Order of St. Olav
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry instituted by King Oscar I on August 21, 1847. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav. Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, but no appointments were awarded by his successor, King Haakon VII; the Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdom's only order of chivalry for the next 80 years; the Grand Master of the order is the reigning monarch of Norway. It is used to reward individuals for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country and humanity. Since 1985, appointments to the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty may be appointed as a matter of courtesy; the reigning monarch of Norway is the order's Grand Master. The order consists of three grades, of which two are divided into two classes, may be awarded for either civilian or military contributions, in descending order of distinction.
The collar is awarded as a separate distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy. Grand Cross -- awarded in rare cases to individuals for merit. If the collar is not worn the badge may be worn on a sash on the right shoulder; the collar of the Order is in gold, with five enamelled and crowned monograms "O", five enamelled and crowned coat-of-arms of Norway, 10 gold crosses bottony each flanked by two battle axes with silver blades and golden shafts. The badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes; the obverse central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe. The cross is topped by a crown; the star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order. The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, with gilt crowned monograms "O" between the arms of the cross.
The central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring. The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes. In exceptional circumstances the Order may be awarded'with diamonds', in which case a ring of diamonds replaces the white-blue-white enamel ring surrounding the central disc on the front of the badge; the insignia are expected to be returned either upon the receiver's advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. The insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen; the King makes appointments upon the recommendation of a six-member commission, none of whom may be a member of the government, consisting of a chancellor, vice chancellor, the Lord Chamberlain, three other representatives. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, the monarch approves them. Nominations to the order are directed at the commission through the county governor. Princes and Princesses with succession rights to the throne are appointed to the highest degree upon reaching their age of majority.
The Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian honour conferred by Norway and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking. In the order of precedence used at the royal court of Norway, bearers of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav with collar are ranked 15th in the order of precedence, directly after the Mistress of the Robes and generals and directly before recipients of the War Cross with Sword. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th; this list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by the last name. Six of the listed are not heads of royals. Before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, appointments to the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits. Many holders of the Grand Cross who are not heads of state are not listed here.
Orders and medals of Norway St Olav's medal The Order of St. Olav Website of the Royal Court Statues of the Order of St. Olav Website of the Royal Court
Anja Garbarek is a Norwegian singer-songwriter of mixed Norwegian and Polish descent. She was raised in Norway. Garbarek's debut album, Velkommen Inn, is sung in Norwegian, she subsequently released three original albums containing English lyrics: Balloon Mood and Waving, Briefly Shaking. She received the Spellemannsprisen in 2001 for her album Smiling & Waving in the open class category, she was responsible for the soundtrack to Luc Besson's 2005 film Angel-A, which included music from her albums as well as several new songs composed for the film. Garbarek collaborated with Mark Hollis of Talk Talk on two of her tracks for the 2001 album Smiling & Waving. Raised in Oslo, Garbarek is the daughter of the Norwegian jazz saxophonist Jan Garbarek. Garbarek is married to John Mallison, with whom she has Emily. Velkommen inn "Vil Du Være Med" "Male Øynene Dine" "Vingene Mine" "Somme Tider" "Det Du Ser" "Velkommen Inn" "Elsker Du Som Jeg" "Dekk Deg Til" "Du" "Er Det Flere Her" "Løp Alt Du Kan" Balloon Mood "Beyond My Control" "I.
C. U." "Just One of Those Days" "Picking up Pieces" "Cabinet" "Something Written" "Strange Noises" "Telescope Man Says" "She Collects" "Balloon Mood" Smiling & Waving "Her Room" "The Gown" "Spin The Context" "Stay Tuned" "You Know" "Big Mouth" "The Diver" "That's All" "And Then" "It Seems We Talk" "I Won't Hurt You" "Blinking Blocks of Light" Briefly Shaking "Born That Way" - 1:00 "Dizzy With Wonder" - 2:53 "The Last Trick" - 5:29 "Sleep" - 3:35 "Shock Activities" - 4:15 "Yes" - 1:26 "My Fellow Riders" - 3:59 "Can I Keep Him" - 3:41 "This Momentous Day" - 4:20 "Still Guarding Space" - 4:30 "Word Is Out" - 4:29 Angel-A Soundtrack "Beyond My Control" "Can I Keep Him?" "It's Just A Game" "Thank You Franck" "Her Room" "Andre Running" "No Trace Of Grey" "The Cabinet" "A. On Bridge" "Spin The Context" "It's Just A Game" "Le Corridor" "Balloon Mood" "Andre Face Au Miroir" "Crossroads - Eat" "Captivante - Radar" "Under Your Wings - Hiro My Hero And Soulfull" "Angel - Hiro My Hero And Soulfull The Road Is Just A Surface "In between" "The Will To Walk" "Lazy Predator" "The Witness" "Less Lonely" "Bob's Song" "Confessional Memoirs" "Heavy Forms" "Skilful Talker" "Never Both" Volcano - Satyricon - Koine - Rita Marcotulli Cuckooland - Robert Wyatt Sweet Mental - Wibutee Comicopera - Robert Wyatt Slope - Steve Jansen 4 Remixes from Slope - Steve Jansen Official website Radiodokumentaren: " - så smeller det" 23.08.2014 on NRK
Walter Theodore "Sonny" Rollins is an American jazz tenor saxophonist, recognized as one of the most important and influential jazz musicians. In a seven-decade career, he has recorded over sixty albums as a leader. A number of his compositions, including "St. Thomas", "Oleo", "Doxy", "Pent-Up House", "Airegin", have become jazz standards. Rollins has been called "the greatest living improviser" and the "Saxophone Colossus". Rollins was born in New York City to parents from the United States Virgin Islands; the youngest of three siblings, he grew up in central Harlem and on Sugar Hill, receiving his first alto saxophone at the age of seven or eight. He attended Edward W. Stitt Junior High School and graduated from Benjamin Franklin High School in East Harlem. Rollins started as a pianist, changed to alto saxophone, switched to tenor in 1946. During his high school years, he played in a band with other future jazz legends Jackie McLean, Kenny Drew, Art Taylor. After graduating from high school in 1947, Rollins began performing professionally.
Within the next few months, he began to make a name for himself, recording with Johnson and appearing under the leadership of pianist Bud Powell, alongside trumpeter Fats Navarro and drummer Roy Haynes, on a seminal "hard bop" session. In early 1950, Rollins was arrested for armed robbery and spent ten months in Rikers Island jail before being released on parole. Between 1951 and 1953, he recorded with Miles Davis, the Modern Jazz Quartet, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk. A breakthrough arrived in 1954 when he recorded his famous compositions "Oleo", "Airegin", "Doxy" with a quintet led by Davis that featured pianist Horace Silver. In 1955, Rollins entered the Federal Medical Center, Lexington, at the time the only assistance in the U. S. for drug addicts. While there, he volunteered for then-experimental methadone therapy and was able to break his heroin habit, after which he lived for a time in Chicago rooming with the trumpeter Booker Little. Rollins feared sobriety would impair his musicianship, but went on to greater success.
Rollins joined the Miles Davis Quintet in the summer of 1955. That year, he joined the Clifford Brown–Max Roach quintet. After the deaths of Brown and the band's pianist, Richie Powell, in a June 1956 automobile accident, Rollins continued playing with Roach and began releasing albums under his own name on Prestige Records, Blue Note and the Los Angeles label Contemporary, his acclaimed album Saxophone Colossus was recorded on June 22, 1956, at Rudy Van Gelder's studio in New Jersey, with Tommy Flanagan on piano, former Jazz Messengers bassist Doug Watkins, his favorite drummer, Roach. This was Rollins's sixth recording as a leader and it included his best-known composition "St. Thomas", a Caribbean calypso based on a tune sung to him by his mother in his childhood, as well as the fast bebop number "Strode Rode", "Moritat". A long blues solo on Saxophone Colossus, "Blue 7", was analyzed in depth by the composer and critic Gunther Schuller in a 1958 article. In the solo for "St. Thomas", Rollins uses repetition of a rhythmic pattern, variations of that pattern, covering only a few tones in a tight range, employing staccato and semi-detached notes.
This is interrupted by a sudden flourish, utilizing a much wider range before returning to the former pattern. In his book The Jazz Style of Sonny Rollins, David N. Baker explains that Rollins "very uses rhythm for its own sake, he will sometimes improvise on a rhythmic pattern instead of on the melody or changes." Since recording "St. Thomas", Rollins's use of calypso rhythms has been one of his signature contributions to jazz. In 1956 he married model Dawn Finney. In 1956 he recorded Tenor Madness, using Davis's group – pianist Red Garland, bassist Paul Chambers, drummer Philly Joe Jones; the title track is the only recording of Rollins with John Coltrane, a member of Davis's group. At the end of the year Rollins appeared as a sideman on Thelonious Monk's album Brilliant Corners and recorded his own first album for Blue Note Records, entitled Sonny Rollins, Volume One, with Donald Byrd on trumpet, Wynton Kelly on piano, Gene Ramey on bass, Roach on drums. In 1957, Rollins pioneered the use of bass and drums, without piano, as accompaniment for his saxophone solos, a texture that came to be known as "strolling."
Two early tenor/bass/drums trio recordings are A Night at the Village Vanguard. Way Out West was so named because it was recorded for California-based Contemporary Records, because it included country and western songs such as "Wagon Wheels" and "I'm an Old Cowhand"; the Village Vanguard album consists of two sets, a matinee with bassist Donald Bailey and drummer Pete LaRoca and an evening set with bassist Wilbur Ware and drummer Elvin Jones. Rollins used the trio format intermittently throughout his career, sometimes taking the unusual step of using his sax as a rhythm section instrument during bass and drum solos. Lew Tabackin cited Ro
Juvenal de Holanda Vasconcelos, known as Naná Vasconcelos, was a Brazilian percussionist and berimbau player, notable for his work as a solo artist on over two dozen albums, as a backing musician with Pat Metheny, Don Cherry, Jan Garbarek, Egberto Gismonti, Gato Barbieri, Milton Nascimento. Vasconcelos was born in Brazil. Beginning from 1967 he joined many artists' works as a percussionist. Among his many collaborations, he contributed to four Jon Hassell albums from 1976 to 1980, to several Pat Metheny Group works and Jan Garbarek concerts from early 1980s to early 1990s. In 1984 he appeared on the Pierre Favre album Singing Drums along with Paul Motian, he appears on Arild Andersen's album If You Look Far Enough with Ralph Towner. He formed a group named Codona with Don Cherry and Collin Walcott, which released three albums in 1978, 1980 and 1982. Between 1984 and 1989, he was the Honorary President of the first samba school in the UK, the London School of Samba. In 1981 he performed at the Woodstock Jazz Festival, held in celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Creative Music Studio.
In 1998, Vasconcelos contributed "Luz de Candeeiro" to the AIDS benefit compilation album Onda Sonora: Red Hot + Lisbon produced by the Red Hot Organization. Vasconcelos was awarded the Best Percussionist Of The Year by the Down Beat Critics Poll for seven consecutive years, from 1984 to 1990, he was honored with eight Grammy Awards. Vasconcelos was diagnosed with lung cancer in mid 2015, he died from the disease on 9 March 2016, in Recife. Vasconcelos has played congas, gourd, drums, repique, gong, talking drum, shaker, pandeiro, udu, prato, tambor, hi-hats, water drum, vibraphone, güiro, cowbell, xequere, Turkish drum, cymbals, shells, African bells, agogo bells, clay pot, snare drum, Tibetan gong and other assorted percussion. Nana Vasconcelos official website A fan site with a complete discography
George Russell (composer)
George Allen Russell was an American jazz pianist, composer and theorist. He is considered one of the first jazz musicians to contribute to general music theory with a theory of harmony based on jazz rather than European music, in his book Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization. Russell was born in Cincinnati, Ohio to a white father and a black mother the adopted only child of a nurse and a chef on the B & O Railroad and Joseph Russell. Young Russell sang in the choir of the African Methodist Episcopal Church and listened to the Kentucky Riverboat music of Fate Marable, he made his stage debut at age seven. Surrounded by the music of the black church and the big bands which played on the Ohio Riverboats, with a father, a music educator at Oberlin College, he started playing drums with the Boy Scouts and Bugle Corps, receiving a scholarship to Wilberforce University, where he joined the Collegians, a band noted as a breeding ground for great jazz musicians including Ben Webster, Coleman Hawkins, Charles Freeman Lee, Frank Foster, Benny Carter.
Russell served in that band at the same time as Ernie Wilkins. When called up for the draft at the beginning of World War II, he was hospitalized with tuberculosis, where he was taught the fundamentals of music theory by a fellow patient. After his release from the hospital, he played drums with Benny Carter's band, but decided to give up drumming as a vocation after hearing Max Roach, who replaced him in the orchestra. Inspired by hearing Thelonious Monk's "'Round Midnight", Russell moved to New York in the early 1940s, where he became a member of a coterie of young innovators who frequented the 55th Street apartment of Gil Evans, a clique which included Miles Davis, Charlie Parker, Gerry Mulligan, John Lewis the music director of the Modern Jazz Quartet. In 1945–46, Russell was again hospitalized for tuberculosis for 16 months. Forced to turn down work as Charlie Parker's drummer, during that time he worked out the basic tenets of what was to become his Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization, a theory encompassing all of equal-tempered music, influential well beyond the boundaries of jazz.
The first edition of his book was published by Russell in 1953, while he worked as a salesclerk at Macy's. At that time, Russell's ideas were a crucial step into the modal music of John Coltrane and Miles Davis on his classic recording, Kind of Blue, served as a beacon for other modernists such as Eric Dolphy and Art Farmer. While working on the theory, Russell was applying its principles to composition, his first famous composition was for the Dizzy Gillespie Orchestra, the two-part "Cubano Be, Cubano Bop" and part of that band's pioneering experiments in fusing bebop and Cuban jazz elements. A lesser known but pivotal work arranged by Russell's was recorded in January 1950 by Artie Shaw entitled "Similau" that employed techniques of both the works done for Gillespie and DeFranco. Russell began playing piano, leading a series of groups which included Bill Evans, Art Farmer, Hal McKusick, Barry Galbraith, Milt Hinton, Paul Motian, others. Jazz Workshop was his first album as leader, one where he played little, as opposed to masterminding the events.
He was to record a number of impressive albums over the next several years, sometimes as primary pianist. In 1957, Russell was one of six jazz musicians commissioned by Brandeis University to write a piece for their Festival of the Creative Arts, he wrote a suite for orchestra, All About Rosie, which featured Bill Evans among other soloists, has been cited as one of the few convincing examples of composed polyphony in jazz. Members of the orchestra on his 1958 extended work, New York, N. Y. included Bill Evans, John Coltrane, Art Farmer, Milt Hinton, Bob Brookmeyer, Max Roach, among others, featured wrap-around raps by singer/lyricist Jon Hendricks. Jazz in the Space Age was an more ambitious big band album, featuring the unusual dual piano voicings of Bill Evans and Paul Bley. Russell formed his own sextet. Between 1960 and 1963, the Russell Sextet featured musicians like Dave Baker and Steve Swallow and memorable sessions with Eric Dolphy and singer Sheila Jordan. In 1964, who as a half black man was dismayed by race relations in the United States, moved to Scandinavia.
He lived in Scandinavia for five years. Through the early 1970s, Russell did most of his work in Sweden, he played there with young musicians who would go on to international fame: guitarist Terje Rypdal, saxophonist Jan Garbarek and drummer Jon Christensen. This Scandinavian period provided opportunities to write for larger groupings, Russell's larger-scale compositions of this time pursue his idea of "vertical form", which he described as "layers or strata of divergent modes of rhythmic behaviour"; the Electronic Sonata for Souls Loved by Nature, commissioned by Bosse Broberg of Swedish Radio for the Radio Orchestra, was first recorded in 1968, as an extended work recorded with electronic tape. It continued Russell's continuing exploration of new instrumentation. Russell returned to America in 1969, when Gunther Schuller assumed the presidency of the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston and appointed Russell to teach the Lydian Concept in the newly created jazz studies department, a positi
Hariprasad Chaurasia is an Indian music director and classical flutist, who plays the bansuri, an Indian bamboo flute, in the Hindustani classical tradition. Chaurasia was born in Prayagraj in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, his mother died when he was 6. He had to learn music without his father's knowledge, he did go to the Akhada and train with his father for some time, although he started learning music and practising at his friend's house. He has stated, I was not any good at wrestling. I went there only to please my father, but maybe because of the strength and stamina I built up I'm able to play the bansuri to this day. Chaurasia started learning vocal music from his neighbour, Rajaram, at the age of 15, he switched to playing the flute under the tutelage of Bholanath Prasanna of Varanasi for eight years. He joined the All India Radio, Odisha in 1957 and worked as a composer and performer. Much while working for All India Radio, he received guidance from the reclusive Annapurna Devi, daughter of Baba Allaudin Khan.
She only agreed to teach him. Another version is that she only agreed to teach him after he took the decision to switch from right-handed to left-handed playing to show her his commitment. In any case Chaurasia plays left-handed to this day. Apart from classical music, Hariprasad has collaborated with Shivkumar Sharma, forming a group called Shiv-Hari; the pair composed music for many popular movies, including Silsila and Chandni, created some popular songs. Pandit Chaurasia collaborated with Odia musician Bhubaneswar Mishra, forming the pair "Bhuban-Hari", the pair composed music for many Odia movies, creating numerous songs that were hugely popular in the state; these include Muje janena kaha baata. Pandit Chaurasia's nephew and pupil Rakesh Chaurasia is a accomplished flutist now, has been performing globally with such eminent maestros as Ustad Zakir Hussain, he serves as the artistic director of the World Music Department at the Rotterdam Music Conservatory in the Netherlands. He was the founder of the Vrindavan Gurukul in Mumbai and Vrindavan Gurukul in Bhubaneshwar.
Both of these institutes are schools dedicated to training students in bansuri in the Guru-shishya tradition. He has collaborated with several western musicians, including John McLaughlin, Jan Garbarek, Ken Lauber, has composed music for Indian films. Chaurasia played on The Beatles' 1968 B-side "The Inner Light", written by George Harrison. Chaurasia was married to Anuradha, he has three sons Vinay and Rajiv, five granddaughters and a single grandson. The 2013 documentary film Bansuri Guru features the life and legacy of Chaurasia and was directed by the musician's son Rajeev Chaurasia and produced by the Films Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Sangeet Natak Academy - 1984 Konark Samman - 1992 Padma Bhushan - 1992 Yash Bharati Samman - 1994 Padma Vibhushan - 2000 Pandit Chatur Lal Excellence Award - 2015 Hafiz Ali Khan Award - 2000 Dinanath Mangeshkar Award - 2000 Pune Pandit Award - 2008, by The Art & Music Foundation, India Akshaya Samman - 2009 Honorary Doctorate, North Orissa University - 2008 Honorary Doctorate, Utkal University - 2011 National Eminence award, NADA VIDYA BHARTI by Visakha Music and Dance Academy, Vizag - 2009 The 25 Greatest Global Living Legends In India by NDTV - 2013 Official biography "Woodwinds of Change" by Surjit Singh - 2008'Hariprasad Chaurasia and the Art of Improvisation', by Henri Tournier These are major albums released by Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia 1967Call of the Valley with Shivkumar Sharma and Brij Bhushan Kabra1978Krishnadhwani 601981Pt.
Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute1984Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute 1987Morning to Midnight Ragas - Morning Ragas1988Call of the Valley1989Venu Live in Ahmedabad'891990Immortal Series1991Megh Malhar1992Night Ragas Live in Amsterdam'92 Morning to Midnight Ragas - Afternoon Ragas All time Favourites Live from Sawai Gandharva Music Festival - Video Raga-s DU Nord Et Du Sud Immortal Series - Flute Fantasia1993Indian Classical Masters Daylight Ragas Flute - Hariprasad Chaurasia1994Thumri - The Music of Love In A Mellow Mood Possession Immortal Series - Devine Drupad Classic Greats1 - Ideas on Flute1995In Live Concert Cascades of Hindustani Music Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 4am to 7am Raga Bhairava: Integration Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 7am to 10am Raga Gurjari Todi: Compassion Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 10am to 1pm Raga Vrindavani Saranga: Greater Energy Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 1pm to 4pm Raga Multani: Affuence Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 4pm to 7pm Raga Marwa: Coherence Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 7pm to 10pm Raga Desh: Joy Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 10pm to 1am Raga Abhogi: Peaceful Slumber Maharishi Gandharva Veda - Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia - 1am to 4am Raga Sindhu Bhairavi: Gentleness Hariprasad Chaurasia - Flute Malhar-Chandrika Music 157 - Live in London Music - Flute Great Jugalbandis Music from the world of OSHO - Above & Beyond Prem Yog Written on the Wind Romantic Themes Saptarishi - Live at Siri Fort The Mystical Flute of Hari Prasad Chaurasia Maestro's Choice Basant Bahar Chaurasia's Choice1996Hari Prasad Chaurasia & his Divine Flute Flute Recital Valley Recalls - In search of Peace and Harmony Krishna's
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor