Jiang Guangnai was a general and statesman in the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China, was born in Dongguan, Guangdong. He became a bodyguard to Sun Yat-sen and, in 1932, was promoted to general and Commander in Chief of the 19th Route Army, leading it in the successful defense of Shanghai against Japanese invasion in the January 28 incident. After the cease-fire was brokered, the 19th Army was reassigned by Chiang Kai-shek to suppress Chinese Communist insurrection in Fujian, it won some battles against the Communists but negotiated peace with them. Jiang Guangnai joined an insurrection that, on 22 November 1933, established a new People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China, free from the control of Chiang's Nanjing government; the new Fujian government was not supported by other warlords or by all elements of the communists and was crushed by Chiang's armies in January 1934. Jiang escaped with his family to Hong Kong and the rest of the army was disbanded and reassigned into other units of the National Revolutionary Army.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1939 to 1944 he returned to become Deputy Commander in Chief of the 4th War Area and in 1945 Deputy Commander in Chief of the 7th War Area. After the Chinese Civil War, Mao assigned Jiang to be Minister of Textiles of the new People's Republic of China from 1950. Most high-ranking officials struggled with the Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution. Jiang, was saved by Zhou Enlai. Zhou and cleverly arranged for Jiang to join him and Mao Zedong on Tiananmen to inspect the Red Guards, some of whom had just stormed Jiang's home the previous day. During the inspection Jiang was positioned next to Mao. Zhou walked over to Jiang in front of the Red Guards, asking him how he was doing after the "visit" by the Red Guards the day before. In front of Mao, Jiang was quick to reply that the Red Guards were still civilized. After that, they did not bother Jiang again, he died in 1967 in Beijing. Zhang Guangnai's residence in Dongguan is now a museum. After his death, his daughter, Jiang Dinggui 蒋定桂 became a worker in a textile factory, features on the 5-jiao renminbi note issued in 1972.
KTLA television reporter Liberté Chan is a descendant of Jiang Guangnai. Mention of chiang Listing of Jiang's success against Japan Mention in Mao Zedong's autobiography
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident known by Lugou Bridge Incident or Double-Seven Incident, was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army. It is considered to have been the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War. In English, the battle is known as the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident"; the Marco Polo Bridge is an eleven-arch granite bridge, an architecturally significant structure first erected under the Jin and restored by the Kangxi Emperor in 1698. It gained its Western name from its appearance in Marco Polo's record of his travels, it is less referred to as the "Battle of Marco Polo Bridge". It is known as the "Lukouchiao", "Lugouqiao", or "Lugou Bridge Incident" from the local name of the bridge, derived from a former name of the Yongding River; this is the common name for the event in Japanese and is an alternate name for it in Chinese and Korean. The same name is expressed or translated as the "Battle of Lugou Bridge", "Lugouqiao", or "Lukouchiao".
In China and Korea, it is more known as the "July 7th Incident" Tensions between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been heightened since the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931 and their subsequent creation of a puppet state, with Puyi, the deposed Qing dynasty Emperor, as its head. Following the invasion, Japanese forces extended their control further into northern China, seeking to obtain raw materials and industrial capacity. A commission of enquiry from the League of Nations made a critical report into their actions, leading to Japan pulling out of the League; the Kuomintang government of China refused to recognize Manchukuo, but did agree to a truce with Japan in 1933. Subsequently, there were various "incidents", or armed clashes of a limited nature, followed by a return to the uneasy peace; the significance of the Marco Polo Bridge Incident is that following it, tensions did not subside again. With hindsight this incident can therefore be regarded as the starting point of the major conflict.
Under the terms of the Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901, China had granted nations with legations in Beijing the right to station guards at twelve specific points along railways connecting Beijing with Tianjin. This was to ensure open communications between the port. By a supplementary agreement on 15 July 1902, these forces were allowed to conduct maneuvers without informing the authorities of other nations in China. By July 1937, Japan had expanded its forces in China to an estimated 7,000 to 15,000 men along the railways; this number of men, the amount of concomitant matériel, was several times the size of the detachments deployed by the European powers, in excess of the limits set by the Boxer Protocol. By this time, the Imperial Japanese Army had surrounded Beijing and Tianjin. On the night of 7 July, the Japanese units stationed at Fengtai crossed the border to conduct military exercises. Japanese and Chinese forces outside the town of Wanping—a walled town 16.4 km southwest of Beijing—exchanged fire at 23:00.
The exact cause of this incident remains unknown. When a Japanese soldier, Private Shimura Kikujiro, failed to return to his post, Chinese regimental commander Ji Xingwen received a message from the Japanese demanding permission to enter Wanping to search for the missing soldier; the Chinese refused. Although Private Shimura returned to his unit, by this point both sides were mobilising, with the Japanese deploying reinforcements and surrounding Wanping. In the night, a unit of Japanese infantry attempted to breach Wanping's walled defences and were repulsed. An ultimatum by the Japanese was issued two hours later; as a precautionary measure, Qin Dechun, the acting commander of the Chinese 29th Route Army, contacted the commander of the Chinese 37th Division, General Feng Zhian, ordering him to place his troops on heightened alert. At 02:00 in the morning of 8 July, Qin Dechun, executive officer and acting commander of the Chinese 29th Route Army, sent Wang Lengzhai, mayor of Wanping, alone to the Japanese camp to conduct negotiations.
However, this proved to be fruitless, the Japanese insisted that they be admitted into the town to investigate the cause of the incident. At around 04:00, reinforcements of both sides began to arrive; the Chinese rushed an extra division of troops to the area. About an hour or so the Chinese Army opened fire on the Japanese Army and attacked them at Marco Polo Bridge, along with a modern railway bridge. At 04:45 Wang Lengzhai had returned to Wanping, on his way back he witnessed Japanese troops massing around the town. Within five minutes of Wang's return, the Chinese Army fired shots, thus marking the commencement of the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin, and, by extension, the full scale commencement of the Second Sino-Japanese War at 04:50 on 8 July 1937. Colonel Ji Xingwen led the Chinese defenses with about 100 men, with orders to hold the bridge at all costs; the Chinese were able to hold the bridge with the help of reinforcements, but suffered tremendous losses. At this point, the Japanese military and members of the Japanese Foreign Service began negotiations in Beijing with the Chinese Nationalist government.
A verbal agreement with Chinese General Qin was reached, whereby an apology would be given by the Chinese to the Japanese.
Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge
The Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge was a small battle fought between forces of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army against the Imperial Japanese Army and collaborationist forces, after the Mukden Incident during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, prior to the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It marked the start of the Jiangqiao Campaign. In November 1931, the acting governor of Heilongjiang province General Ma Zhanshan chose to disobey the Kuomintang government's ban on further resistance to the Japanese invasion and attempted to prevent Japanese forces from crossing into Heilongjiang province by defending a strategic railway bridge across the Nen River near Jiangqiao; this bridge had been dynamited earlier by Ma's forces during the fighting against the pro-Japanese collaborationist forces of General Chang Hai-Peng. A repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went to work on 4 November 1931. Nearby were 2,500 Chinese troops under General Ma Zhanshan; each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation.
The Japanese claimed the Chinese opened fire using rifles and machine guns late in the day during a fog when Japanese troops started across the span. The Japanese retaliated and the skirmish continued for over three hours. Only 15 Japanese were reported killed and 120 Chinese, as the Japanese advanced and drove General Ma's remaining troops off toward Qiqihar. General Ma Zhanshan returned to counterattack with a much larger force. Although dislodging the Japanese from their advance positions, he was unable to recapture the bridge, which the Japanese continued to repair. Ma was forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks and artillery; the repaired bridge made possible the further advance of their armored trains. Despite his failure to hold the bridge, General Ma Zhanshan became a national hero in China for his resistance at Nenjiang Bridge, reported in the Chinese and international press; the publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies. Although led by army officers and with numbers of former regular troops among their ranks, most volunteers had no previous military experience.
These irregular armies were to become the main anti-Japanese force in northeast China during 1932 and posed a serious obstacle to Japanese attempts to pacify the country. Jiangqiao Campaign Japanese invasion of Manchuria Coogan, Anthony. Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 282-314: Sage Publications. Matsusaka, Yoshihisa Tak; the Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-01206-2. Two War Lords, TIME Magazine, Nov. 16, 1931 NONNI RIVER BRIDGE The volunteer armies of northeast China
Bombing of Chongqing
The bombing of Chongqing, from 18 February 1938 to 23 August 1943, was part of a terror bombing operation conducted by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing, authorized by the Imperial General Headquarters. A total of 268 air raids were conducted against Chongqing, with more than 11,500 incendiary, bombs dropped; the targets were residential areas, business areas, schools and other non-military targets. These bombings were aimed at cowing the Chinese government, or as part of the planned Sichuan invasion. In the first two days of the campaign, the raids of May 1939 killed more than five thousand Chinese civilians. Two months after tens of thousands of deaths, in retaliation for firebombing, the United States embargoed the export of airplane parts to Japan, thus imposing its first economic sanction against that nation. On 5 June 1941, the Japanese flew more than 20 sorties. About 4,000 residents who hid in a tunnel were asphyxiated.
The majority of the air raids conducted against Chongqing were made with squadrons of medium-heavy bombers composed of Mitsubishi G3Ms, known as "Nells", Ki-21s "Sallys", Fiat BR.20 Cicognas, Kawasaki Ki-48 "Lilys", although towards the end of the war, Mitsubishi G4M "Bettys", Ki-67 "Peggys", Nakajima Ki-49 "Helens", Yokosuka P1Y "Frances" were deployed. Due to severe attrition of aircraft and veteran pilots of the Chinese Air Force equipped at the outbreak of the air war in 1937 with US-made aircraft and training, the Chinese Air Force relied on the Soviet Union's assistance during the retreat and defense of Wuhan in 1938 and further retreat and defense of Chongqing in 1939–41; the introduction of the Zero-sen fighter plane in 1940, the most advanced production fighter aircraft at the time, ensured the Japanese total air supremacy. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the United States declared war on Japan, reinvigorating support for China against Japanese imperialist aggressions, an immediate Sino-US cooperation with planning of the Doolittle Raid against Japan in April 1942.
By August 1943, modern interceptor aircraft possessing greater speed and firepower, ground-based radar equipment, better aircrew training supplied by the US and other Allied nations left the ROCAF in a much better position to fight back and, along with the diversion of Japanese aerial assets in support of the war in the Pacific, helped curtail further Japanese bombing sorties. The last recorded air raid of the campaign took place on 19 December 1944. Three-thousand tons of bombs were dropped on the city between 1939 and 1942. According to photographer Carl Mydans, the spring 1941 bombings were "the most destructive shelling made on a city", although by comparison 2,300 tons of bombs were dropped by Allied bombers on Berlin in a single night during the Battle of Berlin. A total of 268 air raids were conducted against Chongqing. In March 2006, 40 Chinese who were wounded or lost family members during the bombings sued the Japanese government demanding 10,000,000 yen each and asked for apologies.
"By filing a lawsuit, we want the Japanese people to know about Chongqing bombings," said a victim. Memorial site "Bombing of Chongqing", Nippon News, No. 2. in the official website of NHK
The Jinzhou Operation was an operation in 1931 during the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, a preliminary, contributing factor to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. In late November 1931, Imperial Japanese Army commander in chief General Shigeru Honjō dispatched 10,000 soldiers in 13 armored trains, escorted by a squadron of bombers, in an advance on Jinzhou from Mukden; this force advanced to within 30 kilometers of Chinchow. The operation was cancelled by Japanese War Minister General Jirō Minami, due to the acceptance of modified form of a League of Nations proposal for a "neutral zone" to be established as a buffer zone between the Republic of China proper and Manchuria pending a future China-Japanese peace conference by the civilian government of Prime Minister Wakatsuki Reijirō in Tokyo; however the two sides failed to reach a lasting agreement. The Wakatsuki government soon fell and was replaced by a new cabinet led by Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai. Further negotiations with the Kuomintang government failing, the Japanese government approved an increase in the military forces in Manchuria.
In December, the rest of the 20th Infantry Division, along with the 38th Mixed Brigade of the 19th Infantry Division were sent into Manchuria from Korea while the 8th Mixed Brigade, 10th Infantry Division was sent from Japan. Following the defeat of General Ma Zhanshan in Heilongjiang province, in anticipation of reinforcements, a new Japanese offensive was launched in Manchuria on December 21. General Honjo insisted that his troops were moving out "to clear the country of bandits," and added that the Chinese evacuation of Chinchow was "absolutely imperative". Most of the "bandits" were the organizing Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies but some real bandits were exploiting the chaos following the collapse of the Chinese government and its Northeastern Army following the Mukden Incident and the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. While the other Japanese forces and collaborationist Manchurian troops spread out from their bases along the South Manchurian Railway rail lines to clear the countryside, from Mukden, the Japanese headquarters in Manchuria, the brigades of the 12th Infantry Division advanced southward in the night, supported by squadrons of Japanese bombers to force the Chinese to evacuate Jinzhou.
The Japanese estimated the Chinese at Jinzhou had 84,000 defenders, with 58 artillery pieces placed to support two separate systems of entrenchments defending the city. The Chinese first defensive line, 20 miles north of the city, was a series of trenches aimed to stop the Japanese advance at the Taling River Bridge on the Peiping-Mukden Railway; the Chinese had a second line of earthworks and entrenchments encircling Jinzhou to fall back on if the Japanese forces broke through the first line. Japanese Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon's troops cautiously advanced south from Mukden; the temperature was 30 below zero, Japanese forces were camouflaged in white. Japanese reconnaissance aircraft reported a force of at least 3,000 Chinese "bandits" waiting to defend Panshan County. Brushing aside these Chinese skirmishers in a series of minor clashes, Tamon prepared to meet and crush the first serious Chinese resistance, expected at Goubangzi, 50 kilometers north of Jinzhou. By the evening of December 31, 1931, the Japanese advance guard was fifteen kilometers from Jinzhou on the banks of the Taling river.
General Tamon halted to bring up the rest of his 2nd Division, for the final drive on Jinzhou. The Japanese War Office announced in a radio broadcast "The Battle of the Taling River", setting up microphones behind the Japanese lines, arranging an elaborate hookup to broadcast the sound of firing to Tokyo, but had to call off the broadcast when the Chinese retreated without giving combat. Japanese forces occupied Jinzhou on January 3, 1932, with the local populace waving Japanese flags homemade during the night to appease the conquerors. On the Chinese side confusion reigned; the old government of Chiang Kai-shek at Nanjing had resigned and a new one under Premier Sun Fo had been formed. Additionally, Marshal Zhang Xueliang's defenders were in disorderly retreat toward the Great Wall, leaving only a small garrison to protect the few government functionaries who remained behind. At Nanjing Eugene Chen, the new Kuomintang Foreign Minister, asserted that his government had never ordered evacuation of Jinzhou, but, on the contrary, had ordered Marshal Zhang to stand his ground.
Nine Chinese generals in various parts of China denounced Premier Sun Fo's new government, blaming it for the humiliating loss of Jinzhou without a struggle. The day after the fall of Jinzhou, the Imperial Japanese Army occupied Shanhaiguan, thus completing its military control over south Manchuria. Japanese invasion of Manchuria Pacification of Manchukuo Coogan, Anthony. Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 282–314: Sage Publications. Matsusaka, Yoshihisa Tak; the Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904–1932. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-01206-2. "Strong Policy" From the Dec. 28, 1931 issue of TIME magazine The Charleston Gazette Friday Morning, January 1, 1932. Time Magazine, Jan. 4, 1932 Jaunting Juggernaut Fun & Blood From the Jan. 11, 1932 issue of TIME magazine
19th Route Army
19th Route Army was an army in the Republic of China led by General Cai Tingkai. It gained a good reputation among Chinese for fighting the Japanese in Shanghai in the January 28 Incident in 1932. In 1933-34 it was the main force in the Fuijan Rebellion, which opposed Chiang Kai-shek and unsuccessfully sought an alliance with the Chinese Communists in the Jiangxi Soviet. A "Route Army' was a type of military organization used in the Chinese Republic, it exercised command over two or more Corps or a large number of Divisions or Independent Brigades. First Battle of Shanghai The Mausoleum of the 19th Route Army Did Chiang Kai-shek Trigger the Fujian Rebellion? The CCP and the Fujian Rebellion Second Sino-Japanese War Fujian People's Government
Shanghai Expeditionary Army
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was a corps-level ad hoc Japanese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was first raised on February 25, 1932 as a reinforcement for Japanese forces involved during the First Battle of Shanghai, it was dissolved in June 1932, after the conclusion of that incident. The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was raised a second time on August 15, 1937 on the eruption of full scale hostilities between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China, its forces participated in the Second Battle of Shanghai, the subsequent drive inland to the Battle of Nanking. Troops from this army were involved in the subsequent Nanjing Massacre; the Shanghai Expeditionary Army was disbanded on February 1, 1938, its component units were incorporated into the Japanese Central China Area Army. See: Order of Battle January 28 Incident See: Order of battle of the Battle of Shanghai Dorn, Frank; the Sino-Japanese War, 1937-41: From Marco Polo Bridge to Pearl Harbor. MacMillan.
ISBN 0-02-532200-1. Madej, Victor. Japanese Armed Forces Order of Battle, 1937-1945. Game Publishing Company. ASIN: B000L4CYWW. Wendel, Marcus. "Axis History Factbook". Shanghai Expeditionary Army