Jami' al-tawarikh

The Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, is a work of literature and history, produced in the Mongol Ilkhanate. Written by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani at the start of the 14th century, the breadth of coverage of the work has caused it to be called "the first world history", it was in three volumes. The surviving portions total 400 pages, with versions in Persian and Arabic; the work describes major events in world history from China to Europe. The lavish illustrations and calligraphy required the efforts of hundreds of scribes and artists, with the intent that two new copies would be created each year and distributed to schools and cities around the Ilkhanate, in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. 20 illustrated copies were made of the work during Rashid al-Din's lifetime, but only a few portions remain, the complete text has not survived. The oldest known copy is an Arabic version, of which half has been lost, but one set of pages is in the Khalili Collections, comprising 59 folios from the second volume of the work.

Another set of pages, with 151 folios from the same volume, is owned by the Edinburgh University Library. Two Persian copies from the first generation of manuscripts survive in the Topkapı Palace Library in Istanbul; the early illustrated manuscripts together represent "one of the most important surviving examples of Ilkhanid art in any medium", are the largest surviving body of early examples of the Persian miniature. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani was born in 1247 at Iran into a Jewish family; the son of an apothecary, he studied medicine and joined the court of the Ilkhan emperor, Abaqa Khan, in that capacity. He converted to Islam around the age of thirty, he gained political importance, in 1304 became the vizier of emperor and Muslim convert Ghazan. He retained his position until 1316, experiencing three successive reigns, convicted of having poisoned the second of these three Khans, Öljaitü, he was executed on July 13, 1318. Hamdani was responsible for setting up a stable social and economic system in Iran after the destruction of the Mongol invasions, was an important artistic and architectural patron.

He expanded the university at Rab'-e Rashidi, which attracted scholars and students from Egypt and Syria to China, which published his many works. He was a prolific author, though few of his works have survived: only a few theological writings and a correspondence, apocryphal are known today in addition to the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, his immense wealth made. The Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh was one of the grandest projects of the Ilkhanate period, "not just a lavishly illustrated book, but a vehicle to justify Mongol hegemony over Iran"; the text was commissioned by Il-Khan Ghazan, anxious for the Mongols to retain a memory of their nomadic roots, now that they had become settled and adopted Persian customs. The work was intended only to set out the history of the Mongols and their predecessors on the steppes, took the name Taʾrīkh-ī Ghazānī, which makes up one part of the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh. To compile the History, Rashid al-Din set up an entire precinct at the university of Rab'-e Rashidi in the capital of Tabriz.

It contained multiple buildings, including a mosque, hospital and classrooms, employing over 300 workers. After the death of Ghazan in 1304, his successor Öljaitü asked Rashid al-Din to extend the work, write a history of the whole of the known world; this text was completed in sometime between 1306 and 1311. After Rashid al-Din's execution in 1318, the Rab-i-Rashidi precinct was plundered, but the in-process copy, being created at the time survived somewhere in the city of Tabriz in the library of Rashid's son, Ghiyath al-Din. Rashid's son became Vizier, in his own right, expanded the restored university precinct of his father. Several of the Jāmiʿ's compositions were used as models for the seminal illustrated version of the Shahnameh known as the Demotte Shahnameh. In the 15th century, the Arabic copy was in Herat claimed after a victory by the Timurid dynasty, it passed to the court of the Mughal Empire in India, where it was in the possession of the emperor Akbar. There is a record of it passing through the hands of Mughal emperors for the next few centuries.

It was divided into two parts in the mid-1700s, though both sections remained in India until the 19th century, when they were acquired by the British. The portion now in the Edinburgh library was presented as a gift to Ali-I Ahmad Araf Sahib on October 8, 1761, in 1800 was in the library of the Indian prince Farzada Kuli; this fragment was acquired by Colonel John Baillie of Leys of the East India Company, in 1876 passed to the Edinburgh University Library. The other portion was acquired by John Staples Harriott of the East India Company sometime prior to 1813. At some point during the next two decades it was brought to England when Harriott came home on furlough, when the manuscript entered the collection of Major General Thomas Gordon, he bequeathed it to the Royal Asiatic Society in 1841. In 1948, it was loaned to the British Museum and Library, in 1980 was auctioned at Sotheby's, where it was purchased by the Rashidiyyah Foundation in Geneva for £850,000, the highest price paid for a medieval manuscript.

The Khalili Collection acquired it in 1990. To write the Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, Rashid al-din based his work on many written and


Del Monte Land Transport Bus Company is a provincial bus company formed as a subsidiary of Del Monte Motor Works, Incorporated. It was formed as a resurgent of Batangas Laguna Tayabas Bus Company Incorporated, one of the oldest provincial bus companies in the Philippines, it plies routes to Southern Luzon provinces and other parts in Eastern Visayas region. DLTBCo. was founded last 2010 when BLTBCo. was taken over by DMMW and added to its investment, although one must take note that DLTBCo. and BLTBCo. are different companies from each other, but their similarity is its routes that the latter have. It was because the former has announced its restoration of the old routes made by the latter after the firm's take over. BLTBCo. on the other hand, was founded in 1918 shortly before the end of World War I. Thus, DLTBCo is one of the nation's oldest bus firms if the BTLBCo history and timeline are included; the company was derived from the union of two small bus companies—BTCo. and LTB. BTCo. Stands for Batangas Transportation Company, while LTB stands for Laguna Tayabas Bus Company.

The union was made by Max Blouse, an American seargeant who fought in the Spanish–American War in 1898. After the war, he decided to stay in the Philippines. Before proceeding to its present history, it is important to know about the historical background of BLTBCo. So that we may be able to see the difference between the past and the present history It was in 1918 when Max Blouse began his business ventures and he founded the Batangas Transportation Company. Starting with only one "calesa-like tires with wooden spokes" bus, Max Blouse performed a wondrous task of being the driver and repairman for the whole operation. Through his handwork and dedication, he acquired 17 more units of the passenger vehicles painted in red that people fondly called "pula" - the basis of today's DLTBCo bus livery; as a result of the thriving operation in the transportation business, Max Blouse in 1928 incorporated BTCo with his newly established bus company dubbed as Laguna Tayabas Bus Company, concentrating in the area of Laguna and Tayabas.

The two enterprises he had installed apportioned a conspicuous achievement until the disruption of the Second World War. The remnants of the war resulted to an intense damage and decline of the company's business activities. All operations were closed, records were destroyed and most of the company-owned buildings were ravaged by the war. In spite of the miscarriage during those times, Max Blouse never lost his forbearance and intensified his effort to raise back the company's destroyed properties. Under a "Joint Emergency Operations" agreement on May 22, 1945, the two corporations proceeded its operation with 28 Chevrolet buses which Max Blouse acquired from the US army. Again, through his diligence and high-spirited deeds, he enabled a spectacular stride by bringing back the prosperity that the company savored prior to the war; the pressing demand for public transportation moved him to respond by providing the people's need to commute from one place to another as the country suffered from the debris of the war.

The death of Max Blouse on December 28, 1961 posted a challenge to Col. Pelagio G. Potenciano, a doctor by profession, who took the place of his father-in-law's designation as president. Albeit the fact the Colonel Potenciano did not have enough skills on the transportation business, he was bale to manage the two corporations well through his dedication and industry, it was during his administration where the BTCo and LTB merged into one company and was approved by the company's stockholder in 1964, creating a new name termed as the Batangas Laguna Tayabas Bus Company. Colonel Potenciano's son Max, nicknamed "Sonny", became the president from 1977 up to 1988. Just like his grandfather and that of his dad, strong determination, the will to succeed had inspired him to propel all the accomplishments into the limelight. With the full support of his loving wife Dolly Alonso and four sons namely Joey, Binky and Snooky the company realized its targets and was able to cope with the stiff competition in the transportation business.

In 1988, a new formula was instilled into the company's management milieu by a new woman president in the person of Dolores Alonso Potenciano, wife of Max B. Potenciano; when she took her position as president, re-structuring was adopted by modifying BLTBCo. Into a multi-million enterprise having an all-Filipino management.. During the course of her supervision as president, Mrs. Potenciano adapted a lot of changes and development in the whole operation, her good dispositions and adeptness in yielding ingenious ideas propped up growth and changes in the entire company. BLTBCo was under the management of its new chairman and chief executive officer Benjamin M. Bitanga, a business associate of the company. Taking over as president less than a year before, under Bitanga the company continued servicing the people from the southern part of Luzon and areas within the provinces of Samar and Leyte; however in 2001, Potenciano family had their political ambitions in Laguna. With them spending much on it.

They lost the elections. The company's problem continued with series of lawsuits from their employees due to unfair labor practice and violation of the collective bargaining agreement, it was the time when Bitanga and Potenciano clans had disputes over the management of the company. In 2003, a fire erupted at Malibay; the fire destroyed many of their bus fleets including their repair garage. The company discontinues business for six years. After the suspended operations and renovation for six years, In 2009, Del Mont

Reunification Day

Reunification Day, Victory Day or Liberation Day or the official name of Day of Southern Liberation for National Reunification is a public holiday in Vietnam that marks the event when North Vietnamese and Việt Cộng forces captured Saigon on April 30, 1975. This signalled the end of the Vietnam War, known in Vietnamese as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ cứu nước or Chiến tranh Việt Nam, it was the start of the transition period toward reunification, which occurred in the national election for national reunification on July 2, 1976, when the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam and Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged, forming the modern-day Socialist Republic of Vietnam. In the Overseas Vietnamese community, the day is remembered as the "Fall of Saigon", "Black April", "National Day of Shame" or "National Day of Hate"; this is a commemorative day for exiled Vietnamese who served, were affected, displaced in those overseas communities, as such is a day of reflection. Many Americans of multiple ethnicities observe the day for solidarity.

Public holidays in Vietnam Liberation Day in other countries Victory Day in other countries A 2015 Reunification Day Parade in Hanoi