Jan Hammer is a Czech-American musician and record producer. He first gained his most visible audience while playing keyboards with the Mahavishnu Orchestra in the early 1970s, as well as his film scores for television and film including "Miami Vice Theme" and "Crockett's Theme", from the 1980s television program, Miami Vice, he has continued to work as both a musical performer and producer, expanding to producing film in his career. Hammer has collaborated with some of the era's most influential jazz and rock musicians such as John McLaughlin, Jeff Beck, Al Di Meola, Mick Jagger, Carlos Santana, Stanley Clarke, Tommy Bolin, Neal Schon, Steve Lukather and Elvin Jones, he has composed and produced at least 14 original motion picture soundtracks, the music for 90 episodes of Miami Vice and 20 episodes of the television series Chancer. His compositions have won him several Grammy Awards. Jan Hammer was born in Prague capital of Czechoslovakia, his mother was Vlasta Průchová, a well-known Czech singer, his father was a doctor who worked his way through school playing vibraphone and bass guitar.
Hammer began playing the piano at the age of four and his formal instruction started two years later. He aspired to follow his father into medicine until a family friend convinced him to develop his musical talents instead. Hammer formed a jazz trio in high school and recording throughout Eastern Europe at the age of fourteen. Upon entrance to the Prague Academy of Musical Arts, he completed many compulsory classes including harmony, music history, classical composition; when the Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia on 20 August 1968, Hammer's studies at the Academy were cut short. Hammer recorded a jazz trio live album at "The Domicile" in Munich on 30 August 1968; this was released as Maliny Maliny by the German label MPS Records. But Hammer moved to the United States and resolved to become a citizen after receiving a scholarship at Berklee College of Music in Boston. Upon completion of his studies, Hammer spent a year touring with Sarah Vaughan, recorded with Elvin Jones and Jeremy Steig moved to Lower Manhattan and joined the original lineup of the Mahavishnu Orchestra with guitarist John McLaughlin, violinist Jerry Goodman, bassist Rick Laird, drummer Billy Cobham in 1971.
A successful jazz fusion band, they performed some 530 shows before their farewell concert on 30 December 1973. Hammer was an early pioneer of playing the Minimoog Moog synthesizer in a live setting. After recording albums with Goodman and John Abercrombie in 1974, Hammer's solo career began with the release of The First Seven Days, he produced and recorded the album at Red Gate Studio, which he'd built in his upstate New York farmhouse and, the location of his recordings since. The Jan Hammer Group was formed in 1976 and supported The First Seven Days on tour, receiving good reviews from both jazz and rock critics; the group turned out three LPs the following year: their own Oh, Yeah? and, with Jeff Beck, the RIAA platinum Wired, Jeff Beck with the Jan Hammer Group Live, a chronicle of their 100-show tour together, certified gold. One final album by the group followed in Melodies. Hammer composed music for the Czech fairy-tale The Incredibly Sad Princess. In 1977, Hammer recorded Elegant Gypsy with Al Di Meola.
Casino, Splendido Hotel and Electric Rendezvous followed. He joined Di Meola for a tour chronicled the same year on Tour De Force - Live. Hammer returned to solo work with the release of Black Sheep in 1978, he formed a new band, known as "Hammer". In 1978, he wrote and performed on three songs for Jeff Beck's next album and Back, released in 1980. One of the album tracks, "Star Cycle," went on to become the theme for the British television series The Tube, he formed Schon & Hammer, a duo with ex Santana and Journey guitarist Neal Schon, that recorded Untold Passion in 1981 and Here to Stay in 1982. Hammer took the stage with Jeff Beck in December 1983 for the nine U. S. benefit concerts that raised money for Ronnie Lane's A. R. M. S. Featuring Jimmy Page, Eric Clapton, Joe Cocker and a host of others. Into 1984, his various talents were employed on recordings as diverse as James Young's first solo album, City Slicker for which he co-wrote and produced. Hammer's original scores for three major motion pictures complement a long list of credits for documentaries, "made-for-TV" movies in the U.
S. commercials, station identifications. But his greatest challenge came in the fall of 1984, when the producers of Miami Vice enlisted him to commence the rigorous weekly schedule of scoring the series; the popular success of his music on the series was evident after just one season when, on 2 November 1985, the Miami Vice Soundtrack hit number one on the Billboard Top Pop album charts. The album achieved quadruple-platinum status with U. S. sales of more than four million copies. At the Grammy awards in February 1986, "Miami Vice Theme" earned Hammer two awards, he earned Emmy award nominations in 1985 and 1986, for "Outstanding Achievement in Musical Composition". At the end of 1986, Hammer won Keyboard Magazine's poll as "Best Studio Synthesist" for a secon
Isla Guy Fawkes is a collection of two crescent shaped islands and two small rocks north-west of Santa Cruz Island, in the Galápagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador. It is uninhabited, but known to be used by scuba divers who amongst other things view the underwater zoanthids near it. William Beebe visited the islands and makes mention of them in his book Galapagos: World's End, he described the cliffs as majestic and made of stratified layers of volcanic tuff, he noted a population of sealions. The island is best known and most noted for its name. Guy Fawkes, the man it is named after was a Roman Catholic revolutionary who had attempted to carry out the Gunpowder Plot in 1605. Satellite view of Isla Guy Fawkes
General elections were held in British Guiana on 24 November 1947. The British Guiana Labour Party emerged as the largest party. Voter turnout was 71%. Constitutional changes in 1943 resulted in a 25-member Legislative Council, of which 14 seats were elected, seven held by appointed members and four by members of the appointed Executive Council; the franchise was changed. As a result, the electorate increased in size from 9,514 in the 1935 elections to 59,193; the elections were using fourteen single-member constituencies. The elections were contested by the Manpower Citizens' Association, the British Guiana Labour Party, as well as 31 independents, who included three members of the Political Affairs Committee and one from the Women's Political and Economic Organisation; the BGCP contested 13 of the 14 seats, with the MPCA putting forward seven candidates. The BGLP campaigned for the introduction of universal suffrage, creation of a 24-member Legislative Council and self-government within five years, as well as land redistribution and more housebuilding.
The MPCA called for the introduction of land settlement schemes. Grenadian independence campaigner Theophilus A. Marryshow arrived in British Guiana to celebrate the BGLP's anniversary, campaigned for the party. Following the elections, the election of Hubert Nathaniel Critchlow in South Georgetown was overturned by an electoral petition that claimed false statements had been made against his opponent Frances Stafford, including that she had kicked an African child and been fined; the subsequent by-election was won by John Carter, who defeated Stafford
Sir Egbert Udo Udoma was a lawyer and justice of the Nigerian Supreme Court. He was Chief Justice of Uganda from 1963 to 1969, he spent 13 years as a judge on the Supreme Court of Nigeria and was chairman of the Constituent Assembly from 1977 to 1978. He was one of the founding fathers of Nigeria. Udoma was one of the first black Africans to earn a PhD in Law in 1944 from Oxford University, he was a devoted Methodist and a holder of Knight of John Wesley. He attended Methodist College, Uzuakoli. After completing his secondary education, he proceeded abroad to study at Trinity College, Dublin with the support of his community and the Ibibio Union, an organization which he led. At TCD, he served as President of the University Philosophical Society, the student debating society, he earned a postgraduate degree at Oxford University. He returned to Nigeria to practise law in the mid-1940s, but became intrigued and moved by the nationalistic politics of the time. At the time, Nigeria was attracting returning emigrants.
He joined the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons early on, but left the party following a crisis in the former Eastern Region that saw the removal of Eyo Ita, an Ibeno man from office as the leader of the Eastern Region by Azikiwe. From 1953 to 1959, Udo Udoma was a member of the federal House of Representatives, under the platform of the United National Independence Party he was a leading proponent for the creation of a Calabar/Ogoja/Rivers state. However, his failure to succeed in the creation of an independent region or state in south-eastern Nigeria, the triumph of the three major regions at a constitutional conference in 1958, led him to concede politics to the dominant parties, he spent four years as a High Court judge. He was a knight of the British Empire and belonged to the group that championed Nigerian independence from Britain and was one of the founding fathers of Nigeria, he died at the age of 80 on 2 February 1998. He was the subject of two biographies: The Man: Sir Justice Udo Udoma by Dennis Udo-Inyang, Law and Statesmanship: The Legacy of Sir Udo Udoma by Ekong Sampson.
In 2008 the Estate of Sir Udo Udoma released The Eagle In Its Flight: Being The Memoir of the Hon. Sir Udo Udoma, CFR, his third son Udoma Udo Udoma was a distinguished Senator of the fourth republic of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and is the incumbent Minister of Budget and Planning under the Buhari administration. The Lion and the Oil Palm and Another Essay The Story of the Ibibio Union History and the Law of the Constitution of Nigeria
Structuralism in psychology is a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt and his student Edward Bradford Titchener. This theory was challenged in the 20th century, it is debated who deserves the credit for finding this field of psychology, but it is accepted that Wundt created the foundation on which Titchener expanded. Structuralism as a school of psychology seeks to analyze the adult mind in terms of the simplest definable components and to find how these components fit together to form more complex experiences as well as how they correlate to physical events. To do this, psychologists employ introspection, self-reports of sensations, feelings, etc. Edward B. Titchener, along with Wilhelm Wundt, is credited for the theory of structuralism, it is considered to be the first "school" of psychology. Because he was a student of Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig, Titchener's ideas on how the mind worked were influenced by Wundt's theory of voluntarism and his ideas of association and apperception.
Titchener attempted to classify the structures of the mind, like chemists classify the elements of nature, into the nature. Titchener said that only observable events constituted that science and that any speculation concerning unobservable events have no place in society. In his book, Systematic Psychology, Titchener wrote: It is true that observation is the single and proprietary method of science, that experiment, regarded as scientific method, is nothing else than observation safeguarded and assisted. Titchener believed, he believed that he could understand reasoning and the structure of the mind if he could define and categorize the basic components of mind and the rules by which the components interacted. The main tool Titchener used to try to determine the different components of consciousness was introspection. Titchener writes in his Systematic Psychology: The state of consciousness, to be the matter of psychology... can become an object of immediate knowledge only by way of introspection or self-awareness. and in his book An Outline of Psychology:...within the sphere of psychology, introspection is the final and only court of appeal, that psychological evidence cannot be other than introspective evidence.
Unlike Wundt's method of introspection, Titchener had strict guidelines for the reporting of an introspective analysis. The subject would be presented with an object, such as a pencil; the subject would report the characteristics of that pencil. The subject would be instructed not to report the name of the object because that did not describe the raw data of what the subject was experiencing. Titchener referred to this as stimulus error. In his translation of Wundt's work, Titchener illustrates Wundt as a supporter of introspection as a method through which to observe consciousness. However, introspection only fits Wundt's theories if the term is taken to refer to psychophysical methods. Introspection means'looking within', to try to describe a person's memory, cognitive processes, and/or motivations. Titchener's theory began with the question of, he concluded from his research that there were three types of mental elements constituting conscious experience: Sensations and affections. These elements could be broken down into their respective properties, which he determined were quality, duration and extensity.
Both sensations and images contained all of these qualities. And images and affections could be broken down further into just clusters of sensations. Therefore, by following this train of thinking all thoughts were images, which being constructed from elementary sensations meant that all complex reasoning and thought could be broken down into just the sensations which he could get at through introspection; the second issue in Titchener's theory of structuralism was the question of how the mental elements combined and interacted with each other to form conscious experience. His conclusions were based on ideas of associationism. In particular, Titchener focuses on the law of contiguity, the idea that the thought of something will tend to cause thoughts of things that are experienced along with it. Titchener rejected Wundt's notions of apperception and creative synthesis, which were the basis of Wundt's voluntarism. Titchener argued that attention was a manifestation of the "clearness" property within sensation.
Once Titchener identified the elements of mind and their interaction, his theory asked the question of why the elements interact in the way they do. In particular, Titchener was interested in the relationship between the conscious experience and the physical processes. Titchener believed that physiological processes provide a continuous substratum that give psychological processes a continuity they otherwise would not have. Therefore, the nervous system does not cause conscious experience, but can be used to explain some characteristics of mental events. Wilhelm Wundt instructed the founder of structuralism, at the University of Leipzig. The'science of immediate experience' was stated by him; this means that the complex perceptions can be raised through basic sensory information. Wundt is associated in past literature with structuralism and the use of similar introspecti
Neal Adams is an American comic book and commercial artist known for helping to create some of the definitive modern imagery of the DC Comics characters Batman and Green Arrow. Adams was inducted into the Eisner Award's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1998, the Harvey Awards' Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1999, the Inkwell Awards Joe Sinnott Hall of Fame in 2019. Neal Adams was born June 1941 on Governors Island, New York City, he is Jewish. Adams attended the School of Industrial Art high school in Manhattan, graduating in 1959. After graduation in 1959, he unsuccessfully attempted to find freelance work at DC Comics, turned to Archie Comics, where he wanted to work on the publisher's fledgling superhero line, edited by Joe Simon. At the suggestion of staffers, Adams drew "three or four pages of the Fly", but did not receive encouragement from Simon. Sympathetic staffers nonetheless asked Adams to draw samples for the Archie teen-humor comics themselves. While he did so, Adams said in a 2000s interview, he unknowingly broke into comics: I started to do samples for Archie and I left my Fly samples there.
A couple weeks when I came in to show my Archie samples, I noticed that the pages were still there, but the bottom panel was cut off of one of my pages. I said,'What happened', they said,'One of the artists did this transition where Tommy Troy turns into the Fly and it's not good. You did this real nice piece so we'll use that, if it's OK.' I said,'That's great. That's terrific.' That panel ran in Adventures of the Fly #4. Afterward, Adams began writing, penciling and lettering humorous full-page and half-page gag fillers for Archie's Joke Book Magazine. In a 1976 interview, he recalled earning "$32.00 for a full page. That may not seem like a great deal of money, but at the time it meant a great deal to myself as well as my mothers... as we were not in a wealthy state. It was manna from heaven, so to speak." A recommendation led him to artist Howard Nostrand, beginning the Bat Masterson syndicated newspaper comic strip, he worked as Nostrand's assistant for three months drawing backgrounds at what Adams recalled as $9 a week and "a great experience".
Having "not left Archie Comics under the best of circumstances", Adams turned to commercial art for the advertising industry. After a rocky start freelancing, he began landing regular work at the Johnstone and Cushing agency, which specialized in comic-book styled advertising. Helped by artist Elmer Wexler, who critiqued the young Adams' samples, Adams brought his portfolio to the agency, which "didn't believe I had done those particular samples since they looked so much like Elmer Wexler's work, but they gave me a chance and... I stayed there for about a year". In 1962, Adams began his comics career in earnest at the Newspaper Enterprise Association syndicate. From a recommendation, writer Jerry Caplin, a.k.a. Jerry Capp, brother of Li'l Abner creator Al Capp, invited Adams to draw samples for Capp's proposed Ben Casey comic strip, based on the popular television medical-drama series. On the strength of his samples and of his "Chip Martin, College Reporter" AT&T advertising comic-strip pages in Boys' Life magazine, of his similar Goodyear Tire ads, Adams landed the assignment.
The first daily strip, which carried Adams' signature, appeared November 26, 1962. Adams continued to do Johnston & Cushing assignments during Ben Casey's 3 1/2-year run. Comics historian Maurice Horn said the strip "did not shrink from tackling controversial problems, such as heroin addiction, illegitimate pregnancy, attempted suicide; these were treated in soap opera fashion... but there was a touch of toughness to the proceedings, well rendered by Adams in a forceful, direct style that exuded realism and tension and accorded well with the overall tone of the strip". In addition to Capp, Jerry Brondfield wrote for the strip, with Adams stepping in occasionally; the ABC series, which ran five seasons, ended March 21, 1966, with the final comic strip appearing Sunday, July 31, 1966. Despite the end of the series, Adams has said the strip, which he claimed at different points to have appeared in 365 newspapers, 265 newspapers, 165 newspapers, ended "for no other reason that it was an unhappy situation": We ended the strip under mutual agreement.
I wasn't happy working on the strip nor was I happy giving up a third of the money to Bing Crosby Productions. The strip I should have been making twelve hundred a week from was making me three hundred to three-fifty a week. On top of that, I was not able to express myself artistically, but we left under fine conditions. I was offered a deal in which I would be paid so much a month if I would agree not to do any syndicated strip for anyone else, in order that I might save myself for anything they have for me to do. Adams' goal at this point was to be a commercial illustrator. While drawing Ben Casey, he had continued to do storyboards and other work for ad agencies, said in 1976 that after leaving the strip he had shopped around a portfolio for agencies and for men's magazines, "but my material was a little too realistic and not right for most. I left my portfolio in an advertising agency promising. In the meantime I needed to make some money... and I thought,'Why don't I do some comics?'" In a 2000s interview, he remembered the events differently, saying "I took