Janet Wood Reno was an American lawyer who served as the Attorney General of the United States from 1993 until 2001. President Bill Clinton nominated Reno on February 11, 1993, the Senate confirmed her the following month, she was the first woman to serve as Attorney General and the second-longest serving Attorney General in U. S. history, after William Wirt. Reno was raised in Miami, Florida. After leaving to attend Cornell University and Harvard Law School, she returned to Miami where she started her career at private law firms, her first foray into government was as a staff member for the Judiciary Committee of the Florida House of Representatives. She worked for the Dade County State Attorney's Office before returning to private practice, she was elected to the Office of State Attorney five times. Reno was born in Florida. Reno's mother, Jane Wallace, wrote a weekly home improvement column for The Miami News under a male pseudonym and became an investigative reporter for the paper, her father, Henry Olaf Reno, was an emigrant from Denmark and a reporter for the Miami Herald for 43 years.
Janet Reno had three younger siblings: Mark. In 1943, the Reno family relocated to a house in rural South Miami that came with enough land to keep farm animals including cows, ducks and turkeys. Reno helped; as the family expanded, it out grew the family's existing house but lacked the means to buy something bigger. Jane Reno decided to build a new home herself near the Everglades, learning masonry, electrical work, plumbing for the task; the Reno family moved into the house Jane build. The house would be Reno's life long home and a source of inspiration, as she said, "the house is a symbol to me that you can do anything you want if it's the right thing to do and you put your mind to it." The house sat on 21 acres of property, some of which the family sold to pay for the children's education. Reno attended public school in Florida. After she completed middle school in 1951, Reno's parents sent her to stay with her uncle who served as a U. S. military judge in Regensburg, Germany. There, Janet traveled around Europe during breaks from school.
After a year Reno returned to Florida where she was a debating champion and salutatorian at Coral Gables Senior High School. In 1956 she enrolled at Cornell University, where she majored in chemistry, became president of the Women's Self-Government Association, earned her room and board. After graduating from Cornell, Reno enrolled at Harvard Law School, one of only 16 women in a class of 500 students, she graduated from Harvard in 1963. From 1963 to 1971 Reno worked as an attorney for two Miami law firms. In 1971, she joined the staff of the Judiciary Committee of the Florida House of Representatives; the following year, Reno ran for a seat in Florida's state house. She did not win. In 1973, she worked on a project to revise the state's system of rules and regulations for criminal procedures. In the same year, she accepted a position with the Dade County State Attorney's Office led by Richard Gerstein. Shortly after joining the office, Gerstein made Reno his chief assistant. Reno did not try any cases during her time working for Gerstein.
She worked for the Judiciary Circuit, left the state attorney's office in 1976 to become a partner in a private law firm, Hector & Davis. Gerstein decided to retire in 1977, creating a vacancy with Florida governor Reubin Askew to appoint a successor. Reno was one of two candidates. In January 1978, Governor Askew appointed Reno the State Attorney for Dade County, she was the first woman to serve as a state attorney in Florida. She was elected to the Office of State Attorney in November 1978 and was returned to office by the voters four more times. Reno ran as a liberal, pro-choice Democrat though Miami-Dade was a conservative county. Reno did not always face serious challengers, although in 1984 Cuban-American lawyer Jose Garcia-Pedrosa ran against Reno, picked up the endorsement of the Miami Herald editorial board. In spite of his support among Miami's Hispanic voters, Reno won the election decisively; the office she led included 95 attorneys and an annual caseload that included 15,000 felonies and 40,000 misdemeanors.
As state attorney, she developed a reputation for ethical behavior, going so far as to purchase a car at sticker price to avoid the appearance of impropriety. She established a drug court, replicated in other parts of the country, she worked in various civic organizations, including the Miami Coalition for a Safe and Drug Free Community and the Beacon Council, formed to address Miami-Dade's economic development. In May 1980, Reno prosecuted five white policemen who were accused of beating a black insurance salesman, named Arthur McDuffie, to death; the policemen were all acquitted. During the resulting 1980 Miami riots, eighteen people were killed, with looters in Liberty City angrily chanting "Reno! Reno! Reno!" Reno met with nearly all of her critics, a few months she won reelection in a landslide. During Reno's tenure as state attorney, she began what the PBS series Frontline described as a "crusade" against accused child abusers. Reno pioneered the "Miami Method," "a controversial technique for eliciting intimate details from young children and inspired passage of a law allowing them to testify by closed-circuit television, out of the intimidating presence of their suspected molesters."
Several of those prosecuted by Reno were either acquitted or r
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams is the official trust managing all the activities of Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala Tirupati in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is headquartered at Tirupati. Along with Venkateswara Swamy Temple in Tirumala it manages many other temples in Tirupati and all around the world. Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala Padmavathi Temple, Tiruchanur Alipiri padala mandapam Govindaraja Temple, Tirupati Kapileswara Temple, Kapilatheertham Kodandarama Temple, Tirupati Kalyana Venkateswara Temple, Srinivasamangapuram Vakula matha Temple, Perur Surya Narayana Temple, Tiruchanur Prasanna Venkateswara Temple, Appalayagunta Varahaswamy Temple, Tirumala Kodandarama Temple, Chandragiri Sri Bhu Sameta Venkateswara Temple, Thondamanadu Srinivasa Temple, Tiruchanur Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh Kalyana Venkateswara Temple, Narayanavanam Vedanarayana Temple, Nagalapuram Avanakshamma Temple, Narayanavanam Venugopalaswamy Temple, Karvetinagaram Sri Pattabhirama Temple, Valmikipuram kariyamanikya Temple, Nagari Karivaradaraja Temple, Satravada Annapurna sametha Kashi Visweswara Temple, Buggaagraharam Lakshmi Narasimha Temple, Tarigonda Prasanna Venkateswara Temple, Kosuvaripalle Konetirayala Temple, KeelapatlaKadapa district, Andhra Pradesh Kodandarama Temple, Vontimitta Veeranjaneya Temple, Gandi Narapura Venkateswara Temple, Jammalamadugu Lakshmi Venkateswara Temple, Devunigadapa Siddeswara Temple, Thallapaka Chennakesava Temple, ThallapakaPottisriramulu Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh Karimanikyaswamy Temple, Tummuru Neelakantheswara Temple, TummuruGuntur district, Andhra Pradesh Sri Venkateswara Temple, AnanthavaramWestgodavari district, Andhra Pradesh Seetharamaswamy Temple, SaripalliEastgodavari district, Andhra Pradesh Padmavathi sametha Venkateswara Temple, PithapuramVisakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh Sri Venkateswara Temple, Upamaka Sri Venkateswara Temple, New Delhi Tirumala Tirupati Devastanams Andhra Ashram, Uttarakhand Hyderabad Bangalore Chennai Kurukshetra Kodanda Ramalayam, Prakasam District Kanyakumari Ohio Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams->Temples.
Egyptology is the fourth studio album by World Party released in 1997, re-released in 2006. It contained the #31 British single "Beautiful Dream" and the award-winning She's the One, among other songs, but the album was not a commercial success, Karl Wallinger was upset when his label, used "She's the One" as a vehicle for pop artist Robbie Williams. Wallinger wrote: I was so lucky that Robbie recorded "She's the One" because it allowed me to keep going, he gave me enough bacon to live on for four years. He kept my kids in school and me for that I thank him. Due in part to the disagreement over "She's the One", Egyptology would be Wallinger's last album with Chrysalis. "It Is Time" "Beautiful Dream" "Call Me Up" "Vanity Fair" "She's the One" "Vocal Interlude" "Curse of the Mummy's Tomb" "Hercules" "Love Is Best" "Rolling Off a Log" "Strange Groove" "The Whole of the Night" "Piece of Mind" "This World" "Always" Karl Wallinger: All instruments except where noted Chris Sharrock: drums, northern vibes Johnson Somerset: loops on tracks 11 and 15 Anthony Thistlethwaite: "additional massed saxes" on track 3 John Turnbull: guitar on track 12
The M60 the United States Machine Gun, Caliber 7.62 mm, M60, is a family of American general-purpose machine guns firing 7.62×51mm NATO cartridges from a disintegrating belt of M13 links. There are several types of ammunition approved for use in the M60, including ball and armor-piercing rounds. Introduced in 1957, it has served with every branch of the U. S. military and still serves with the armed forces of other states. Its manufacture and continued upgrade for military and commercial purchase continues into the 21st century, although it has been replaced or supplemented in most roles by other designs, most notably the M240 machine gun in U. S. service. The M60 is a belt-fed machine gun that fires the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge, used in larger rifles. It is used as a crew-served weapon and operated by a team of two or three individuals; the team consists of the gunner, the assistant gunner, the ammunition bearer. The gun's weight and the amount of ammunition it can consume when fired make it difficult for a single soldier to carry and operate.
The gunner carries the weapon and, depending on his strength and stamina, anywhere from 200 to 1,000 rounds of ammunition. The assistant carries a spare barrel and extra ammunition, reloads and spots targets for the gunner; the ammunition bearer carries additional ammunition and the tripod with associated traversing and elevation mechanism, if issued, fetches more ammunition as needed during firing. The M60 can be fired at short ranges from the shoulder thanks to its design; this was an initial requirement for the design and a hold-over in concept from the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle. It may be fired from the integral bipod, M122 tripod, some other mounts. M60 ammunition comes in a cloth bandolier containing a cardboard box of 100 pre-linked rounds; the M60 uses the M13 ammunition link, a change from the older M1 link system with which it was not compatible. The cloth bandolier is reinforced to allow it to be hung from the current version of the feed tray. Units in Vietnam used B3A cans from C-rations packs locked into the ammunition box attachment system to roll the ammunition belts over for a straighter and smoother feed to the loading port to enhance reliability of feed.
The models changed the ammunition box attachment point and made this adaptation unnecessary. The M60 has been adopted by various military agencies around the world, it has been updated and modernized throughout the years to meet modern military requirements; the M60 machine gun began development in the late 1940s as a program for a new, lighter 7.62 mm machine gun. It was derived from German guns of World War II, but it contained American innovations as well. Early prototypes, notably the T52 and T161 bore a close resemblance to both the M1941 Johnson machine gun and the FG 42; the final evaluation version was designated the T161E3. It was intended to replace the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle and M1919A6 Browning machine gun in the squad automatic weapon role, in the medium machine gun role. One of the weapons tested against it during its procurement process was the FN MAG; the U. S. Army adopted the T161E3 as the M60 in 1957; the decision to adopt the M60 instead of foreign designs, like modified versions of the proven German MG 42 or the still-unproven FN MAG, was due to strict Congressional restrictions requiring preference be given to the designs of United States arms manufacturers out of desire to avoid paying licensing fees, but out of a strong bias in favor of domestic products.
The M60 served in the Vietnam War as a squad automatic weapon with many United States units. Every soldier in the rifle squad would carry an additional 200 linked rounds of ammunition for the M60, a spare barrel, or both; the up-gunned M113 armored personnel carrier ACAV added two M60 gunners beside the main.50 caliber machine gun, the Patrol Boat, River had one in addition to two.50 cal mounts. During the Vietnam War, the M60 received the nickname "The Pig" due to its bulky size. Vietnam's tropical climate harshly affected weapons, the M60 was no exception, its light weight led to it being damaged and critical parts like the bolt and operating rod wore out quickly. So, soldiers appreciated the gun's handling, mechanical simplicity, effective operation from a variety of firing positions. United States Navy SEALs used M60s with no front sights to reduce weight; some SEALs had feed chutes from backpacks to have a belt of hundreds of rounds ready to fire without needing to reload. In the 1980s, the M60 was replaced by the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon within Army infantry squads.
Their new doctrine with the weapon reduced the general-purpose machine gun role in favor of portability and a greater volume of fire. Soldiers disliked the new strategy, as though the lighter SAW made movement faster, in firefights the larger 7.62 mm round is preferred. In defensive roles, the M60 has a longer range to keep the enemy at bay; the M60 was retained in the vehicle-mounted and the general-purpose roles due to its greater power and range than the 5.56 mm M249. In United States Marine Corps service, concerns about the M60's reliability and the high round counts of many M60s in service prompted the adoption of the M60E3 to replace most original M60s in infantry units; the M60E3 was five pounds lighter than the original M60. It had the bipod mounted to the receiver rather than the barrel; the weapon still was not durable and its performance was reduced. In the early 1990s, Saco addressed Navy Special Warfare
Déwé Gorodey, or Déwé Gorodé, is a New Caledonian teacher, writer and politician. She was active in agitating for independence from France in the 1970s, she has published short stories and novels. From 1999 she has been a member of the New Caledonia government, representing the pro-independence Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front. From April 2001 to June 2009 she served continuously as Vice President of the Government of New Caledonia. Déwé Gorodey was born on 1 June 1949 in New Caledonia, her family belonged to the Pwârâïriwâ tribe of Kanak people. Her home village is on the east coast of New Caledonia at the mouth of the Ponérihouen river, she received her primary education in the Houaïlou region attended the Lapérouse High School in Nouméa where she passed her baccalaureate in Philosophy. She went on to study at the Paul Valéry University, Montpellier III, where she obtained a BA in Modern Literature, she was the first Kanak woman to receive a college education. She returned to New Caledonia in 1974 and obtained a job teaching French at a Catholic school in the Nouméa suburbs.
She has three children. In 1974 Déwé Gorodé joined the Foulards rouges movement, created in 1969, served as president for some time, she was one of the founders of the Groupe 1878, named after the Kanak revolt of 1878. The Foulards Rouges and Groupe 1878 were groups of intellectuals who challenged the French colonial presence and practices related to land rights and discrimination; some members, such as Nidoïsh Naisseline, had been involved in the May 1968 events in France, while others including Gorodey would not visit Europe until later. Both groups were created by small numbers of well-educated Kanak people, appealed to young men who had left the reservations to work in the nickel industry during the short-lived boom, had become unemployed when it ended. In 1976 Déwé Gorodé helped, she was in charge of external relations for PALIKA and in this role travelled in the Pacific, Algeria, Mexico City and the United Nations. She was imprisoned three times between 1977 for her political activities.
Gorodé was one of the founders of the feminist Groupe de femmes kanak exploitées en lutte. In 1974 she was arrested expressing her opposition to the celebration of the colonization of New Caledonia on 24 September 1853. In prison she developed the concept of GFKEL with other women including Susanna Ounei; the organization was intended to ensure equal treatment of women within the independence movement. In 1984 GFKEL was one of the founding organizations of the Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front. In 1983 Déwé Gorodé was a French teacher at the Do-Néva Protestant College in Houaïlou. In 1984, after the death of ten Kanak militants in Hienghène, she left this college and joined the newly created Kanak People's School in Ponérihouen, where she taught the local Paicî language until 1988, she did not publish for many years. In 1985 she published Sous les Ashes des conques, her first volume of poetry, followed over the years by other novels and collections of poetry, her works described the traditional culture of the present political issues.
Gorodey is now one the most recognized Melanesian cultural figures. In 1992 Déwé Gorodé participated in a women's mission in Mali led by Marie-Claude Tjibaou, she worked for the Kanak Culture Development Agency from 1994 to 1995 during preparations for the Tjibaou Cultural Center. She resumed teaching Paicî again in Houaïlou and Poindimié from 1996 to 1997. Between 1999 and 2001 she gave courses at the University of New Caledonia in Nouméa on the history of Pacific literature and contemporary Melanesian literature. In 2002 she participated in the Salon du livre insulaire on the island of Brittany. On 9 November 2009 at a ceremony at the High Commission she was made a Chevalier des Arts et des lettres. In 1999 Déwé Gorodé and Léonie Tidjite Varnier were the first women to be elected to Congress, representing the North Province. In the government of Jean Lèques she was responsible for Culture and Sports. After the March 2001 provincial elections President Lèques resigned. On 3 April 2001 congress elected Pierre Frogier of the Rally for Caledonia in the Republic to replace him.
Gorodey, a representative of the FLNKS, became Vice President of the Government of New Caledonia. She retained the Culture and Sports portfolio from April 2001 to June 2004. Reelected vice president in June 2004 she was made responsible for Culture, Status of Women and Citizenship. From 2004 to 2007 Marie-Noëlle Thémereau, who represented the loyalist L'Avenir Ensemble, was president of congress, Gorodey, who represented the FLNKS, was vice president. In the 2007 elections there was a swing towards stronger support for remaining part of France. Harold Martin, president of Avenir Ensemble, became president of congress. Gorodey continued as vice president, the political mood continued to be one of accommodation between the different parties, but the RPCR had regained some of its past influence. On 5 June 2009 Harold Martin was again elected president of congress. After some delay, on 15 June 2009 Pierre Ngaiohni of the FLNKS was elected vice president. Ramsay, Raylene. “Déwé Gorodé: Cognitive Dissonance and the Renegotiation of Values.”
In Cherchez la femme: Women and Values in the Francophone World. Eds. Erika Fülöp and Adrienne Angelo. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Press, 56-69, 2011. Ramsay, Raylene. 2018. "Indigenous Women Writers in the Pacific: Déwé Gorodé, Sia Figiel
The M1917 Browning machine gun is a heavy machine gun used by the United States armed forces in World War I, World War II, Korea. It was a crew-served, belt-fed, water-cooled machine gun that served alongside the much lighter air-cooled Browning M1919, it was used at the battalion level, mounted on vehicles. There were two main iterations: the M1917, used in World War I and the M1917A1, used thereafter; the M1917, used on some aircraft as well as in a ground role, had a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute. The M1917A1 had a cyclic rate of 450 to 600 rounds per minute. In 1900, John Moses Browning filed a patent for a recoil-powered automatic gun. Browning did not work on the gun again until 1910, when he built a water-cooled prototype of the 1900 design. Although the gun worked well, Browning improved the design slightly. Browning replaced side ejection with bottom ejection, added a buffer for smoother operation, replaced the hammer with a two piece firing pin, some other minor improvements; the basic design of the gun was still the 1900 design.
The Browning is a water-cooled heavy machine gun, though some experimental versions were made that did not use a water jacket. Unlike many other early machine guns, the M1917 had nothing to do with Maxim's toggle lock design. At 47 pounds, it was much lighter than contemporary Maxim type guns such as the first 137-pound German Maschinengewehr 08 (08/15 model: 43 lb and the British Vickers machine gun, while still being reliable; the only similarities with the Maxim or Vickers are the principles of recoil operation, T-slot breechblock, "pull-out" belt feed, water cooling, forward ejection. Its sliding-block locking mechanism saved weight and complexity, was used in many previous Browning designs; the belt fed left-to-right, the cartridges were stacked closer together than Maxim/Vickers. The Army Ordnance Department showed little interest in machine guns until war was declared in April 1917. At that time, the U. S. arsenal included only 1,100 machine guns, most of those were outmoded. The government asked several designers to submit weapons.
Browning arranged a test at the Springfield Armory in May 1917. In the first test, the weapon fired 20,000 rounds with only a few malfunctions related to poorly loaded cloth belts; the reliability was exceptional, so Browning fired another 20,000 rounds through the weapon with one broken part: a broken sear at about 39,500. The Ordnance Board was impressed, but was unconvinced that the same level of performance could be achieved in a production model. Browning used a second gun that not only duplicated the original trial, but it fired continuously for 48 minutes and 12 seconds; the Army adopted the weapon as its principal heavy machine gun, utilizing the M1906.30-06 cartridge with a 150-grain, flat-base bullet. Production was a problem. Several manufacturers started producing the gun, but they had to set up the assembly lines and tooling. By 30 June 1918, Westinghouse had made only 2,500 and Remington had made only 1,600. By the time of the Armistice, Westinghouse had made 30,150, Remington 12,000, Colt 600.
Until the start of World War I, the Army had used a variety of older machine guns, like the M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun "Potato Digger" and weapons like the Maxim Gun, the Benet–Mercie M1909, the Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun. Although the Model 1917 was intended to be the principal US Army heavy machine gun in the war, the Army was, in fact, forced to purchase many foreign weapons—the French-produced Hotchkiss 8 mm machine gun was the most common heavy machine gun used by the American Expeditionary Force. In 1926, the Browning's rear sight was revised to incorporate scales for both the new M1 Ball and the M1906 ammunition. With M1 ball, the M1917 had a maximum range of about 5,500 yd; the rear sight had a battle sight as well as a raised leaf-type sight suitable for employment against either ground or air targets. The M1917 saw limited service in the days of World War I; because of production delays, only about 1,200 Model 1917s saw combat in the conflict, only in the last 2½ months of the war.
Some arrived too late for combat service. For example, the 6th Machine Gun Battalion, fighting as part of the Second Division did not exchange their Hotchkiss M1914 machine guns for Browning M1917 machine guns until 14 November, three days after the armistice; the U. S. equipped about a third of the divisions sent to France. Where the Model 1917 did see action, its rate of fire and reliability were effective; the M1917 weapon system was inferior to the Vickers and Hotchkiss guns in indirect fire applications because the British and French cartridges had about 50 percent longer range than the.30-06 service cartridge used in World War I. The Model 1917A1 was again used in the Second World War, was used with the M2 ball and armor-piercing ammunition introduced just prior to the outbreak of hostilities; some were supplied to the UK for use by the Home Guard since all production of the.303 Vickers were needed to resupply the equipment abandoned during the Fall of France. The M1917's weight and bulk meant that it was employed as a fixed defense or as a battalion or regimental support weapon.