prophecy, the Acts 1, 18-19 says that Judas used the money to buy a field, but fell headfirst, and burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out. This field is called Akeldama or Field of Blood, the non-canonical Gospel of Judas says Judas had a vision of the disciples stoning and persecuting him.
The existence of conflicting accounts of the death of Judas has caused problems for scholars who have them as threatening the reliability of Scripture. This problem was one of the points causing C. S. Lewis, for example, various attempts at harmonization have been suggested. Some have taken the descriptions as figurative, that the falling prostrate was Judas in anguish, and they argue that the author adds imaginative details such as the thirty pieces of silver, and the fact that Judas hangs himself, to an earlier tradition about Judass death. Even writers such as Jerome and John Calvin concluded that this was obviously an error
Mary of Clopas
Mary of Clopas, the wife of Clopas, was one of various Marys named in the New Testament. The expression Mary of Clopas in the Greek text is ambiguous as to whether Mary was the daughter or wife of Clopas, Hegesippus thought that Clopas was the brother of Saint Joseph. According to some interpretations, the same Mary was among the women that on Easter morning went to the tomb to anoint Jesus body with spices. Matthew 28,1 calls her the other Mary to distinguish her from Mary Magdalene, while Mark 16,1 uses the name Mary of James, the Latin version of that name, Maria Iacobi, is often used in tradition. Stephen S. Smalley says that it is probable that Mary of Clopas is Mary the mother of James son of Alphaeus, for detailed explanations, please see, Brothers of Jesus and James the brother of Jesus. His sister and his mother and his companion were each a Mary, adding to the confusion, the Gospel of Philip seems to refer to her as Jesus mothers sister and Jesus own sister. An early tradition within the Roman Catholic Church identify Mary of Clopas being the sister of Mary the Mother of Jesus, eusebius of Caesarea citing Hegesippus records that Cleopas was a brother of Joseph, which makes Mary of Clopas a sister-in-law of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
Jerome identifies Mary of Cleopas as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus, Papias identifies this Mary as the sister of Mary, mother of Jesus, and thus as the maternal aunt of Jesus. The Anglican theologian J. B. Lightfoot dismissed Papias evidence as spurious, in the Roman Martyrology she is remembered with Saint Salome on April 24. Some have regarded Mary as the daughter of Clopas, who was in one of the husbands of Saint Anne. James Tabor suggests that she is, in fact, the mother of Jesus, myrrhbearers The Three Marys New Testament people named Mary