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Jan Zamoyski

Jan Sariusz Zamoyski was a Polish nobleman and the 1st ordynat of Zamość. He served as the Royal Secretary from 1565, Deputy Chancellor from 1576, Grand Chancellor of the Crown from 1578, Great Hetman of the Crown from 1581. Zamoyski was the General Starost of the city of Kraków from 1580 to 1585, Starost of Bełz, Międzyrzecz, Krzeszów, Knyszyn and Tartu. An important advisor to Kings Sigismund II Augustus and Stephen Báthory, he was one of the major opponents of Bathory's successor, Sigismund III Vasa, one of the most skilled diplomats and statesmen of his time, standing as a major figure in the politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth throughout his life. Jan Zamoyski was born on 19 March 1542 to Anna Herburt in Skokówka, he started his education in a school in Krasnystaw but when he was thirteen years old he was sent to study abroad. At this young age he attended lectures at the Sorbonne University and Collège de France. In 1559 he visited Poland attended the University of Strasbourg.

During his years abroad he converted from Calvinism to Roman Catholicism. During his education, he became active in university politics, in 1563 he was elected the rector of the law department. Around that time he wrote De senatu Romano, a brochure about Ancient Rome government, he returned to the Commonwealth in 1565, was the first person to receive a commendation letter from the senate of the Republic of Venice. After returning to Poland, he was appointed to the Royal Chancellery, soon became a favorite secretary to King Sigismund II. In 1567 he commanded a royal task force, sent to remove the noble family of Starzechowscy from the royal lands they were decreed to hold illegally. Another major task he completed at that time was the reorganization of the Chancellery archive. In 1571 he married Anna Ossolińska. After the extinction of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1572 during the election sejm he used his influence to enforce the viritim election. However, his proposal for majority voting did not pass, which opened the process for abuses of liberum veto in the future.

He was a colleague of Mikołaj Sienicki and Hieronim Ossolinski, with them he was one of the leaders of a faction of the lesser and middle nobility in the Commonwealth, whose goal was the reform the country - the execution movement - preserving the unique constitutional and parliamentary government of the Commonwealth with the dominant role of poorer nobility. He was so influential and popular among the lesser nobility that he was known as the "first tribune of nobility" or "Polish Gracchus." In that first election he was in favour of Henry de Valois. Subsequently, he was part of the diplomatic mission that traveled to France to finish formalities with the newly elected king, he published a pamphlet praising the new king, thus suffered a loss of face when Henryk secretly abandoned Poland and returned to France. During the following 1575 election he was a vocal enemy of the Habsburg dynasty and its candidate, this anti-Habsburg stance, resounding among the lesser nobility, helped him regain his popularity.

For the king, Zamoyski championed the case of a Polish candidate, which ended up in the marriage of Anna Jagiellon with the anti-Habsburg Stephen Bathory of Transylvania. Bathory thanked Zamoyski by granting him the office of Deputy Chancellor on 16 May 1576, he participated on Batory's side in the quelling of the Danzig rebellion in 1576–1577, sponsoring a chorągiew of pancerni and participating in close combat on several occasions. In 1577 he married again, this time marrying Krystyna Radziwiłł, daughter of magnate Mikołaj Radziwiłł Czarny. In 1578 he received the post of the Grand Crown Chancellor; that year poet Jan Kochanowski dedicated his Odprawa Posłów Greckich, the first Polish tragedy, to him. He took part in the preparation for a war against Muscovy in 1579–1581, where he contributed a group of 400 or 600 mercenaries. Through he had little prior military background nor experience, he was interested in mastering the military art, proved to be an adept learner. With Batory's support, he began filling in for some of the roles of Grand Crown Hetman Mikołaj Mielecki when Mielecki was not present.

While not campaigning, he was instrumental in ensuring that the ongoing political support for the war. In 1580 he was hit by another personal tragedy, as his wife died in labor, together with their child; that year, in August, he captured Velizh in September he participated in the siege of Velikiye Luki, took Zavoloc. On 11 August 1581 he received the nomination for the post of Grand Crown Hetman. Following that he participated in the long and inconclusive Siege of Pskov, which ended with the Peace of Yam-Zapolsky in 1582. Though Zamoyski failed to capture Pskov, he drained the Russian resources, the ongoing siege was a major reason for the final treaty, favorable to Poland. In June 1583 Zamoyski took his third wife, Gryzelda Bathory, a relative of king Bathory himself. In May 1584 Zamoyski's men captured Samuel

Granger (name)

Granger is a surname of English and French origin. It is an occupational name for a farm bailiff; the farm bailiff oversaw the collection of rent and taxes from the barns and storehouses of the lord of the manor. This officer's Anglo-Norman title was grainger, Old French grangier, which are both derived from the Late Latin granicarius. Amos P. Granger, U. S. Representative from New York Ann Granger, British author Betty Granger, Canadian education figure Bill Granger, Australian chef Bradley F. Granger, U. S. Representative from Michigan Charles Granger, Newfoundland politician. Charles Henry Granger, U. S. artist Clive Granger, British economist Daniel L. D. Granger, U. S. Representative from Rhode Island Danny Granger, U. S. professional basketball player David Granger David A. Granger, Guyanese soldier David Granger, U. S. Olympic bobsledder David Granger, Australian rules footballer Dorothy Granger, U. S. actress Farley Granger, U. S. actor Francis Granger, U. S. Representative from New York Geddes Granger and Tobago politician Gideon Granger, U.

S. politician, lawyer Gilles-Gaston Granger, French philosopher Gordon Granger, U. S. soldier during the Civil War Hoyle Granger, U. S. football player James Granger, British author Jean-Pierre Granger, French painter Jeff Granger, U. S. baseball player John Granger, U. S. author Kate Granger, English doctor who started the #hellomynameis campaign Kay Granger, U. S. Representative from Texas Keith Granger, English Footballer Kenneth Granger, New Zealand rugby player Lester Granger, U. S. civic leader Mick Granger, English professional footballer Miles T. Granger, U. S. Representative from Connecticut Oliver Granger, U. S. Latter Day Saint figure Robert S. Granger, U. S. Army officer Scotty Granger, American singer, music producer Stewart Granger, English actor Stewart Granger, Canadian professional basketball player Tasmeen Granger Zimbabwean cricketer Thomas Granger, first person hanged in the Massachusetts Bay Colony Thomas Colpitts Granger, British Radical politician and barrister Walter K. Granger, U.

S. politician Walter W. Granger, U. S. Vertebrate paleontologist Wayne Granger, American professional baseball player Becky Granger, character on the ITV1 soap opera Coronation Street Colby Granger, fictional character in the television show Numb3rs. Granger, Montag's guide outside the city in Fahrenheit 451. Geraldine Granger, fictional character in the Vicar of Dibley Hermione Granger, fictional character in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter. Hiro Granger, fictional character of the anime and manga series of Beyblade. Jack Granger, fictional character in the video game Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars. Lorelei Granger, fictional character in the book Frindle. Tyson Granger, fictional character of the anime and manga series of Beyblade. Granger, French physician and traveller known as Granger, previous name Tourtechot Granger K. Costikyan, American banker. Grainger

2020 in spaceflight

This article documents expected notable spaceflight events during the year 2020. Four missions to Mars are planned to be launched in 2020, including three rovers, two orbiters, a lander. NASA plans to launch the Mars 2020 rover, which will include the Mars Helicopter Scout and cache samples for eventual return to Earth; the European Space Agency has partnered with Roscosmos to launch the Rosalind Franklin rover using the Kazachok lander. The China National Space Administration will launch its HX-1 mission, which includes an orbiter and small rover; the United Arab Emirates will launch the Hope Mars Mission orbiter on a Japanese rocket. China intends to launch Chang'e 5, the first sample-return mission to the Moon since Luna 24 in 1976. Chang'e 5 will use the developed Long March 5 heavy-lift rocket. NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission will sample the asteroid 101955 Bennu in August. JAXA's Hayabusa2 mission will return samples of 162173 Ryugu to Earth in December. Two solar missions are scheduled to be launched: ESA's Solar Orbiter to a heliocentric orbit, India's Aditya-L1 to the Sun-Earth L1 point.

Parker Solar Probe, launched in 2018, will decrease its minimal distance to the Sun further to 14.2 million kilometers. China plans to test a new generation of crewed spacecraft in October, begin construction of the Chinese large modular space station with the launch of the Tianhe Core Cabin Module, though this may be delayed to 2021. In the United States, SpaceX's Dragon 2 and Boeing's CST-100 Starliner are expected to make their first crewed flights in 2020 as part of the Commercial Crew Development program, restoring human spaceflight capability lost after the Space Shuttle's retirement in 2011. NASA astronaut Christina Koch set a women's record-breaking 328 days in space ending on 6 February 2020. Scott Kelly still holds the all-time American record with 340 days in space. Koch participated in the first all-female spacewalk with Jessica Meir on 18 October 2019. SpaceX hopes to begin orbital testing of its reusable two-stage-to-orbit vehicle Starship; the trend towards cost reduction in access to orbit is expected to continue.

Arianespace's Ariane 6 will make its maiden flight, targeting a per-satellite launch cost similar to a Falcon 9. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries's H3 launch vehicle, scheduled to enter service this year, will cost less than half that of H-IIA, its predecessor. Despite the increasing competition the cost of delivering cargo to the ISS will go up. In late 2020, following the launch of the first 300+ satellites, the OneWeb constellation is expected to become operational and start providing low latency broadband service at speeds of up to 595 megabits per second to customers throughout the United States and its territories. By the end of the year the constellation will grow to 600+ satellites. Soyuz rockets will be able to carry 34 OneWeb satellites when launching from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan or Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana and 36 satellites when launching from Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia. Ariane 6 rocket will carry 30 OneWeb satellites. SpaceX expects to begin operation of its Starlink in 2020, with about 720 satellites launched by the end of the year.

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of orbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the rocket, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. For example, Soyuz launches by Arianespace in Kourou are counted under Russia because Soyuz-2 is a Russian rocket