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Jansenism

Jansenism was a theological movement in France, that emphasized original sin, human depravity, the necessity of divine grace and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen, who died in 1638, it was first popularized by Jansen's friend Abbot Jean du Vergier de Hauranne, of Saint-Cyran-en-Brenne Abbey, after du Vergier's death in 1643, was led by Antoine Arnauld. Through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement away from the Catholic Church; the theological centre of the movement was the convent of Port-Royal-des-Champs Abbey, a haven for writers including du Vergier, Pierre Nicole, Blaise Pascal and Jean Racine. Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic hierarchy the Jesuits. Although the Jansenists identified themselves only as rigorous followers of Augustine of Hippo's teachings, Jesuits coined the term Jansenism to identify them as having Calvinist affinities; the apostolic constitution, Cum occasione promulgated by Pope Innocent X in 1653, condemned five cardinal doctrines of Jansenism as heresy—especially the relationship between human free will and efficacious grace, wherein the teachings of Augustine, as presented by the Jansenists, contradicted the teachings of the Jesuit School.

Jansenist leaders endeavored to accommodate the pope's pronouncements while retaining their uniqueness, enjoyed a measure of peace in the late 17th century under Pope Clement IX. However, further controversy led to the apostolic constitution Unigenitus Dei Filius, promulgated by Pope Clement XI in 1713; the origins of Jansenism lie in the friendship of Jansen and Duvergier, who met in the early 17th century when both were studying theology at the University of Leuven. Duvergier was Jansen's patron for a number of years, getting Jansen a job as a tutor in Paris in 1606. Two years he got Jansen a position teaching at the bishop's college in Duvergier's hometown of Bayonne; the two studied the Church Fathers together, with a special focus on the thought of Augustine of Hippo, until both left Bayonne in 1617. Duvergier became abbot of Saint Cyran Abbey in Brenne and was known as the Abbé de Saint-Cyran for the rest of his life. Jansen returned to the University of Leuven, where he completed his doctorate in 1619 and was named professor of exegesis.

Jansen and Duvergier continued to correspond about Augustine Augustine's teachings on grace. Upon the recommendation of King Philip IV of Spain, Jansen was consecrated as bishop of Ypres in 1636. Jansen died in a 1638 epidemic. On his deathbed, he committed a manuscript to his chaplain, ordering him to consult with Libert Froidmont, theology professor at Leuven, Henricus Calenus, canon at the metropolitan church, to publish the manuscript if they agreed it should be published, adding "If, the Holy See wishes any change, I am an obedient son, I submit to that Church in which I have lived to my dying hour; this is my last wish."This manuscript, published in 1640 as Augustinus, expounded Augustine's system and formed the basis for the subsequent Jansenist Controversy. The book consisted of three volumes: described the history of Pelagianism and Augustine's battle against it and against Semipelagianism discussed the Fall of Man and original sin denounced a "modern tendency" as Semipelagian Even before the publication of Augustinus, Duvergier publicly preached Jansenism.

Jansen emphasized a particular reading of Augustine's idea of efficacious grace which stressed that only a certain portion of humanity were predestined to be saved. Jansen insisted that the love of God was fundamental, that only perfect contrition, not imperfect contrition could save a person; this debate on the respective roles of contrition and attrition, which had not been settled by the Council of Trent, was one of the motives of the imprisonment in May 1638 of Duvergier, the first leader of Port-Royal, by order of Cardinal Richelieu. Duvergier was not released until after Richelieu's death in 1642, he died shortly thereafter, in 1643. Jansen insisted on justification by faith, although he did not contest the necessity of revering saints, of confession, of frequent Communion. Jansen's opponents condemned his teachings for their alleged similarities to Calvinism. Blaise Pascal's Écrits sur la grâce, attempted to conciliate the contradictory positions of Molinists and Calvinists by stating that both were right: Molinists, who claimed God's choice concerning a person's sin and salvation was a posteriori and contingent, while Calvinists claimed that it was a priori and necessary.

Pascal himself claimed that Molinists were correct concerning the state of humanity before the Fall, while Calvinists were correct regarding the state of humanity after the Fall. The heresy of Jansenism, as stated by subsequent Roman Catholic doctrine, lay in denying the role of free will in the acceptance and use of grace. Jansenism asserts that God's role in the infusion of grace cannot be resisted and does not require human assent. Catholic doctrine, in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, is that "God's free initiative demands man's free response"—that is, humans assent or refuse God's gift of grace. Augustinus was read in theological circles in France and the Netherlands in 1640, a new edition appeared in Paris under the approbation of ten professors at the College of Sorbonne (the theological college of the University o

Global Underground 013: Ibiza

Global Underground 013: Sasha, Ibiza is a DJ mix album in the Global Underground series and mixed by Sasha. Raff'n' Freddy - "Deep Progress" – 8:42 MRE - "The Deep Edge" – 2:42 Resistance D - "Feel High" – 5:39 Dominica - "Real Time" – 4:25 Medway - "The Baseline Track" – 6:51 Sander Kleinenberg - "My Lexicon" – 4:54 Orbital - "Nothing Left" – 8:06 Christian Smith & John Selway - "Move!" – 6:21 Jimpy & Sarah - "Talkin'" – 7:01 Space Manoeuvres - "Stage One" – 5:16 Sander Kleinenberg - "Sacred" – 4:10 Natious - "Amber" – 5:58 BT - "Fibonacci Sequence" – 10:23 Paganini Traxx - "Zoe" – 6:20 Cass & Slide - "Perception" – 9:25 Pob - "The Fly" – 5:33 Sasha - "Xpander" – 9:36 Bluefish - "One" – 6:41 BT - "Mercury and Solace" – 7:28 Acquilla - "Dreamstate" – 4:32 Junkie XL - "Future in Computer Hell, part 2" – 6:34 Bedrock - "Heaven Scent/Lifeline" – 7:20 Global Underground 013: Ibiza at Discogs Global Underground 013: Sasha in Ibiza at MusicBrainz

South Jason Island

South Jason is one of the Jason Islands in the north west Falkland Islands. In Spanish it is considered one of "Islas las Llaves"; such a distinction doesn't exist in English between the two groups of the islands. It is north west of Westpoint Island. During the Falklands War, two Argentine McDonnell Douglas A-4C Skyhawks crashed on the island on 9 May 1982 - both of the pilots - Lt Jorge Casco and Lt Farias - were killed. C313 was filmed just before this loss during mid-air refuelling. On 12 January 2001 an EOD team visited the island to dispose of any live ordnance that had become apparent since their last annual visit; the remains of Lt Casco were not found until after the war at 51°12′23″S 60°53′26″W. He was buried on 7 March 2009 in the Argentine Military Cemetery on East Falkland. Casco's family requested that his remains be buried on the Falklands after they had been returned to Argentina in July 2008 for DNA testing in order to confirm their identity