Eugénie Sellers Strong
Eugénie Sellers Strong was a British archaeologist and art historian. She was Assistant Director of the British School at Rome from 1909 to 1925. After studying at Girton College, Cambridge, in 1890 she became the first female student admitted to the British School at Athens. In 1897 she married art historian Sandford Arthur Strong, she contributed to the catalogue of the 1903 Burlington Fine Arts Club "Greek Art" Exhibition, wrote several books on classical art and sculpture. Eugénie Sellers was born in London on 25 March 1860 to Fredrick William Sellers, a wine merchant, his wife Anna, her French mother was of aristocratic descent and Eugénie was baptized in the church of St Roch in Paris. She had one sister, eight years younger than herself. Though her family lived in London, they travelled extensively in Europe and she first attended school with Jesuit fathers in Valladolid, Spain, she subsequently attended a convent school at Dourdan in France, leaving in 1877 to travel with her family in Italy and Greece.
Both of her parents had died before Sellers matriculated at Girton College, Cambridge in 1879, where she read for the Classics Tripos. However, although she was permitted to take the Tripos, at this time, Cambridge degrees were not awarded to women. On leaving Cambridge, Eugénie took up a teaching post at St Leonards School in St Andrews, Scotland and a year moved on to London, where she studied under Sir Charles Newton the British Museum The faculty at the University of St Andrews awarded her an honorary degree after publication of her first book, she was the first female student admitted to the British School at Athens, studying there in 1890-91. Her translation of an account of the excavation of Troy, from the German version of Carl Schuchhardt, was published in English in 1891, she continued art historical studies in Munich under Ludwig Traube. In 1897 she married art historian Sandford Arthur Strong, her husband was librarian and curator for the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth House from 1895.
They had no children. After her husband died in 1904, Strong continued in his post at Chatsworth until the death of the 8th Duke of Devonshire in 1908. In 1906 she was appointed a corresponding member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Strong contributed to the catalogue of the 1903 Burlington Fine Arts Club "Greek Art" Exhibition, wrote several books on classical art and sculpture, she wrote two chapters for the Cambridge Ancient History, on "The art of the Roman republic" and "The art of the Augustan age". Strong became a life research fellow at Girton College in 1910, she was Assistant Director of the British School at Rome from 1909 to 1925. She continued to live at a flat on the via Balbo, near the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, until her death in 1943, leaving an unpublished manuscript on the history of the Vatican Palace, she died in a nursing home, was buried in the Campo Verano cemetery in Rome. In England, she became a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1927, the British Academy awarded her its Serena medal for Italian studies in 1938.
She gave the Rhind Lectures on Painting in the Roman Empire. In Italy, she was elected as a member of the Lincean Academy, the Pontifical Academy of Archaeology, the Society of the Arcadians, she supported the archaeological policies of supporters of Benito Mussolini, was awarded the gold medal of the city of Rome in 1938. All works were authored by Eugénie Sellers Strong. Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture: A Series of Essays on the History of Art Adolf Furtwängler, Eugenie Strong OCLC 862147616 Roman Sculpture from Augustus to Constantine OCLC 162432 Apotheosis and after life: three lectures on certain phases of art and religion in the Roman Empire OCLC 3520485 Art in Ancient Rome OCLC 5886932 Dyson, S. L. 2004. Eugénie Sellers Strong: Portrait of an Archaeologist OCLC 52531896 Scott Thomson, G. 1949. Mrs. Arthur Strong: A Memoir OCLC 491749363 Toynbee, J. M. C. 2004. Strong, Eugenie. Rev. Stephen Dyson. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/36352. Http://arthistorians.info/stronges Works by or about Eugénie Sellers Strong at Internet Archive
Publius Terentius Afer, better known in English as Terence, was a Roman playwright during the Roman Republic, of Berber descent. His comedies were performed for the first time around 170–160 BC. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, brought Terence to Rome as a slave, educated him and on, impressed by his abilities, freed him. Terence died young in Greece or on his way back to Rome. All of the six plays. One famous quotation by Terence reads: "Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto", or "I am human, I think nothing human is alien to me." This appeared in his play Heauton Timorumenos. Terence's date of birth is disputed, he may have been in Greek Italy to a woman taken to Carthage as a slave. Terence's cognomen Afer suggests he lived in the territory of the Libyan tribe called by the Romans Afri near Carthage prior to being brought to Rome as a slave; this inference is based on the fact that the term was used in two different ways during the republican era: during Terence's lifetime, it was used to refer to non-Carthaginian Libyco-Berbers, with the term Punicus reserved for the Carthaginians.
After the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, it was used to refer to anyone from the land of the Afri. The nickname Afer " African" indicates that Terence hailed from ancient Libya, was therefore of Berber descent. In any case, he was sold to P. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator, who educated him and on, impressed by Terence's abilities, freed him. Terence took the nomen "Terentius,", the origin of the present form, he was a member of the so-called Scipionic Circle. When he was 25, Terence travelled to Greece and never returned, it is believed that Terence died during the journey, but this cannot be confirmed. Before his disappearance he exhibited six comedies. According to some ancient writers, he died at sea. Like Plautus, Terence adapted Greek plays from the late phases of Attic comedy. Terence wrote in a simple conversational Latin and direct. Aelius Donatus, Jerome's teacher, is the earliest surviving commentator on Terence's work. Terence's popularity throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is attested to by the numerous manuscripts containing part or all of his plays.
The mediaeval playwright Hroswitha of Gandersheim claims to have written her plays so that learned men had a Christian alternative to reading the pagan plays of Terence, while the reformer Martin Luther not only quoted Terence to tap into his insights into all things human but recommended his comedies for the instruction of children in school. Terence's six plays are: Andria Hecyra Heauton Timorumenos Phormio Eunuchus Adelphoe The first printed edition of Terence appeared in Strasbourg in 1470, while the first certain post-antique performance of one of Terence's plays, took place in Florence in 1476. There is evidence, that Terence was performed much earlier; the short dialogue Terentius et delusor was written to be performed as an introduction to a Terentian performance in the 9th century. Due to his clear and entertaining language, Terence's works were used by monasteries and convents during the Middle Ages and The Renaissance. Scribes learned Latin through the meticulous copying of Terence's texts.
Priests and nuns learned to speak Latin through reenactment of Terence's plays, thereby learning both Latin and Gregorian chants. Although Terence's plays dealt with pagan material, the quality of his language promoted the copying and preserving of his text by the church; the preservation of Terence through the church enabled his work to influence much of Western drama. Terence's plays were a standard part of the Latin curriculum of the neoclassical period. US President John Adams once wrote to his son, "Terence is remarkable, for good morals, good taste, good Latin... His language has simplicity and an elegance that make him proper to be studied as a model."Two of the earliest English comedies, Ralph Roister Doister and Gammer Gurton's Needle, are thought to parody Terence's plays. Due to his cognomen Afer, Terence has long been identified with Africa and heralded as the first poet of the African diaspora by generations of writers, including Juan Latino, Phyllis Wheatley, Alexandre Dumas, Langston Hughes and Maya Angelou.
American playwright Thornton Wilder based his novel The Woman of Andros on Terence's Andria. Questions as to whether Terence received assistance in writing or was not the actual author have been debated over the ages, as described in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica: meets the charge of receiving assistance in the composition of his plays by claiming as a great honour the favour which he enjoyed with those who were the favorites of the Roman people, but the gossip, not discouraged by Terence and throve. Augoustakis, A. and Ariana Traill eds.. A Companion to Terence. Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World. Malden/Oxford/Chichester: Wiley-Bla
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to
Durham University is a collegiate public research university in Durham, North East England, founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and incorporated by Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years, after Oxford and Cambridge, is one of the institutions to be described as the third-oldest university in England; as a collegiate university its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and its 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide teaching to students, while the colleges are responsible for their domestic arrangements and welfare; the university is a member of the Russell Group of British research universities after being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is affiliated with the regional N8 Research Partnership and international university groups including the Matariki Network of Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university estate includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle to a 1930s Art Deco chapel.
The university owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle, Palace Green, the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library. Among British universities, it had the eighth highest average UCAS Tariff for new entrants in 2016 and the third lowest proportion of state-school educated students starting courses in 2016, at 62.9 per cent. The university is ranked 5th to 7th by recent national league tables of the British universities, 74th to 114th in three of the four major global tables and in the 201–300 range in the fourth, it was Sunday Times University of the Year for 2005, the Times and Sunday Times Sports University of the Year for 2015, was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2018. The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in 2012. Current and emeritus academics include 14 Fellows of the Royal Society, 17 Fellows of the British Academy, 14 Fellows of the Academy of Social Sciences, 5 Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2 Fellows of the Royal Society of Arts and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences.
Durham graduates have long used the Latin post-nominal letters Dunelm after their degree, from Dunelmensis. The strong tradition of theological teaching in Durham gave rise to various attempts to form a university there, notably under King Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell, who issued letters patent and nominated a proctor and fellows for the establishment of a college in 1657. However, there was deep concern expressed by Oxford and Cambridge that the awarding of degree powers could hinder their position, it was not until 1832 when Parliament, at the instigation of Archdeacon Charles Thorp and with the support of the Bishop of Durham, William van Mildert, passed "an Act to enable the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral to appropriate part of the property of their church to the establishment of a University in connection therewith" that the university came into being. The act received Royal Assent from King William IV on 4 July 1832; the university opened on 28 October 1833. In 1834 all but two of the bishops of the Church of England confirmed that they would accept holders of Durham degrees for ordination.
In 1835 a fundamental statute was passed by the Dean and Chapter, as governors of the University, setting up Convocation and laying down that Durham degrees would only be open to members of the Church of England. Regulations for degrees were finalised in 1836 and the university was incorporated by Royal Charter granted by William IV on 1 June 1837 as the "Warden and Scholars of the University of Durham", with the first students graduating a week later. Accommodation was provided in the Archdeacon's Inn from 1833 to 1837. On the accession of Queen Victoria an order of the Queen-in-Council was issued granting the use of Durham Castle to the university. In 1846, Bishop Hatfield's Hall was founded, providing the opportunity for students to obtain affordable lodgings with catered communal eating, a revolutionary idea at the time, endorsed by a Royal Commission in 1862 and spread to other universities; those attending University College were expected to bring a servant with them to deal with cooking, cleaning and so on.
The level of applications to Bishop Hatfield's Hall led to a second hall along similar lines, Bishop Cosin's Hall, being founded in 1851, although this only survived until 1864. Elsewhere, the university expanded from Durham into Newcastle in 1852 when the medical school there became a college of the university; this was joined in 1871 by the College of Physical Sciences. St Cuthbert's Society was founded in 1888 for non-collegiate mature, male students as a non-residential society run by the students themselves. Two teacher-training colleges – St Hild's for women, established in 1858, The College of the Venerable Bede for men, established in 1839 existed in the city and these merged to form the mixed College of St Hild and St Bede in 1975. From 1896 these were associated with the university and graduates of St Hild's were the first female graduates from Durham in 1898. During its expansion phase the University became the first English university to establish relationships with overseas institutions.
Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s, he is best remembered for his epigrams and plays, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, the circumstances of his criminal conviction for homosexuality and early death at age 46. Wilde's parents were successful Anglo-Irish intellectuals in Dublin, their son became fluent in German early in life. At university, Wilde read Greats, he became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable social circles; as a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States and Canada on the new "English Renaissance in Art" and interior decoration, returned to London where he worked prolifically as a journalist.
Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress and glittering conversational skill, Wilde became one of the best-known personalities of his day. At the turn of the 1890s, he refined his ideas about the supremacy of art in a series of dialogues and essays, incorporated themes of decadence and beauty into what would be his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray; the opportunity to construct aesthetic details and combine them with larger social themes, drew Wilde to write drama. He wrote Salome in French while in Paris but it was refused a licence for England due to an absolute prohibition on the portrayal of Biblical subjects on the English stage. Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, which made him one of the most successful playwrights of late-Victorian London. At the height of his fame and success, while The Importance of Being Earnest was still being performed in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry prosecuted for criminal libel; the Marquess was the father of Lord Alfred Douglas.
The libel trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest and trial for gross indecency with men. After two more trials he was convicted and sentenced to two years' hard labour, the maximum penalty, was jailed from 1895 to 1897. During his last year in prison, he wrote De Profundis, a long letter which discusses his spiritual journey through his trials, forming a dark counterpoint to his earlier philosophy of pleasure. On his release, he left for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain. There he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life, he died destitute in Paris at the age of 46. Oscar Wilde was born at 21 Westland Row, the second of three children born to Sir William Wilde and Jane Wilde, two years behind William. Wilde's mother had distant Italian ancestry, under the pseudonym "Speranza", wrote poetry for the revolutionary Young Irelanders in 1848, she read the Young Irelanders' poetry to Oscar and Willie, inculcating a love of these poets in her sons.
Lady Wilde's interest in the neo-classical revival showed in the paintings and busts of ancient Greece and Rome in her home. William Wilde was Ireland's leading oto-ophthalmologic surgeon and was knighted in 1864 for his services as medical adviser and assistant commissioner to the censuses of Ireland, he wrote books about Irish archaeology and peasant folklore. A renowned philanthropist, his dispensary for the care of the city's poor at the rear of Trinity College, was the forerunner of the Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital, now located at Adelaide Road. On his father's side Wilde was descended from a Dutchman, Colonel de Wilde, who went to Ireland with King William of Orange's invading army in 1690. On his mother's side Wilde's ancestors included a bricklayer from County Durham who emigrated to Ireland sometime in the 1770s. Wilde was baptised as an infant in St. Mark's Church, the local Church of Ireland church; when the church was closed, the records were moved to Dawson Street. Davis Coakley mentions a second baptism by a Catholic priest, Father Prideaux Fox, who befriended Oscar's mother circa 1859.
According to Fox's own testimony in Donahoe's Magazine in 1905, Jane Wilde would visit his chapel in Glencree, County Wicklow, for Mass and would take her sons with her. She asked Father Fox to baptise her sons. Fox described it in this way: "I am not sure if she became a Catholic herself but it was not long before she asked me to instruct two of her children, one of them being the future erratic genius, Oscar Wilde. After a few weeks I baptized these two children, Lady Wilde herself being present on the occasion." In addition to his children with his wife, Sir William Wilde was the father of three children born out of wedlock before his marriage: Henry Wilson, born in 1838, Emily and Mary Wilde, born in 1847 and 1849 of different maternity to Henry. Sir William acknowledged paternity of his illegitimate children and provided for their education, but they were reared by his relatives rather than by his wife or with his legitimate children. In 1855, the family moved to No. 1 Merrion Square, where Wilde's sister, was born in 1857.
The Wildes' new home was larger and, with both his parents' sociality and success, it soon became a "unique medical and cultural milieu". G
The Hogarth Press was a British publishing house founded in 1917 by Leonard Woolf and Virginia Woolf. It was named after their house in Richmond. During the interwar period, the Hogarth Press grew from a hobby of the Woolfs to a business when they began using commercial printers. In 1938 Virginia Woolf relinquished her interest in the business and it was run as a partnership by Leonard Woolf and John Lehmann until 1946, when it became an associate company of Chatto & Windus. "Hogarth" is now an imprint of part of Random House Inc.. As well as publishing the works of the members of the Bloomsbury group, the Hogarth Press was at the forefront of publishing works on psychoanalysis and translations of foreign Russian, works. Printing was a hobby for the Woolfs, it provided a diversion for Virginia when writing became too stressful; the couple taught themselves how to use it. The press was set up in the dining room of Hogarth House, where the Woolfs lived, lending its name to the publishing company they founded.
In July they published their first text, a book with one story written by Leonard and the other written by Virginia. Between 1917 and 1946 the Press published 527 titles. Hogarth Press has begun producing a series of modern retellings of William Shakespeare plays, for which it has hired a variety of authors, such as Jeanette Winterson, Howard Jacobson, Anne Tyler, Margaret Atwood, Tracy Chevalier and Edward St Aubyn for The Winter's Tale, The Merchant of Venice, The Taming of the Shrew, The Tempest and King Lear respectively; the Hogarth Press produced a number of publication series that were affordable as well as being attractively bound and printed, commissioned from well known authors. These include the initial Hogarth Essays in three series 1924–1947, Hogarth Lectures on Literature, Merttens Lectures on War and Peace, Hogarth Living Poets, Day to Day Pamphlets, Hogarth Letters and World-Makers and World-Shakers; the Essays were the first series produced by the press and include works by Virginia Woolf, Leonard Woolf and Gertrude Stein.
Virginia Woolf's defence of modernism, Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown was the initial publication in the series. Cover illustrations were by Vanessa Bell; the Letters are in the form of epistolary letters. Authors include E. M. Forster and Virginia Woolf. Woolf's A Letter to a Young Poet, was number 8, addressed to John Lehmann as an exposition on modern poetry. Cover illustrations were by John Banting. In 1933, the entire series was reissued as a single volume, are available on the Internet Archive in a 1986 edition. A letter to Madam Blanchard, E. M. Forster A letter to an M. P. on disarmament, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood A letter to a sister, Rosamond Lehmann The French pictures: a letter to Harriet, Robert Mortimer and John Banting A letter from a black sheep, Francis Birrell A letter to W. B. Yeats, L. A. G. Strong A letter to a grandfather, Rebecca West A letter to a young poet, Virginia Woolf A letter to a modern novelist, Hugh Walpole A letter to an archbishop, J. C.
Hardwick A letter to Adolf Hitler, Louis Golding A letter to Mrs. Virginia Woolf, Peter Quennell Monday or Tuesday by Virginia Woolf, with woodcuts by Vanessa Bell Jacob's Room by Virginia Woolf. "Virginia Woolf, the Hogarth Press, the detective novel", essay by Diane F. Gillespie in the South Carolina Review, volume 35.2. A detailed account of the Hogarth Press at the Yale Modernism Lab The Bloomsbury Group and Hogarth Press Collection at the Victoria University Library at the University of Toronto which features all the Hogarth Press books hand-printed by Leonard and Virginia Woolf including many variant issues and proof copies. Archives of The Hogarth Press at Archives Hub
Suffrage, political franchise, or franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections. In some languages, in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, the right to stand for election; the combination of active and passive suffrage is sometimes called full suffrage. Suffrage is conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies to referenda and initiatives. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote; the utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally without extensive, full disclosure and public review. In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write and vote on referendums and initiatives.
Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare. Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of linked countries or to certain offices or questions; the word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", the right to vote. The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latin suffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, shouts", related to frangere "to break". Other sources say; some etymologists think the word may be related to suffrago and may have meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone. Universal suffrage consists of the right to vote without restriction due to sex, social status, education level, or wealth, it does not extend the right to vote to all residents of a region. The short-lived Corsican Republic was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage to all citizens over the age of 25.
In 1819 60-80,000 men and women from 30 miles around Manchester assembled in the city's St. Peter's Square to protest their lack of any representation in the Houses of Parliament. Historian Robert Poole has called the Peterloo Massacre one of the defining moments of its age.. The film Peterloo featured; this was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville. The 1840 constitution of the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted universal suffrage to all male and female adults. In 1893, when the Kingdom of Hawai'i was overthrown in a coup, New Zealand became the only independent country to practice universal suffrage, the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893. Women's suffrage is, by definition, the right of women to vote; this was the goal of the suffragists, who believed in using legal means and the suffragettes, who used extremist measures. Short-lived suffrage equity was drafted into provisions of the State of New Jersey's first, 1776 Constitution, which extended the Right to Vote to unwed female landholders & black land owners.
"IV. That all inhabitants of this Colony, of full age, who are worth fifty pounds proclamation money, clear estate in the same, have resided within the county in which they claim a vote for twelve months preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote for Representatives in Council and Assembly. New Jersey 1776 However, the document did not specify an Amendment procedure, the provision was subsequently replaced in 1844 by the adoption of the succeeding constitution, which reverted to "all white male" suffrage restrictions. Although the Kingdom of Hawai'i granted female suffrage in 1840, the right was rescinded in 1852. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden and some western U. S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both stand for Parliament; the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.
Those against the women's suffrage movement made public organizations to put down the political movement, with the main argument being that a woman's place was in the home, not polls. Political cartoons and public outrage over women's rights increased as the opposition to suffrage worked day and night to organize legitimate groups campaigning against women's voting rights; the Massachusetts Association Opposed to the Further Extension of Suffrage to Women was one organization that came out of the 1880's to put down the voting efforts. Many anti-suffrage propaganda poked fun at the idea of women in politics. Political cartoons displayed the most sentiment by portraying the issue of women's suffrage to be swapped with men's lives; some mocked the popular suf